NLM RESOURCE GRANT IN BIOMEDICAL INFORMATICS/BIOINFORMATICS (P41) RELEASE DATE: August 13, 2004 PA NUMBER: PAR-04-142 - June 11, 2008 - This PAR has been reissued as (RFA-LM-08-001). (This PA has been suspended until further notice, see NOT-LM-05-001) (See, NOT-LM-04-010 for clarification of scope.) EXPIRATION DATE: February 7, 2005 Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) PARTICIPATING ORGANIZATION: National Institutes of Health (NIH) (http://www.nih.gov) COMPONENT OF PARTICIPATING ORGANIZATION: National Library of Medicine (NLM) (http://www.nlm.nih.gov) CATALOG OF FEDERAL DOMESTIC ASSISTANCE NUMBER(S): 93.879 Medical Library Assistance THIS PA CONTAINS THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION o Purpose of the PA o Research Objectives o Mechanism(s) of Support o Eligible Institutions o Individuals Eligible to Become Principal Investigators o Special Requirements o Where to Send Inquiries o Submitting an Application o Supplementary Instructions o Peer Review Process o Review Criteria o Award Criteria o Required Federal Citations PURPOSE OF THIS PA The purpose of this program announcement is to reissue and update the National Library of Medicine’s grant program for support of the development, maintenance and dissemination of databases or software tools that are unique, of major importance to an important research domain, and sufficiently mature to have a broad, describable community of users. These tools and resources should advance research or practice in the biomedical sciences, clinical medicine or health services research. To quality for support, biomedical informatics resources – software, algorithms, knowledge resources – must be of proven value to a large community of users. The NLM Biomedical Informatics Resource grant supports ongoing research, development and maintenance of the tool or resource, user training and services, and wide dissemination of the tool or resource. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES NLM defines biomedical informatics as the intersection of basic informational and computing sciences with an application domain in biomedicine, as discussed in the work of the American College of Medical Informatics referenced below. The term biomedical informatics encompasses the closely- aligned field of bioinformatics, which can be defined as the intersection of basic informational and computer sciences with an application domain in biological/biochemical sciences. NLM’s research funding centers on understanding data, information and knowledge – their nature, forms and uses – in the domains of health and basic biological sciences. In clinical medicine, health services administration, education and basic biomedical sciences, there are information needs and problems that transcend organizational, regional and national boundaries. Biomedical informatics resources – software, algorithms and knowledge resources – that are of proven value to a large community of users, should be improved, sustained and widely shared. The kinds of tools and resources appropriate for support by NLM’s Biomedical Informatics Resource grant program include: o Software for information and knowledge processing, including natural language processing, information extraction, integration of data from heterogeneous sources or domains, event detection, feature recognition; o Tools for analyzing and/or storing very large datasets, including genomic and proteomic data; data supporting clinical trials; and other data used in clinical or health services research; o Systems for knowledge representation, including vocabularies, ontologies, simulations and virtual reality; o Algorithms for linking clinical and genomic information to benefit health care; o Technology-based tools for clinical decision support, error reduction, outcomes analysis, and the delivery of usable, useful information at the point of care; o Effective human-machine interfaces, retrieval tools and intelligent agents for health and scientific information; o Unique collections of data, information or knowledge that support learning, decision making, research and administration at national /international levels; o Tools and resources that foster translation of research findings into health care practice. NLM’s Biomedical Informatics Resource Grant can not be used to support research and development intended as proof of concept, to ascertain feasibility, or to underwrite the initial development of a tool or resource. NLM offers several kinds of informatics research grants. Applicants who wish to undertake biomedical informatics research, to develop and test novel information technologies, or to perform feasibility or proof-of-concept studies, should use one of NLM’s other research grant mechanisms. NLM’s Biomedical Informatics Resource grants are not intended to support research projects that utilize a tool or database being supported through this resource grant program. Such projects should seek funding through customary NIH research grant mechanisms. These grants are not intended to support tools and resources that duplicate activities of the National Library of Medicine. MECHANISM(S) OF SUPPORT This PA will use the NIH P41 award mechanism. As an applicant, you will be solely responsible for planning, directing, and executing the proposed project. The applicant may request a project period of up to 4 years. These grants may renewed by submission of a competing continuation application. The budget request should be tailored to the needs of the