Release Date:  January 5, 2000

PA NUMBER:  PAR-00-038

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences


The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) announces the 
availability of support for training programs in disciplines and research 
areas which focus on the effects of chemical, physical and biological 
environmental agents on human health and well-being and the linking of these 
effects of exogenous environmental factors to the cause, moderation or 
prevention of human diseases or disorders.  The purpose of this Program 
Announcement (PA) is to ensure the long term progress of research in the 
environmental health sciences by developing training programs which will 
produce a cadre of scientists who can carry the state of knowledge from 
fundamental and laboratory findings on the adverse health effects of exposure 
to environmental agents to a higher level and who can relate these findings 
to the human disease state.  

The NIEHS is concerned with effects resulting from a broad array of chemical, 
physical, and biological environmental agents found in the ambient 
environment (indoor and outdoor) to which humans are exposed at work, home, 
and recreational or leisure activities.  Exposure may occur by absorption 
(i.e. through the skin), inspiration (i.e., through the lungs), ingestion 
(through the gastrointestinal track), or transmission (i.e. sunlight or 
electromagnetic radiation).  Chemical factors include health related studies 
of chemical transformations of environmental agents, chemical 
structural/biological function relationships and interactions, including 
gene-environment interactions, among environmental agents in the promotion of 
diseases and dysfunctions.  Examples of chemical factors include, but are not 
limited to, industrial chemicals and solvents, air pollutants, pesticides, 
heavy metals, hazardous substances, food additives, and botanical dietary 
supplements.  Additionally, the NIEHS supports research on naturally 
occurring chemical agents that are capable of adverse or beneficial health 

The NIEHS training programs support both broad multidisciplinary training 
programs, which are often built around a theme or problem area, and in-depth 
training programs in a particular discipline.  The essential elements for the 
establishment of a successful training program are the presence of a cadre of 
well-funded, productive scientists performing research in areas germane to 
the environmental health sciences who can serve as the training program 
faculty, and the development of a cohesive training program for students.

Thus the goals for this NIEHS Program Announcement are:  1) to encourage 
institutions with academically outstanding departments and programs which 
could provide training in scientific disciplines or problem areas associated 
with the environmental health sciences to consider developing training 
programs, and 2) to expand the number of institutions capable of training 
scientists in the environmental health sciences.


The Public Health Service (PHS) is committed to achieving the health 
promotion and disease prevention objectives of "Healthy People 2000," a 
PHS-led national activity for setting priority areas.  This PA, "National 
Research Service Awards Institutional Training Grants in Environmental 
Health", is related to the priority area of environmental health.  Potential 
applicants may obtain a copy of "Healthy People 2000" at:


Eligibility for institutional National Research Service Award support is 
limited to domestic public and nonprofit research organizations.  Only U. S. 
citizens or permanent residents of the United States may be appointed as 
trainees on NRSA funded training grants.  Racial and ethnic minority 
individuals, women, and persons with disabilities are encouraged to apply as 
principal investigators. 


This program will be supported through the institutional National Research 
Service Award Program (T32).  These institutional training grants may support 
pre-doctoral, postdoctoral, and short-term trainees.  Short-term training 
opportunities are intended to provide a limited period of research experience 
for medical or other health professional students who have completed at least 
one quarter at an accredited health-professional school leading to a clinical 
doctorate and who wish to participate in research projects on a full-time 
basis during the summer or other "off-quarter" periods.  Particular emphasis 
has been placed on the research training of physicians.

The National Research Service Award must be used to support a program of 
research training.  The NRSA may not support studies leading to the M.D., 
D.O., D.V.M., or other clinical, health professional degrees; nor to support 
residencies, the primary purpose of which is the attainment of specialty 
training.  Institutional NRSA awards are made for project periods of up to 
five years and are renewable.


Most human diseases and disorders result from interactions among genetic 
factors, exposure to environmental factors, time or age, and socio-economic 
status (SES).  The major goal of the research and research training programs 
of the NIEHS is to develop the knowledge base and research capacity that will 
support both current and future efforts in the prediction, prevention or 
treatment of human diseases and disorders associated with toxic effects of 
exposures to environmental agents or factors.  Attaining this goal ensures 
that the knowledge gained from studies as diverse as the molecular basis of 
disease and population based studies of disease will permit a better 
management of the associated risks for relevant diseases or disorders.  Thus, 
the focus of the programs of the NIEHS extends to a wide range of diseases, 
disease processes, and organ systems, with the emphasis being placed on the 
understanding of the manifestations and mechanisms of the disease process 
brought about or exacerbated by environmental exposures.

