Release Date:  October 19, 2000

RFA:  CA-01-017

National Cancer Institute

Letter of Intent Receipt Date:  January 9, 2001
Application Receipt Date:       February 13, 2001

This RFA is a reissue of RFA-CA-99-001, which was published in NIH Guide, 
February 11, 1999.


The purpose of this Request for Applications (RFA) is to stimulate research on 
new or existing tobacco control interventions relevant to State and community 
tobacco control programs.  This will be achieved by supporting research on 
innovative tobacco prevention and control interventions at the community, 
State, or multi-State level.  The results of this research will guide tobacco 
control programs across the Nation in order to increase program effectiveness 
and produce real reductions in the prevalence of tobacco use.  This is a 
reissuance of RFA-CA-99-001.



Tobacco use, responsible for nearly one in five deaths, is the leading 
preventable killer in the United States.  Cigarettes cause over 420,000 deaths 
in the U.S. each year (ref 1).  This includes 120,000 deaths from lung cancer 
and more than 31,000 deaths from other cancers (ref 2).  Tobacco use costs the 
nation $50 billion annually in direct health care costs (ref 3), and billions 
more in lost productivity.  At least 3000 lung cancer deaths occur annually in 
nonsmokers because of exposure to the carcinogens contained in environmental 
tobacco smoke (ref 4).  Despite the known hazards of tobacco use, 48 million 
adult Americans currently smoke cigarettes (ref 5).  Seventy percent of those 
who smoke want to quit (ref 6).  Approximately 3000 youth under age 18 become 
regular smokers every day (ref 7).  Smoking rates among youth increased 73% 
between 1988 and 1996 (ref 8).

The science and practice of tobacco control is undergoing fundamental changes.  
Tobacco use has received unprecedented attention as a result of tobacco taxes, 
State lawsuits against tobacco companies, and sweeping legislative proposals 
to reduce smoking, especially among youth.  Litigation has resulted in the 
release of millions of secret documents from tobacco companies, including 
unpublished research on nicotine addiction and tobacco marketing.  It has also 
produced changes in the way tobacco is advertised and sold nationwide.

Several States now invest millions of dollars annually in tobacco control 
intervention programs, funded by either dedicated tobacco excise taxes, State 
settlements with the tobacco companies as part of the Master Settlement 
Agreement, or from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).  Some 
statewide tobacco control programs have combined multiple approaches in order 
to have the greatest impact on smoking rates, and the NCI and CDC have for 
years recommended a comprehensive approach to statewide tobacco control 
programs (ref 9).   Many more States are now planning or beginning to 
implement their own tobacco control programs, and are looking for evidence-
based guidance on what tobacco control efforts do and do not work in order to 
achieve for greatest impact for the funding available.  

However, research has provided limited information to guide decision-makers in 
selecting the most effective community and State tobacco control programs.   
Because of this paucity of research, fundamental questions remain concerning 
how States and communities should invest their tobacco control funds.   Part 
of the challenge is that the scientific community and those who plan and 
implement tobacco control programs in communities and States have not 
consistently worked together to develop and test tobacco control programs in a 
rigorous and scientifically sound way.   This process of applied research 
requires expanded collaboration between scientists and community programs, and 
it holds promise for improving the effectiveness of community and State 
tobacco control programs to effect major reductions in tobacco use prevalence.

Research on community and State tobacco control interventions is a top 
priority for the NCI, as identified by the Tobacco Research Implementation 
Group (TRIG) in its recent report (ref 10).  (Available at  Research programs of community-based 
policy and media interventions were specifically recommended for 
implementation by the TRIG.

This RFA will support community and State-based research designed to address 
research questions that will provide useful information to program managers 
and policy-makers.  Research is needed to evaluate the efficacy and 
effectiveness of prevention, treatment, training, media and policy 
interventions at the community and State level, including the translation of 
clinical research (e.g., the recent Public Health Service Clinical Practice 
Guideline: Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence) to communities and States.   
Research designs and interventions must be sensitive to the unique 
characteristics of different populations (ref 11).  Research is needed to 
address a wide range of multi-cultural populations and to identify 
interventions that are most likely to reduce the social disparities in 
morbidity and mortality that are attributable to tobacco use.  

