We expect that institutions will notify the NIH when there are concerns that NIH research or funds are at risk, in addition to special circumstances that may impact the NIH-supported research, public safety, human subjects, animal welfare, or federal funds, as specified in 42 CFR 93.309(d) . While in some cases, the risks are clear early in the research misconduct proceedings, we understand that in other cases, the institution may not have an adequate understanding of the risks until an allegation moves from inquiry to investigation. Section 4.1.27 of the NIH Grants Policy Statement (GPS) states that, “[The recipient] must carry out its responsibilities with extra care where research misconduct has been found or where a research misconduct investigation has been initiated.” Accordingly, we want to emphasize that notification to NIH consistent with the NIH Grants Policy Statement is different from reporting to ORI consistent with 42 CFR Part 93. In particular, notification to NIH under Chapter 8.1 of the NIH GPS is intended to proceed as follows: “Recipients shall immediately notify the Federal awarding agency of developments that have a significant impact on the award-supported activities. Also, notification shall be given in the case of problems, delays, or adverse conditions which materially impair the ability to meet the objectives of the award. This notification shall include a statement of the action taken or contemplated, and any assistance needed to resolve the situation.” Consistent with 42 CFR Part 93.309, institutions are required to report to ORI on the decision to initiate an investigation within 30 days of finding that an investigation is warranted, and to provide ORI with the written finding by the responsible institutional official and a copy of the inquiry report.