The environmental health science training programs of the NIEHS are organized 
within three very broad areas:  Toxicological Sciences (including Genetic 
Toxicology and Mutagenesis), Experimental Pathology, and Epidemiology and 
Biostatistics, which have historically described the main research objectives 
of the training program.  It is realized, however, that there are no 
definitive models for successful training programs in the environmental 
health sciences and institutions are encouraged to develop innovative 
training programs and training models that are responsive to the research 
needs of the NIEHS.   Therefore, institutions that can demonstrate academic 
excellence in disciplines appropriate to studies of environmental exposures 
on human health and have access to a pool of highly qualified graduate and 
postdoctoral trainees are encouraged to consider developing these research 
and training resources into training plans.
Programs which fall under the program area of toxicological sciences will 
continue to be an important part of the training as well as the research 
program at the NIEHS in the future.  It is noted that the NIEHS defines this 
program area very broadly to include basic science, as well as  clinical 
studies of adverse responses resulting from environmental exposures.  These 
may be effects at the genomic level, at the molecular and cellular level, at 
the organ and organ system levels, or at the level of whole organisms and 
human populations.  Research in toxicology can be approached from many basic 
disciplines and programs are needed which promote strong basic training plus 
the ability to learn and deal with other areas of science relevant to 
environmental health problems.  The development of programs which emphasize 
fundamentals so that trainees will be prepared to meet a range of 
professional challenges during their subsequent careers is encouraged. The 
face of toxicology has changed considerably in the last 20 years and will 
change even more rapidly in the next 20 years. Scientists will be needed who 
are well grounded in principles and knowledge that will permit them to 
conduct studies on the highly complex interactions of chemical and physical 
agents with genetic influences and factors (toxicogenomics, toxicoproteomics) 
and develop even newer paradigms to yet further extend such knowledge. 

Training in experimental pathology, especially from programs which combine 
basic pathology training with molecular medicine and technical advances in 
the field, are expected to play a key role in the development and application 
of new tools to investigate the mechanisms of human diseases related to 
environmental and occupational exposures.  Research training for Ph.D.'s, 
physician pathologists, and veterinary pathologists, involving training in 
molecular biology,  molecular based  models and new technologies, and the 
preparation of  trainees to make important extrapolations between in vitro 
systems, animal models of disease, and human populations is encouraged.  
Importantly, pathology programs that develop links to patient oriented 
research are needed.

The need for doctoral and postdoctoral level trainees in environmental 
epidemiology and in biostatistics has grown substantially and the demand is 
expected to continue to grow as increasingly complex research challenges 
present themselves.  Epidemiologists are needed who can approach complicated 
research questions involving the characterization of exposure/disease 
relationships for low level exposures that exert subtle biologic effects that 
ultimately culminate in excessive risks or disease.  These research 
strategies often include the development and validation of biomarkers that 
reflect specific exposures, exposure effects, or susceptibility and predict 
disease risk in individuals that links a given exposure to a disease or 
disease process.  Identification of subgroups of the population who are 
particularly susceptible to environmental exposure, by virtue of genetic 
traits or other host factors, is now recognized as a critical aspect of 
environmental epidemiology research.  Training programs that offer 
appropriate course work and research experience in the core disciplines of 
epidemiology, environmental exposure assessment, biostatistics, toxicology, 
genetics, and molecular biology are encouraged. In particular, training 
programs based on the molecular epidemiology of human environmental diseases 
and/or disorders are encouraged. 

Likewise, the need for doctoral and postdoctoral trained biostatisticians 
with interests in environmental applications has been increasing steadily.  
Current environmental health research, whether it be laboratory research, 
epidemiologic research or research to support the environmental genome 
project, cannot be optimally conducted without the use of state-of-the-art 
biostatistical design and analytical methods.  Biostatistics training 
programs with a strong emphasis on statistical theory and application, 
attendant with some supplementary training in important subject-matter areas 
pertinent to environmental health (e.g., epidemiology, environmental health, 
toxicology, or genetics) are encouraged.  Programs proposing training in 
biologically based risk assessment for adverse health outcomes in susceptible 
and/or exposed populations are also encouraged.