Specific examples of research questions that may be addressed under this RFA 
include, but are not limited to:

1.  What public policies, or combinations of policies, are most strongly 
predictive of reductions in tobacco use?

2.  In the context of comprehensive tobacco control programs, what are the 
relative contributions of individual parts of that program on reductions in 
tobacco use rates?

3.	What impact do restrictions on smoking in worksites, restaurants and bars, 
or other public places have on tobacco use behavior among various populations?

4.	What is the most effective role for community-based coalitions and 
partnerships in the development of comprehensive tobacco control programs?

5.	How do State laws that preempt local tobacco control ordinances influence 
the public’s knowledge, attitudes and behavior related to tobacco?

6.  How do statewide cessation programs (e.g. quitlines) interact with 
community cessation interventions to produce changes in tobacco use behavior?

7.  In the context of a State-based program, what is the impact of a State or 
community tobacco control media campaign on: a) tobacco use behaviors, b) 
readiness to quit, c) attitudes toward tobacco advertising and tobacco use, 
and d) other predictors of initiation and cessation?

8.  What themes, techniques, and messages of mass media campaigns are most 
effective in achieving the goals of the campaign?

9.  How should community and State interventions be designed to influence 
high-risk groups, such as heavy smokers, multi-cultural groups, and youth?  
Are targeted interventions more effective?

10.  How can new communications tools and strategies, such as the Internet or 
other newer technology, be used to reduce tobacco use at the community and 
State levels?

11. How can State and community tobacco control programs facilitate the 
development, implementation and dissemination of public policies or clinical 
interventions in their communities?

12.  What training models are most effective in helping prevent smoking among 
all audiences and which models are most effective in helping smokers stop 

Research teams can choose to test interventions directed at one or more 
population groups, at the State or local level, or across States. Applicants 
are strongly encouraged to collaborate with State and local coalitions, 
voluntary health organizations, health departments, cancer centers, and other 
organizations.   Collaborative relationships are strongly encouraged, as are 
in-kind contributions of staff and other resources from these organizations.  
Applicants must demonstrate a detailed understanding of existing and planned 
tobacco control activities, and their ability to remain informed of changes in 
these activities.  

An important purpose of the RFA is to foster collaboration between tobacco 
control researchers and State or community-based comprehensive tobacco control 
programs.  By building collaborative efforts between researchers who are 
studying the effectiveness of specific interventions and the program managers 
in State health departments, the programmatic efforts to reduce tobacco use 
across the U.S. will benefit most directly from the state-of-the-art science 
of tobacco control.  All States have tobacco control programs supported by the 
State health department.  A contact person for each State health department 
tobacco control program is available on the Internet at 

The research team will have experience and expertise in tobacco control 
research at the community or State level, including behavioral science, 
policy, health communications and advertising research.  Another important 
objective of this research is to foster the development of cancer control 
researchers with experience in community and State level research. The results 
of this research will guide tobacco control programs across the Nation, in 
order to increase program effectiveness and produce real reductions in the 
prevalence of tobacco use.

Investigators must describe in detail their research design and methods.  
Applicants must describe in detail how the impact of the interventions will be 
distinguished from the impact of other tobacco control activities.   
Comparisons of different measurement tools are encouraged.  Investigators may 
choose to evaluate so-called "natural experiments" by examining the impact of 
interventions, policies, or regulations that are occurring or changing 
independently.  Large-scale trials, if proposed, should meet the criteria for 
such trials, as developed by the NCI Cancer Control Review Group (ref 12). 
(Available at

After awards are made, it is anticipated that collaborative research will be 
fostered among the recipients of grants under this RFA.  Awardees that are 
testing the impact of similar interventions, or focusing on similar 
populations, will be encouraged to undertake collaborative research 
activities. These may include examining measurement issues, assessing complex 
interventions through different designs, assessing the impact of  
“contamination,” or monitoring the responses of the tobacco industry to new 
interventions.   Investigators will be convened at the time of award and 
regularly throughout the project to consider these issues and how they might 
be addressed through enhanced collaboration.   At a minimum, investigators 
will be asked to consider the collection of common data elements in multiple 

Applicants are asked to discuss their plans for innovative dissemination of 
their findings in their applications.  For this research initiative to be 
fully successful, findings must be translated and disseminated to a wide array 
of audiences, including State, local and national legislators and policy 
makers, program managers at all levels, public health advocates, researchers, 
parents and teachers, youth and youth-serving organizations, and the general 

Investigators will be convened twice annually throughout the project to 
consider these issues and how they might be addressed through collaboration.  
Support for travel by the Principal Investigator and one co-investigator 
should be included in the proposed budget.   For purposes of estimating 
budgets, plan on two 2-day meetings each year, with one meeting on the East 
Coast of the United States and one on the West Coast. 


