Revised November 2016. This document applies to all NIH grants and cooperative agreements for budget periods beginning on or after October 1, 2016.
7.2 The Cost Principles
In general, NIH grant awards provide for reimbursement of actual, allowable costs incurred and are subject to Federal cost principles. The cost principles establish standards for the allowability of costs, provide detailed guidance on the cost accounting treatment of costs as direct or F&A costs, and set forth allowability and allocability principles for selected items of cost. Applicability of a particular set of cost principles depends on the type of organization (regardless whether domestic or foreign) making the expenditure. For example, a for-profit organization collaborating with a university recipient would be subject to the cost principles for commercial organizations, while the university would be subject to the cost principles for Institutions of Higher Educations (IHEs).
The cost principles are set forth in HHS regulations at in 45 CFR 75, Subpart E and Appendix IX (hospitals) to Part 75. Commercial organizations are subject to the cost principles located at 48 CFR 31.2 Federal Acquisition Regulation.
The cost principles apply to all NIH award instruments, award mechanisms, and special programs and authorities, including modular awards and awards under SNAP with one exception: they do not apply to Kirschstein-NRSA individual fellowship awards. The allowable use of funds under those awards is included in Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Awards in IIB.
Recipients may use their own accounting systems, policies, and procedures to implement the cost principle requirements as long as they meet the standards prescribed in 45 CFR 75.302 for financial management systems.
The cost principles address four tests to determine the allowability of costs. The tests are as follows:
- Reasonableness (Including Necessity). A cost may be considered reasonable if the nature of the goods or services acquired or applied and the associated dollar amount reflect the action that a prudent person would have taken under the circumstances prevailing when the decision to incur the cost was made. The cost principles elaborate on this concept and address considerations such as whether the cost is of a type generally necessary for the organization's operations or the grant's performance, whether the recipient complied with its established organizational policies in incurring the cost or charge, and whether the individuals responsible for the expenditure acted with due prudence in carrying out their responsibilities to the Federal government and the public at large as well as to the organization.
- Allocability. A cost is allocable to a specific grant, function, department, or other component, known as a cost objective, if the goods or services involved are chargeable or assignable to that cost objective in accordance with the relative benefits received or other equitable relationship. A cost is allocable to a grant if it is incurred solely in order to advance work under the grant; it benefits both the grant and other work of the institution, including other grant-supported projects; or it is necessary to the overall operation of the organization and is deemed to be assignable, at least in part, to the grant. A cost is allocable as a direct cost to a grant if it is incurred solely in order to advance work under the grant or meets the criteria for closely related projects determination (see Cost Considerations-Allocation of Costs and Closely Related Work).
- Consistency. Recipients must be consistent in assigning costs to cost objectives. Costs may be charged as either direct costs or F&A costs, depending on their identifiable benefit to a particular project or program, but all costs must be treated consistently for all work of the organization under similar circumstances, regardless of the source of funding.
- Conformance. This test of allowability-conformance with limitations and exclusions as contained in the terms and conditions of award, including those in the cost principles-varies by the type of activity, the type of recipient, and other characteristics of individual awards. Cost Considerations-Allowability of Costs/Activities provides information common to most NIH grants and, where appropriate, specifies some of the distinctions if there is a different treatment based on the type of grant or recipient. IIB contains additional information on allowability of costs for particular types of grants, recipients, and activities.
These four tests apply regardless of whether the particular category of costs is one specified in the cost principles or one governed by other terms and conditions of an award. These tests also apply regardless of treatment as a direct cost or an F&A cost. The fact that a proposed cost is awarded as requested by an applicant does not indicate a determination of allowability.