project. Applicants who wish to request$500,000 or more in direct costs per year must obtain permission in advance from NLM’s Extramural Programs Division. Applications received without proof of this advance permission will be returned without review. This PA uses just-in-time concepts. It also uses the modular budgeting as well as the non-modular budgeting formats (see http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/modular/modular.htm). Specifically, if you are submitting an application with direct costs in each year of $250,000 or less, use the modular budget format. Otherwise follow the instructions for non-modular budget research grant applications. This program does not require cost sharing as defined in the current NIH Grants Policy Statement at http://grants.nih.gov/archive/grants/policy/nihgps_2003/index.htm. ELIGIBLE INSTITUTIONS You may submit (an) application(s) if your institution has any of the following characteristics: o For-profit or non-profit organizations o Public or private institutions, such as universities, colleges, hospitals, and laboratories o Units of State and local governments o Eligible agencies of the Federal government o Foreign institutions are not eligible to apply--however, domestic applications with foreign components are permitted. INDIVIDUALS ELIGIBLE TO BECOME PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS Any individual with the skills, knowledge, and resources necessary to carry out the proposed research is invited to work with their institution to develop an application for support. Individuals from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups as well as individuals with disabilities are always encouraged to apply for NIH programs. SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS NLM’s Biomedical Informatics Resource grants provide funds to support an operations center whose functions include: (1) maintenance of scalable, appropriate infrastructure to support local and distant users; (2) support services and/or collaboration with users and stakeholders; (3) research and development to improve the longevity, effectiveness and value of the resource; (4) user training; and (5) dissemination of information about the resource. Applicants must provide plans for each of these areas. 1. Maintenance of the resource: A unique, widely-used resource requires expertise, equipment and a plan to keep up with the pace of technological change and evolving approaches to information handling. Such maintenance is a principal purpose of NLM’s Biomedical Informatics Resource grant, and evidence of plans to assure continued usefulness and sustainability are a major component of the application for support. 2. Service: Assisting the biomedical investigators and clinicians who use or want to use a tool or database is a fundamental activity of a biomedical informatics resource center. Providing access to the resource's technology should include techniques for helping users obtain, install and use a tool or database, and offering consultation and technical assistance. 3. Technological Research and Development: A biomedical informatics resource requires continuing development of its features and components to sustain value for the user community, and to meet changing needs of health care and biomedical research. Such research and development may involve modification or even reconceptualization of databases and software. Informatics research and development to improve a biomedical informatics resource is most effective when it responds to perceived, unfulfilled needs of those who use it. 4. Training: This includes educational programs designed to inform the user community about the features of a tool or database, demonstrating new features as they are developed, and attracting new users to the community. Training may encompass many techniques, including short courses, workshops, and individual training of visiting scientists and students. Applicants should include some training approaches that involve in-person, hands-on training. 5. Dissemination: This activity involves informing the scientific community about the resource and its potential for science by publishing articles or books, conducting conferences, distributing software products, or transferring technologies to industry where they will be distributed widely. In biomedical informatics resource centers that are developing software, emphasis should be placed on producing portable software. Open source software is strongly encouraged as is cooperation with complementary resources. Biomedical informatics resource centers that are providing databases should have techniques for supporting localization of the resource, and open access policies. Requests to charge for access must be approved in advance by NLM staff. Applicants for this grant are strongly encouraged to establish an advisory committee for the resource. Members of this committee should be knowledgeable about the resource's technology and its value to the user community. The committee should have members that represent the geographical regions served, and the types of users served. The chair of the Advisory committee should have knowledge of the resource's value, but should not be a member of the resource center’s staff or the major external user of the resource. The Advisory Committee should provide guidance to the principal investigator on all aspects of the 5 areas discussed above, including future directions, growth, marketing, guidelines for the resource's use, and