This RFA will use the National Institutes of Health (NIH) research project 
grant (R01).  Responsibility for the planning, direction, and execution of the 
proposed project will be solely that of the applicant.  The total project 
period for an application submitted in response to this RFA may not exceed 
four years.  The anticipated award date is December 2001.
Because the nature and scope of the research proposed in response to this RFA 
may vary, it is anticipated that the size of an award will vary also.
This RFA is one-time solicitation.  Future unsolicited competing continuation 
applications will compete with all investigator-initiated applications and be 
reviewed according to the customary
peer review procedures.

Specific application instructions have been modified to reflect "MODULAR 
GRANT" and "JUST-IN-TIME" streamlining efforts being examined by the NIH. 
Complete and detailed instructions and information on Modular Grant 
applications can be found at


The NCI intends to commit approximately $8 million in FY 2002 to fund 8 to 10 
new grants in response to this RFA.  An applicant may request a project period 
of up to four years and a budget for direct costs of up to $1,000,000 per 
year, excluding Facility and Administrative costs on consortium arrangements.  
Because the nature and scope of the research proposed may vary, NCI staff 
anticipate that the size of each award will also vary.  Although the financial 
plans of the NCI provide support for this program, awards pursuant to this RFA 
are contingent upon the availability of funds and the receipt of a sufficient 
number of meritorious applications.  At this time, it is not known if 
competing renewal applications will be accepted and/or if this RFA will be 


Applications may be submitted by domestic and foreign, for-profit and 
non-profit organizations, public and private, such as universities, colleges, 
hospitals, laboratories, units of State or local governments, and eligible 
agencies of the Federal government. Racial/ethnic minority individuals, women, 
and persons with disabilities are encouraged to apply as Principal 

All current policies and requirements that govern the research grant programs 
of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will apply to grants awarded under 
this RFA.  Awards under this RFA to foreign institutions will be made only in 
accordance with PHS policy governing such awards.

Inquiries concerning this RFA are encouraged.  The opportunity to clarify any 
issues or questions from potential applicants is welcome.

Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to:
Bob Vollinger, M.S.P.H.
Tobacco Control Research Branch
Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences 
National Cancer Institute 
6130 Executive Blvd., EPN 4030
Bethesda, MD  20892
Telephone:  (301) 496-0273
FAX:  301-496-8675 

Direct inquiries regarding review issues to:

Ms. Toby Friedberg 
Referral Officer 
Division of Extramural Activities 
National Cancer Institute 
6116 Executive Blvd., Room 8109, MSC-8329
Rockville, MD 20852 (express courier)
Bethesda MD 20892-8329
Telephone (301) 496-3428
Fax: (301) 402-0275

Direct inquiries regarding fiscal matters to:
Dena Solomon
Grants Administration Branch
National Cancer Institute
Executive Plaza South, Room 243
Bethesda, MD  20892
Telephone:  (301) 496-7208
FAX:  (301) 496-8601


Prospective applicants are asked to submit, by January  9, 2001, a letter of 
intent that includes a descriptive title of the proposed research, the name, 
address, and telephone number of the Principal Investigator, the identities of 
other key personnel and participating institutions, and the number and title 
of the RFA in response to which the application may be submitted.  Although a 
letter of intent is not required, is not binding, and does not enter into the 
review of subsequent applications, the information that it contains allows NIH 
staff to estimate the potential review workload and to plan the review. 
The letter of intent is to be sent to Bob Vollinger, M.S.P.H. listed under 
INQUIRIES by the letter of intent receipt date.


Letter of Intent Receipt:         January 9, 2001
Application Receipt:              February 13, 2001
Peer Review Date:                 June 2001
Review by NCAB Advisory Board:    September 2001 
Earliest Anticipated Start Date:  December 2001 


The modular grant concept establishes specific modules in which direct costs 
may be requested as well as a maximum level for requested budgets. Only 
limited budgetary information is required under this approach. The just-in-
time concept allows applicants to submit certain information only when there 
is a possibility for an award. It is anticipated that these changes will 
reduce the administrative burden for the applicants, reviewers and Institute 
staff. The research grant application form PHS 398 (rev. 4/98) is to be used 
in applying for these grants, with the modifications noted below.  
Applications kits are available at most institutional offices of sponsored 
research and may be obtained from the Division of Extramural Outreach and 
Information Resources, National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, 
MSC 7910, Bethesda, MD 20892-7910, telephone 301/710-0267, email:  For those applicants with Internet access, the 398 kit 
may be found at:

Applicants are strongly encouraged to call the program contacts listed in 
INQUIRIES above with any questions regarding the responsiveness of their 
proposed project to the goals of this RFA. 



