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Applications submitted electronically through Grants.gov for most award mechanisms permit multiple PD/PIs, with the exception of awards for which multiple PD/PIs would not be appropriate such as individual fellowship and career awards, dissertations grants (R36), Pioneer Awards (DP1), Construction Grants (C06/UC6), Grants for Repair, Renovation and Modernization of Existing Research Facilities (G20), and Shared Instrumentation Grants (S10). Applications submitted on the paper PHS 398 Grant Application may only include multiple PD/PIs if the option is clearly specified in the Funding Opportunity Announcement. SBIR/STTR applicants may use the multiple PD/PI option; refer to the SBIR/STTR multiple PD/PI section for specific requirements affecting small business concerns. For active awards, changing from a multiple PD/PI model to a single PD/PI model or changes in the number or makeup of the PD/PIs on a multiple PD/PI award requires the prior approval of the funding IC (see Change in Status, Including Absence of PD/PI and Other Senior/Key Personnel Named in the NoA).