sustainability plans. The Advisory Committee should meet at least annually. Funds should be budgeted to support yearly meetings of the committee. Proposed members of the Advisory Committee should not be contacted in advance of the application. Applicants should plan for one progress visit each year, to discuss and coordinate plans and activities with NLM. WHERE TO SEND INQUIRIES We encourage your inquiries concerning this PA and welcome the opportunity to answer questions from potential applicants. Inquiries may fall into three areas: scientific/research, peer review, and financial or grants management issues: o Direct your questions about scientific/research issues to: Dr. Valerie Florance Deputy Director Extramural Programs Division National Library of Medicine Rockledge 1, Suite 301 6705 Rockledge Drive Bethesda, MD 20892 Telephone: (301) 594-4882 FAX: 301-402-2952 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org o Direct your questions about peer review issues to: Dr. Hua-Chuan Sim Scientific Review Administrator Extramural Programs Division National Library of Medicine Rockledge 1, Suite 301 6705 Rockledge Drive Bethesda, MD 20892 Telephone: (301) 496-4253 FAX: 301-402-2952 Email: email@example.com o Direct your questions about financial or grants management matters to: Dwight Mowery Grants Management Officer Extramural Programs Division National Library of Medicine Rockledge 1, Suite 301 6705 Rockledge Drive Bethesda, MD 20892 Telephone: (301) 496-4221 FAX: 301-402-2952 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org SUBMITTING AN APPLICATION Applications must be prepared using the PHS 398 research grant application instructions and forms (rev. 5/2001). Applications must have a Dun and Bradstreet (D&B) Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) number as the Universal Identifier when applying for Federal grants or cooperative agreements. The D&B number can be obtained by calling (866) 705-5711 or through the web site at http://www.dunandbradstreet.com/. The D&B number should be entered on line 11 of the face page of the PHS 398 form. The PHS 398 is available at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/phs398/phs398.html in an interactive format. For further assistance contact GrantsInfo, Telephone (301) 435-0714, Email: GrantsInfo@nih.gov. The title and number of this program announcement must be typed on line 2 of the face page of the application form and the YES box must be checked. APPLICATION RECEIPT DATES: Applications submitted in response to this program announcement will be accepted at the standard application deadlines, which are available at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/dates.htm. Application deadlines are also indicated in the PHS 398 application kit. SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS FOR MODULAR BUDGET GRANT APPLICATIONS: Applications requesting up to $250,000 per year in direct costs must be submitted in a modular budget grant format. The modular budget grant format simplifies the preparation of the budget in these applications by limiting the level of budgetary detail. Applicants request direct costs in $25,000 modules. Section C of the research grant application instructions for the PHS 398 (rev. 5/2001) at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/phs398/phs398.html includes step-by-step guidance for preparing modular grants. Additional information on modular grants is available at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/modular/modular.htm. SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS FOR APPLICATIONS REQUESTING $500,000 OR MORE PER YEAR: Applications requesting $500,000 or more in direct costs for any year must include a cover letter identifying the NIH staff member within one of NIH institutes or centers who has agreed to accept assignment of the application. Applicants requesting $500,000 or more must carry out the following steps: 1) Contact the IC program staff at least 6 weeks before submitting the application, i.e., as you are developing plans for the study; 2) Obtain agreement from the IC staff that the IC will accept your application for consideration for award; and, 3) Identify, in a cover letter sent with the application, the staff member and IC who agreed to accept assignment of the application. This policy applies to all investigator-initiated new (type 1), competing continuation (type 2), competing supplement, or any amended or revised version of these grant application types. Additional information on this policy is available in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts, October 19, 2001 at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-02-004.html. SENDING AN APPLICATION TO THE NIH: Submit a signed, typewritten original of the application, including the checklist, and five signed photocopies in one package to: Center for Scientific Review National Institutes of Health 6701 Rockledge Drive, Room 1040, MSC 7710 Bethesda, MD 20892-7710 Bethesda, MD 20817 (for express/courier service) APPLICATION PROCESSING: Applications must be mailed on or before the receipt dates described at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/submissionschedule.htm. The CSR will not accept any application in response to this PA that is essentially the same as one currently pending initial review unless the applicant withdraws the pending application. The CSR will not accept any application that is essentially the same as one already reviewed. This does not preclude the submission of