Modular Grant applications will request direct costs in $25,000 modules, up to 
a total direct cost request of $250,000 per year.  (Applications that request 
more than $250,000 direct costs in any year must follow the traditional PHS 
398 application instructions.)  The total direct costs must be requested in 
accordance with the program guidelines and the modifications made to the 
standard PHS 398 application instructions described below:

o  FACE PAGE:  Items 7a and 7b should be completed, indicating Direct Costs 
(in $25,000 increments up to a maximum of $250,000) and Total Costs [Modular 
Total Direct plus Facilities and Administrative (F&A) costs] for the initial 
budget period.  Items 8a and 8b should be completed indicating the Direct and 
Total Costs for the entire proposed period of support.

of the PHS 398.  It is not required and will not be accepted with the 

categorical budget table on Form Page 5 of the PHS 398.  It is not required 
and will not be accepted with the application.

o  NARRATIVE BUDGET JUSTIFICATION -  Prepare a Modular Grant Budget Narrative 
page (see for sample 
pages). At the top of the page, enter the total direct costs requested for 
each year.  This is not a form page.

o  Under Personnel, list all project personnel, including their names, percent 
of effort, and roles on the project. No individual salary information should 
be provided. However, the applicant should use the NIH appropriation language 
salary cap and the NIH policy for graduate student compensation in developing 
the budget request.

For Consortium/Contractual costs, provide an estimate of total costs (direct 
plus facilities and administrative) for each year, each rounded to the nearest 
$1,000.  List the individuals/organizations with whom consortium or 
contractual arrangements have been made, the percent effort of key personnel, 
and the role on the project. Indicate whether the collaborating institution is 
domestic or foreign.  The total cost for a consortium/contractual arrangement 
is included in the overall requested modular direct cost amount. Include the 
Letter of Intent to establish a consortium.

Provide an additional narrative budget justification for any variation in the 
number of modules requested.

o  BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH - The Biographical Sketch provides information used by 
reviewers in the assessment of each individual's qualifications for a specific 
role in the proposed project, as well as to evaluate the overall 
qualifications of the research team.  A biographical sketch is required for 
all key personnel, following the instructions below.  No more than three pages 
may be used for each person.  A sample biographical sketch may be viewed at:

- Complete the educational block at the top of the form page;
- List position(s) and any honors;
- Provide information, including overall goals and responsibilities, on 
projects ongoing or completed during the last three years;
- List selected peer-reviewed publications, with full citations.

o  CHECKLIST -  This page should be completed and submitted with the 
application. If the F&A rate agreement has been established, indicate the type 
of agreement and the date. All appropriate exclusions must be applied in the 
calculation of the F&A costs for the initial budget period and all future 
budget years.

The applicant should provide the name and phone number of the individual to 
contact concerning fiscal and administrative issues if additional information 
is necessary following the initial review.

Applications not conforming to these guidelines will be considered 
unresponsive to this RFA and will be returned without further review.

The RFA label available in the PHS 398 (rev. 4/98) application form must be 
affixed to the bottom of the face page of the application.  Type the RFA 
number on the label.  Failure to use this label could result in delayed 
processing of the application such that it may not reach the review committee 
in time for review.  In addition, the RFA title and number must be typed on 
line 2 of the face page of the application form and the YES box must be 

The sample RFA label available at: has been modified to 
allow for this change.  Please note this is in pdf format.