Physician-Scientists will be needed to develop the field of environmental 
medicine research encompassing all clinically relevant areas related to the 
environmental health sciences, including patient related aspects of 
toxicology, experimental pathology and environmental epidemiology and 
biostatistics.  Applications from programs that can promote research training 
in these topic areas are particularly encouraged.  


The NIEHS continues to support research on the molecular and cellular 
mechanisms involved in the biological response to toxic agents and the 
development of specific therapies based on these mechanisms for a variety of 
environmentally associated diseases.  Mechanisms of continuing interest 
include those that are both genotoxic and nongenotoxic, as well as 
multidisciplinary approaches integrating the environmental, genetic and age 
or developmental aspects of the impact of environmental exposures on organ 
systems or whole animals.  The NIEHS also continues its encouragement of 
research in the particularly difficult areas of low dose effects and effects 
of complex mixtures. 

Within the wide spectrum of research supported by the NIEHS, the research 
areas listed below have been identified by the National Environmental Health 
Sciences Council as topics of special interest to forwarding the research 
programs of the institute.  Training programs are encouraged to consider 
these special emphasis areas when designing their programs:

Environmental Genome Project:  Research in this area addresses the range of 
variability among individuals in a population with respect to disease risk 
associated with environmental exposures, which in some part may be attributed 
to the individual variability in genetic parameters and host characteristics 
which has been found at the molecular level.  Presently, in most cases risk 
assessment and subsequent regulation of environmental chemicals are based on 
assumptions of homogeneity in the population.  The ability to target 
effective intervention and prevention strategies will be enhanced by the 
identification of potentially susceptible subgroups and individuals and 
elaboration of the biological significance of these genetic variations.  In 
addition, it is recognized that new statistical and informatics paradigms are 
needed to handle and interpret the large amount of data expected to be 

Basic Molecular Mechanisms of Environmental Insult:  The NIEHS continues to 
emphasize research on the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the 
biological response to toxic agents and the development of specific therapies 
based on these mechanisms for a variety of environmentally associated 
diseases.  Mechanisms of interest include those that are both genotoxic and 
nongenotoxic, and multidisciplinary approaches integrating the environmental, 
genetic and age or developmental aspects of the impact of environmental 
exposures on organ systems or whole animals are also considered important.  
Research on the influence of low exposures in the following is particularly 
encouraged: genetic recombination and genome instability, alterations in 
cellular communications, environmental influences on cell cycle 
regulation/control, and environmental influences on epigenetic mechanisms.

Reproductive Health:  The NIEHS continues to emphasize studies of 
environmental agents, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals, affecting the 
reproductive status of humans, and in particular the health of the male and 
female reproductive systems.  Priority areas for research include changes in 
fertility, increased risk of prostate or breast cancer; increased risk of 
male or female genitourinary birth defects, including hypospadias and 
cryptorchidism or ovarian and 
utero-tubal dysgenesis.

Immune System Modulation:  It is recognized that environmental insults can 
lead to activation or suppression of the immune system resulting in 
autoimmune diseases or infections, respectively.  Likewise, the immune status 
of the individual may influence the individual response to the environmental 
exposure.  Expanded programs in basic, clinical and epidemiologic research 
are anticipated to explore these links.

Neurodegenerative/Neurobehavioral Diseases or Disorders:  Research training 
is needed in all areas of neurodegenerative/neurobehavioral disease for which 
there are environmental factor inputs into the disease causation, progression 
or outcomes.  This includes approaches that are mechanistic, behavioral or 
epidemiologic in nature as well as those aimed at developing biomarkers of 
preclinical disease or models of the clinical disease.  The relative roles of 
genetics, environmental factors and genetic/environmental interactions in the 
etiology of a wide variety of neurodegenerative and neurobehavioral diseases 
have only recently become appreciated and more research effort, particularly 
focusing on gene environment interactions is needed. 