a substantial revision of an unfunded version of an application already reviewed, but such application must include an Introduction addressing the previous critique. Although there is no immediate acknowledgement of the receipt of an application, applicants are generally notified of the review and funding assignment within 8 weeks. PEER REVIEW PROCESS Applications submitted for this PAR will be assigned on the basis of established PHS referral guidelines. Applications that are complete and responsive to the PAR will be evaluated for scientific and technical merit by an appropriate peer review group convened by the NLM in accordance with the review criteria stated below. As part of the initial merit review, all applications will: o Undergo a selection process in which only those applications deemed to have the highest scientific merit, generally the top half of applications under review, will be discussed and assigned a priority score o Receive a written critique o Receive a second level review by the Board of Regents of the National Library of Medicine. REVIEW CRITERIA The goals of NIH-supported research are to advance our understanding of biological systems, improve the control of disease, and enhance health. In the written comments, reviewers will be asked to evaluate application in order to judge the likelihood that the proposed research will have a substantial impact on the pursuit of these goals. The scientific review group will address and consider each of the following criteria in assigning the application’s overall score, weighting them as appropriate for each application. o Significance o Approach o Innovation o Investigator o Environment The application does not need to be strong in all categories to be judged likely to have major scientific impact and thus deserve a high priority score. For example, an investigator may propose to carry out important work that by its nature is not innovative but is essential to move a field forward. SIGNIFICANCE: Does this study address an important problem? If the aims of the application are achieved, how will scientific knowledge be advanced? What will be the effect of these studies on the concepts or methods that drive this field? APPROACH: Are the conceptual framework, design, methods, and analyses adequately developed, well-integrated, and appropriate to the aims of the project? Does the applicant acknowledge potential problem areas and consider alternative tactics? INNOVATION: Does the project employ novel concepts, approaches or methods? Are the aims original and innovative? Does the project challenge existing paradigms or develop new methodologies or technologies? INVESTIGATOR: Is the investigator appropriately trained and well suited to carry out this work? Is the work proposed appropriate to the experience level of the principal investigator and other researchers (if any)? ENVIRONMENT: Does the scientific environment in which the work will be done contribute to the probability of success? Do the proposed experiments take advantage of unique features of the scientific environment or employ useful collaborative arrangements? Is there evidence of institutional support? ADDITIONAL REVIEW CRITERIA: In addition to the above criteria, the following items will be considered in the determination of scientific merit and the priority score: A Biomedical Informatics Resource grants is not a research grant, thus the traditional NIH criteria describe above are used, but modified to suit the purposes of the grant program. In a well-developed Biomedical Informatics Resource grant application, the following criteria are of high importance: o Significance: Convincing evidence that the resource is unique and of substantial value to biomedical research or practice o Approach: Provisions are made for insightful, timely development, sound maintenance, quality assurance, and project evaluation o Innovation: The plans for improvement of the resource incorporate new techniques and technologies o Investigator: An appropriate and sufficient array of expertise is available for planning, training and service o Environment: The technological infrastructure is adequate to meet current needs and scalable to meet future needs. o Users: Evidence of a broad, describable existing community of users. In addition, reviewers will expect to see an evaluation plan that documents (1) sustained use by the community of users for which a resource is intended, (2) increasing number of new users, (3) examples of advances in research or practice that can be traced to the resource. PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS FROM RESEARCH RISK: The involvement of human subjects and protections from research risk relating to their participation in the proposed research will be assessed. (See criteria included in the section on Federal Citations, below). http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/45cfr46.htm INCLUSION OF WOMEN, MINORITIES AND CHILDREN IN RESEARCH: The adequacy of plans to include subjects from both genders, all racial and ethnic groups (and subgroups), and children as appropriate for the scientific goals of the research will be assessed. Plans for the recruitment and retention of subjects will also be evaluated. (See Inclusion Criteria in the sections on Federal Citations, below). CARE AND USE OF VERTEBRATE ANIMALS IN RESEARCH: If vertebrate animals are to be used in the project, the five items described under Section f of the PHS 398 research grant application instructions (rev. 5/2001) will