Information about possible breaches of confidentiality come to the NIH in numerous ways. Often, an applicant will report that data, figures or text from his or her grant application appears in a publication authored by a reviewer on the panel where the application was reviewed. In addition to being a breach of confidentiality, this may also constitute research misconduct in the form of plagiarism.
We sometimes learn about breaches of confidentiality from other reviewers, colleagues and students of reviewers, or even members of the media. We also have internal controls to monitor access to our computer systems.