Diet and Nutrition:  Nutritional status is likely to interact significantly 
with environmental exposures to either exacerbate the adverse effects of the 
toxicant, or to serve a protective function.  The molecular mechanisms 
responsible for these interactions are likely to be important in the 
modulation of birth defects resulting from environmental exposures, the 
mobilization of body burdens of environmental agents during pregnancy and 
lactation, and modulation of environmental effects in other diseases, such as 
asthma, neurodegenerative diseases, cognitive disorders, and cardiovascular 
disease.  In addition, the NIEHS has a special interest in interactions 
between environmental exposures and the beneficial or detrimental effects of 
botanical (herbal) and/or nutriceutical dietary supplements.  


In September of 1999, the NIEHS convened a Training Evaluation workshop that 
brought together external scientists with extensive research and research 
training experience representative of academic, industry and governmental 
perspectives.  The participants identified elements that characterize an 
outstanding training program.  These “Attributes of a Good Training Program” 
are included below for the consideration of those formulating a response to 
this program announcement.  These elements should be, as appropriate, 
addressed in a training grant application. 

Program Plan 

o  The program has defined goals and objectives, and clearly defines the 
proposed areas of training.

o  The training proposed is an identifiable program within the institutional 
setting of the training program.

o  There is a demonstrated cohesive graduate and/or postdoctoral training 
program incorporating appropriate course work, seminars, tutorials, 
laboratory rotations, etc. relevant to future directions in environmental 
health sciences research.

o  The program incorporates specialized training in current "state-of-the-
art" methodologies to be used in environmentally related research.

o  The primary element of the training is the development, execution and 
publication of an independent laboratory research project in environmental 
health and disease.

o  The program includes a plan for development of oral and written 
communication skills and a plan for ongoing professional development 
activities for trainees.  Trainees should have the opportunity to present at 
relevant national meetings.

o  Upon completion of the program, trainees can be expected to be adequately 
prepared to pursue research careers in a field appropriate to the 
environmental health sciences.

o  An appropriate administrative framework is in place to monitor trainee 
progress and ensure a quality training experience for each trainee.

o  A plan is in place to systematically track the career progress of former 

o  Plans are in place for regular internal and external review and evaluation 
of the training program.

Training Director and Faculty

o  The Training Director has an extensive record of research achievements, 
research publications and research training experience in an area of 
environmental health directly related to the goals and objectives of the 
training program.  The Training Director should have current R01 or related 
research funding.  

o  The faculty who are identified as training preceptors have strong records 
of research, research publications, research funding, and research training.

o  The faculty who are identified have demonstrated leadership in scientific 
societies, meetings and panels relevant to environmental health and public 

o  There is evidence of interactions and collaborations among faculty in 
graduate training and research.

o  The areas of research competence represented by the faculty are 
appropriate to the goals and objectives of the training program, and are 
relevant to the proposed areas of training.

o  The training faculty, taken as a whole, have sufficient breadth of 
background and experience to offer strong and comprehensive training, in 
terms of course work, research, and laboratory experience to the trainees in 
the program.

o  The training faculty shows commitment and involvement with the training 

o  The training faculty has sufficient time to commit to the training 
program, and to the graduate/postdoctoral educational experiences outlined.
o  There is a sufficient number of training faculty members to supervise the 
trainees and offer the didactic program.

Past Training Record

o  The training program has a strong record of graduate recruiting, training 
and placement of scientists in leadership positions in academia, government, 
industry and other occupations related to environmental health and public 

o  Research of present and past trainees has been published in competitive 
peer reviewed journals.  Trainees have been the recipients of awards from 
societies for travel, abstracts, and/or research.

o  Postdoctoral trainees have a good record of success in competing for 
individual fellowships and career transition awards; graduates of predoctoral 
programs compete well for postdoctoral fellowships.

o  Trainees of the program are sought for permanent positions; there is 
evidence that past trainees have a choice of career options in academia, 
government, and industry.

o  Past trainees are able to approach a wide variety of research problems.

The Trainee Pool

o  There is an active recruitment program that is attracting an adequate 
number of competitive applicants to the program.

o  Strong applicants are attracted to the program.

o  There is selectivity demonstrated in that the trainees selected for 
training support represent the best applicants to the program.