be assessed. ADDITIONAL REVIEW CONSIDERATIONS Sharing Research Data Applicants requesting $500,000 or more in direct costs in any year of the proposed research are expected to include a data sharing plan in their application. The reasonableness of the data sharing plan or the rationale for not sharing research data will be assessed by the reviewers. However, reviewers will not factor the proposed data sharing plan into the determination of scientific merit or priority score. BUDGET: The reasonableness of the proposed budget and the requested period of support in relation to the proposed research. AWARD CRITERIA Applications submitted in response to a PA will compete for available funds with all other recommended applications. The following will be considered in making funding decisions: o Scientific merit of the proposed project as determined by peer review o Availability of funds o Relevance to program priorities REQUIRED FEDERAL CITATIONS ANIMAL WELFARE PROTECTION: Recipients of PHS support for activities involving live, vertebrate animals must comply with PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/PHSPolicyLabAnimals.pdf), as mandated by the Health Research Extension Act of 1985 (http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/hrea1985.htm), and the USDA Animal Welfare Regulations (http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/legislat/usdaleg1.htm), as applicable. HUMAN SUBJECTS PROTECTION: Federal regulations (45CFR46) require that applications and proposals involving human subjects must be evaluated with reference to the risks to the subjects, the adequacy of protection against these risks, the potential benefits of the research to the subjects and others, and the importance of the knowledge gained or to be gained. http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/45cfr46.htm DATA AND SAFETY MONITORING PLAN: Data and safety monitoring is required for all types of clinical trials, including physiologic, toxicity, and dose- finding studies (phase I); efficacy studies (phase II), efficacy, effectiveness and comparative trials (phase III). The establishment of data and safety monitoring boards (DSMBs) is required for multi-site clinical trials involving interventions that entail potential risk to the participants. (NIH Policy for Data and Safety Monitoring, NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts, June 12, 1998: http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/not98-084.html). SHARING RESEARCH DATA: Investigators submitting an NIH application seeking $500,000 or more in direct costs in any single year are expected to include a plan for data sharing or state why this is not possible. http://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/data_sharing Investigators should seek guidance from their institutions, on issues related to institutional policies, local IRB rules, as well as local, state and Federal laws and regulations, including the Privacy Rule. Reviewers will consider the data sharing plan but will not factor the plan into the determination of the scientific merit or the priority score. INCLUSION OF WOMEN AND MINORITIES IN CLINICAL RESEARCH: It is the policy of the NIH that women and members of minority groups and their sub-populations must be included in all NIH-supported clinical research projects unless a clear and compelling justification is provided indicating that inclusion is inappropriate with respect to the health of the subjects or the purpose of the research. This policy results from the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993 (Section 492B of Public Law 103-43). All investigators proposing clinical research should read the "NIH Guidelines for Inclusion of Women and Minorities as Subjects in Clinical Research - Amended, October, 2001," published in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts on October 9, 2001 (http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-02-001.html); a complete copy of the updated Guidelines are available at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/women_min/guidelines_amended_10_2001.htm. The amended policy incorporates: the use of an NIH definition of clinical research; updated racial and ethnic categories in compliance with the new OMB standards; clarification of language governing NIH-defined Phase III clinical trials consistent with the new PHS Form 398; and updated roles and responsibilities of NIH staff and the extramural community. The policy continues to require for all NIH-defined Phase III clinical trials that: a) all applications or proposals and/or protocols must provide a description of plans to conduct analyses, as appropriate, to address differences by sex/gender and/or racial/ethnic groups, including subgroups if applicable; and b) investigators must report annual accrual and progress in conducting analyses, as appropriate, by sex/gender and/or racial/ethnic group differences. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN AS PARTICIPANTS IN RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN SUBJECTS: The NIH maintains a policy that children (i.e., individuals under the age of 21) must be included in all human subjects research, conducted or supported by the NIH, unless there are scientific and ethical reasons not to include them. All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should read the "NIH Policy and Guidelines" on the inclusion of children as participants in research involving human subjects that is available at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/children/children.htm. REQUIRED EDUCATION ON THE PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECT PARTICIPANTS: NIH policy requires education on the protection of human subject participants for all investigators submitting NIH proposals for research involving human subjects. You will find this policy announcement in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts Announcement, dated June 5, 2000, at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-00-039.html. PUBLIC ACCESS TO RESEARCH DATA THROUGH THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT: The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-110 has been revised to provide public access to research data through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) under some circumstances. Data that are (1) first produced in a project that is supported in whole or in part with Federal funds and (2) cited publicly and officially by a Federal agency in support of an action that has the force and effect of law (i.e., a regulation) may be accessed through FOIA. It is important for applicants to understand the basic scope of this amendment. NIH has provided guidance at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/a110/a110_guidance_dec1999.htm. Applicants may wish to place data collected under this PA in a public archive, which can provide protections for the data and manage the distribution for an indefinite period of time. If so, the application should include a description of the archiving plan in the study design and include information about this in the budget justification section of the application. In addition, applicants should think about how to structure informed consent statements and other human subjects procedures given the potential for wider use of data collected under this award. STANDARDS FOR PRIVACY OF INDIVIDUALLY IDENTIFIABLE HEALTH INFORMATION: The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) issued final modification to the “Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information”, the “Privacy Rule,” on August 14, 2002. The Privacy Rule is a federal regulation under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 that governs the protection of individually identifiable health information, and is administered and enforced by the DHHS Office for Civil Rights (OCR). Decisions about applicability and implementation of the Privacy Rule reside with the researcher and his/her institution. The OCR website (http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/) provides information on the Privacy Rule, including a complete Regulation Text and a set of decision tools on “Am I a covered entity?” Information on the impact of the HIPAA Privacy Rule on NIH processes involving the review, funding, and progress monitoring of grants, cooperative agreements, and research contracts can be found at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-03-025.html. URLs IN NIH GRANT APPLICATIONS OR APPENDICES: All applications and proposals for NIH funding must be self-contained within specified page limitations. Unless otherwise specified in an NIH solicitation, Internet addresses (URLs) should not be used to provide information necessary to the review because reviewers are under no obligation to view the Internet sites. Furthermore, we caution reviewers that their anonymity may be compromised when they directly access an Internet site. HEALTHY PEOPLE 2010: The Public Health Service (PHS) is committed to achieving the health promotion and disease prevention objectives of "Healthy People 2010," a PHS-led national activity for setting priority areas. This PA is related to one or more of the priority areas. Potential applicants may obtain a copy of "Healthy People 2010" at http://www.healthypeople.gov/. AUTHORITY AND REGULATIONS: This program is described in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance at http://www.cfda.gov/ and is not subject to the intergovernmental review requirements of Executive Order 12372 or Health Systems Agency review. Awards are made under the authorization of Sections 301 and 405 of the Public Health Service Act as amended (42 USC 241 and 284 and under Federal Regulations 42 CFR 52 and 45 CFR Parts 74 and 92. All awards are subject to the terms and conditions, cost principles, and other considerations described in the NIH Grants Policy Statement. The NIH Grants Policy Statement can be found at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/policy.htm The PHS strongly encourages all grant recipients to provide a smoke-free workplace and discourage the use of all tobacco products. In addition, Public Law 103-227, the Pro-Children Act of 1994, prohibits smoking in certain facilities (or in some cases, any portion of a facility) in which regular or routine education, library, day care, health care, or early childhood development services are provided to children. This is consistent with the PHS mission to protect and advance the physical and mental health of the American people. REFERENCES: 1. Charles P. Friedman, Russ B. Altman, Isaac S. Kohane, Kathleen A. McCormick, Perry L. Miller, Judy G. Ozbolt, Edward H. Shortliffe, Gary D. Stormo, M. Cleat Szczepaniak, David Tuck, and Jeffrey Williamson Training the Next Generation of Informaticians: The Impact of "BISTI" and Bioinformatics—A Report from the American College of Medical Informatics J. Am. Med. Inform. Assoc. 2004;11(3):167-172.
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