Submit a signed, typewritten original of the application, including the 
checklist, and three signed, exact, single-sided photocopies, in one package 

Center for Scientific Review
National Institutes of Health
6701 Rockledge Drive, Room 1040 - MSC 7710
Bethesda, MD  20892-7710
Bethesda, MD  20817 (for express/courier service)

At the time of submission, two additional copies of the application must be 
sent to:

Ms. Toby Friedberg
Division of Extramural Activities
National Cancer Institute
6116 Executive Boulevard, Room 8109, MSC 8329
Bethesda, MD  20892-8329
Rockville, MD  20852 (for express/courier service)

Applications must be received by February 13, 2001.  If an application is 
received after that date, it will be returned to the applicant without review. 
The Center for Scientific Review  (CSR) will not accept any application in 
response to this RFA that is essentially the same as one currently pending 
initial review, unless the applicant withdraws the pending application.  The 
CSR will not accept any application that is essentially the same as one 
already reviewed.  This does not preclude the submission of substantial 
revisions of applications already reviewed, but such applications must include 
an introduction addressing the previous critique.  


Upon receipt, applications will be reviewed for completeness by CSR and 
responsiveness by the NCI.  Incomplete and/or non-responsive applications will 
be returned to the applicant without further consideration.  

Applications that are complete and responsive to the RFA will be evaluated for 
scientific and technical merit by an appropriate peer review group convened by 
the Division of Extramural Activities of the National Cancer Institute in 
accordance with the review criteria stated below.  As part of the initial 
merit review, all applications will receive a written critique and undergo a 
process in which only those applications deemed to have the highest scientific 
merit, generally the top half of the applications under review, will be 
discussed assigned a priority score, and receive a second level review by the 
National Cancer Advisory Board (NCAB).

Review Criteria

The five criteria to be used in the evaluation of grant applications are 
listed below.
The goals of NIH-supported research are to advance our understanding of 
biological systems, improve the control of disease, and enhance health.  The 
reviewers will comment on the following aspects of the application in their 
written critiques in order to judge the likelihood that the proposed research 
will have a substantial impact on the pursuit of these goals.  Each of these 
criteria will be addressed and considered by the reviewers in assigning the 
overall score weighting them as appropriate for each application.  Note that 
the application does not need to be strong in all categories to be judged 
likely to have a major scientific impact and thus deserve a high priority 
score.  For example, an investigator may propose to carry out important work 
that by its nature is not innovative but is essential to move a field forward.
Significance: Does this study address an important problem?  If the aims of 
the application are achieved, how will scientific knowledge and public health 
be advanced?  What will be the effect of these studies on the concepts or 
methods that drive this field?  

Approach: Are the conceptual framework, design, methods, and analyzes 
adequately developed, well-integrated, and appropriate to the aims of the 
project?  Does the applicant acknowledge potential problem areas and consider 
alternative tactics?  

Innovation: Does the project employ novel concepts, approaches or method?  Are 
the aims original and innovative?  Does the project challenge existing 
paradigms or develop new methodologies or technologies?  

Investigator:  Is the investigator appropriately trained and well suited to 
carry out this work?  Does the investigator (or team of investigators) have 
experience in community or State-level research or in the field of tobacco 
control?  Is the work proposed appropriate to the experience level of the 
principal investigator and other researchers (if any)?  

Environment: Does the scientific environment in which the work will be done 
contribute to the probability of success?  Do the proposed experiments take 
advantage of unique features of the scientific environment or employ useful 
collaborative arrangements?  Is there evidence of institutional support ?  

The initial review group will also examine: the adequacy of plans to include 
both genders and minorities and their subgroups, and children as appropriate 
for the scientific goals of the research and plans for the recruitment and 
retention of subjects; the provisions for the protection of human and animal 
subjects; and the safety of the research environment.
Award criteria that will be used to make award decisions include scientific 
merit as determined by peer review, availability of funds, and programmatic 


It is the policy of the NIH that women and members of minority groups and 
their subpopulations must be included in all NIH supported biomedical and 
behavioral research projects involving human subjects, unless a clear and 
compelling rationale and justification is provided that inclusion is 
inappropriate with respect to the health of the subjects or the purpose of the 
research.  This policy results from the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993 
(Section 492B of Public Law 103-43).  

All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should read the 
UPDATED "NIH Guidelines for Inclusion of Women and Minorities as Subjects in 
Clinical Research," published in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts on 
August 2, 2000  
a complete copy of the updated Guidelines are available at The 
revisions relate to NIH defined Phase III clinical trials and require: a) all 
applications or proposals and/or protocols to provide a description of plans 
to conduct analyses, as appropriate, to address differences by sex/gender 
and/or racial/ethnic groups, including subgroups if applicable; and b) all 
investigators to report accrual, and to conduct and report analyses, as 
appropriate, by sex/gender and/or racial/ethnic group differences.