Training Environment

o  There is sufficient research grant funding available to the faculty of the 
training program to support trainee research.  The funding should be from 
sources appropriate to support innovative in-depth trainee research projects 
and reflect the aims of the training.

o  Appropriate seminar series and/or journal clubs are available.

o  Appropriate space and equipment are available to the training program.

o  There is appropriate course work of sufficient rigor to support the 
training program. There should be evidence that the course work is offered 
with sufficient frequency to meet trainee needs, and that the trainees in the 
program are taking advantage of the course work.

o  There is sufficient course work available in addition to required courses 
so that trainees can gain meaningful experience in fields pertinent to their 
career goals, or compensate for deficiencies in their background.

o  If laboratory rotations are a part of the proposed program, ample 
laboratories and experiences are available to fit the training interests of 
the students.

o  There are mechanisms in place to ensure interaction between faculty and 
trainees will occur.

o  The academic standing of the sponsoring department and supporting 
departments are of a quality that the training program can be expected to 

o  The history and background of the sponsoring department and supporting 
departments are conducive to the establishment of a training program in the 
environmental health sciences.

o  There are relevant research and training activities elsewhere in the 
Institution that can lend strength to the proposed program.  There should be 
evidence that these institutional strengths are readily accessible to the 
trainees of the program.

Institutional Commitment

o  The Institution actively and tangibly supports the establishment and 
maintenance of a training program in the environmental health sciences.

o  There is a commitment on the part of the program/institution to support 
seminar programs relevant to the proposed training program and to support 
students to attend national society meetings to present their research 

o  There is a commitment on the part of the institution and participating 
departments for recruitment to and support of the proposed training program 
in the environmental health sciences.

Impact of the Establishment of the Training Program on the Department and 

o  There is evidence that the training program will serve to enhance the 
research efforts and academic standing of the participating departments and 

o  There is evidence that the training program will contribute to a growth in 
research support for the department.

o  There is justification for expanding the training capabilities of the 
institution in the proposed areas.

Other Areas

The program includes training in the ethical conduct of research.

The training provided includes a systematic program of career counseling of 
trainees with discussion of available career options, and guidance in 
attaining the desired career outcome.  Included in this career counseling is 
discussion of the training record of the program and of the career outcomes 
of former graduates.

The program includes training in preparation of grant applications, CV's, 
resumes, etc.

The program has evidence of a mechanism to ensure all trainees receive 
adequate mentoring.

The program has an active program of minority recruitment and evidence of 


It is the policy of the NIH that women and members of minority groups and 
their subpopulations must be included in all NIH supported biomedical and 
behavioral research projects involving human subjects, unless a clear and 
compelling rationale and justification is provided that inclusion is 
inappropriate with respect to the health of the subjects or the purpose of 
the research. This policy results from the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993 
(Public Law 103-43).

Investigators proposing research involving human subjects should read the NIH 
Guidelines For Inclusion of Women and Minorities as Subjects in Clinical 
Research which were published in the Federal Register of March 28, 1994 (FR 
59 14508-14513), and in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts, Volume 23, 
Number 11, March 18, 1994. Available on the web at the following URL address:


It is the policy of NIH that children (i.e., individuals under the age of 21) 
must be included in all human subjects research, conducted or supported by 
the NIH, unless there are scientific and ethical reasons not to include them.  
This policy applies to all initial (Type 1) applications submitted for 
receipt dates after October 1, 1998.

All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should read the 
"NIH Policy and Guidelines on the Inclusion of Children as Participants in 
Research Involving Human Subjects" that was published in the NIH Guide for 
Grants and Contracts, March 6, 1998, and is available at the following URL 

Investigators may obtain copies from these sources or from the program staff 
or contact person listed under INQUIRIES.  Program staff may also provide 
additional relevant information concerning these policies.


Applications are to be submitted on grant application form PHS 398 (rev 
4/98).  The submission date for new and competing applications is May 10, 
annually.  Application kits are available at most institutional offices of 
sponsored research, from the Division of Extramural Outreach and Information 
Resources, National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, MSC 7910, 
Bethesda, MD 20892-7910, telephone (301) 710-0267, Email: 
and from the NIH web page:

The title and number of the program announcement must be typed on line 2 of 
the face page of the application form and the YES box must be marked.

Submit a signed, typewritten original of the application, including the 
Checklist, and three signed photocopies in one package to:

BETHESDA, MD 20892-7710
BETHESDA, MD 20817 (for express/courier service)

At the same time, two copies of the full application must be sent to:

Ethel Jackson, Ph.D.
Chief, Scientific Review Branch
Office of Program Operations
Division of Extramural Research And Training
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
111 T.W. Alexander Drive
P.O. Box 12233 (EC-24)
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
Telephone: (919) 541-7826
Fax: (919) 541-2503


Applications received by the NIH are assigned to Institutes of the NIH on the 
basis of established PHS referral guidelines.  Applications will be reviewed 
for scientific merit by an initial review group convened in accordance with 
standard NIH procedure.  The following review criteria will be applied: the 
research and training experience and leadership capabilities of the program 
director; the qualifications and commitment of the training faculty as 
measured by research grant support, publication record, and past training 
record; the quality of the applicant pool; the design of the training program 
including its relevance to the goals of the NIEHS research training mission 
and mission emphasis areas, as appropriate; provisions for guidance and 
quality control of the individual trainee's programs; and adequacy of the 
resources and environment.  For institutions that are in the process of 
developing an environmental health science training program, greater weight 
will be given to the design of the institution's training program than to 
past experience in this area.  For institutions that are submitting competing 
renewals, both the past performance of the environmental training program and 
the future directions of the training program will be evaluated.  

Following assessment of the quality of the proposed training program and 
assignment of priority scores indicative of the merit, the initial review 
group will evaluate each application on:  1) plans for attracting and 
retaining individuals from underrepresented minority groups and  2) plans for 
instructing trainees in the responsible conduct of research.  If an 
application is deficient in one of these areas, it may not be funded, 
regardless of scientific merit.

Site visits will not be conducted as part of the review process, except in 
unusual circumstances.  Therefore, applicants must present a complete and 
well-justified written proposal and not depend on a site visit to amplify the 

Subsequent to the initial scientific review, the National Advisory 
Environmental Health Sciences Council will review applications for relevance 
to its scientific mission.  Among the information the Council will consider 
in addition to the merit of the training program is the initial review 
group's comments on plans for, or experience in, the recruitment and 
retention of individuals from underrepresented minority groups into the 
training program.


The NIEHS will use the following criteria in making funding decisions:  
Quality of the training program as determined by its potential to meet the 
short-and long-term  research and research training goals of the NIEHS; 
leadership capabilities of the program director and the quality of the 
participating faculty; commitment of the faculty to the training program; and  
availability of funds. NIH understands that it takes time for institutions to 
develop cooperative efforts across departmental and scientific discipline 
lines and this factor will also be considered when funding decisions for 
first time applicants are made.  In addition, no award will be made unless 
plans for the recruitment and retention of minorities and for the instruction 
of trainees in the responsible conduct of research are deemed adequate.


Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to:  

Carol K. Shreffler, Ph.D.
Scientific Program Administrator
Organs and Systems Toxicology Branch
Office of Program Development
Division of Extramural Research and Training
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Mail Drop Code EC-23 
P. O. Box 12233
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
Telephone: (919) 541-1445
Fax: (919) 541-5064

Direct inquiries regarding fiscal matters to:

Ms. Jackie Russell
Grants Management Specialist
Grants Management Branch
Office of Program Operations
Division of Extramural Research and Training
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences 
Mail Drop Code EC-22
P. O. Box 12233
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
Telephone: (919) 541-0751
Fax: (919) 541-2860


This program is described in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. 
93.894.  Awards are made under authorization of the Public Health Service 
Act, Title IV, Part A (Public Law 78-410, as amended by Public Law 99-158, 42 
USC 241 and 285) and administered under PHS grants policies and Federal 
Regulations 42 USC 241 CFR 66 and 45 CFR Part 74.  This program is not 
subject to the intergovernmental review requirements of Executive Order 12372 
or Health Systems Agency Review.

The PHS strongly encourages all grant recipients to provide a smoke-free 
workplace and promote the non-use of all tobacco products.  In addition, 
Public Law 103-227, the Pro-Children Act of 1994, prohibits smoking in 
certain facilities (or in some cases, any portion of a facility) in which 
regular or routine education, library, day care, health care or early 
childhood development services are provided to children.  This is consistent 
with the PHS mission to protect and advance the physical and mental health of 
the American people.

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