It is the policy of NIH that children (i.e., individuals under the age of 21) 
must be included in all human subjects research, conducted or supported by the 
NIH, unless there are clear and compelling reasons not to include them.  This 
policy applies to all initial (Type 1) applications submitted for receipt 
dates after October 1, 1998.  

All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should read the 
“NIH Policy and Guidelines on the Inclusion of Children as Participants in 
Research Involving Human Subjects” that was published in the NIH Guide for 
Grants and Contracts, March 6, 1998, and is available at the following URL 

Investigators may also obtain copies of these policies from the program staff 
listed under INQUIRIES.  Program staff may also provide additional relevant 
information concerning the policy.


All applications and proposals for NIH funding must be self-contained within 
specified page limitations.  Unless otherwise specified in an NIH 
solicitation, Internet addresses (URLs) should not be used to provide 
information necessary to the review because reviewers are under no obligation 
to view the Internet sites.  Reviewers are cautioned that their anonymity may 
be compromised when they directly access an Internet site.


The Public Health Service (PHS) is committed to achieving the health promotion 
and disease prevention objectives of "Healthy People 2010," a PHS-led national 
activity for setting priority areas. This RFA, “Research in State and 
Community Tobacco Control Intervention,” is related to priority area of 
tobacco and cancer.  Potential applicants may obtain a copy of "Healthy People 
2010" at


This program is described in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. 
93.397. Awards are made under authorization of Sections 301 and 405 of the 
Public Health Service Act as amended (42 USC 241 and 284) and administered 
under NIH grants policies and Federal Regulations 42 CFR 52 and 45 CFR Parts 
74 and 92. This program is not subject to the intergovernmental review 
requirements of Executive Order 12372 or Health Systems Agency review.

The PHS strongly encourages all grant recipients to provide a smoke-free 
workplace and promote the non-use of all tobacco products. In addition, Public 
Law 103-227, the Pro-Children Act of 1994, prohibits smoking in certain 
facilities (or in some cases, any portion of a facility) in which regular or 
routine education, library, day care, health care, or early childhood 
development services are provided to children. This is consistent with the PHS 
mission to protect and advance the physical and mental health of the American 


1.  American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 1996, 24-26, 1996.

2.  Bartecchi CE, MacKenzie TD and Schrier RW. "The Human Costs of Tobacco 
Use."  New England Journal of Medicine, 330:907-912, 1994.

3.  Bartlett JC, Miller LS, Rice DP et al. Medical-Care Expenditures 
Attributable to Cigarette Smoking--United States, 1993. Morbidity and 
Mortality Weekly Report, 43:469-72, 1994.

4.  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency. Respiratory. Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Lung Cancer 
and Other Disorders. The Report of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  
National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD. 1993. NIH Publication No. 93-3605.

5.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Cigarette Smoking Among 
Adults--United States, 1994." Morbidity. and Mortality. Weekly Report, 
45:588-590, 1996.

6.  Thomas RM, Larsen MD. Smoking Prevalence, Beliefs, and Activities by 
Gender and Other Demographic Indicators. The Gallup Organization, Inc., 
Princeton, NJ, 1993.

7.  Pierce JP, Fiore MC, Novotny TE et al. "Trends in Cigarette Smoking in the 
United States." Journal of the American Medical Association, 261:61-6, 1989.

8.  Crump C, Packer L, Gfroerer J. "Incidence of Initiation of Cigarette 
Smoking--United States, 1965-1996." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 
47:837-41, 1998.

9.  National Cancer Institute. Strategies To Control Tobacco Use in the United 
States: A Blueprint for Public Health Action in the 1990's.  National 
Institutes of Health, 1991. Publication No. 92-3316.

10.  National Cancer Institute. The National Cancer Institute Tobacco Research 
Implementation Group.  National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, 1998.  
(Available at

11.  Thompson, Beti, et. al.  (1991).  “Principles of Community Organization 
and Partnership for Smoking Cessation in the Community Intervention Trial for 
Smoking Cessation (COMMIT)”  In a Special issue of  the International 
Quarterly of Community Health Education:  A Journal of Policy and Applied 
Research, Volume 11, No. 3. 1990-91.

12.  Report of the National Cancer Institute Cancer Control Review Group.  
National Cancer Institute, 1997.  (Available at

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