Release Date:  November 16, 1999

RFA:  TW-00-002

Fogarty International Center
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
National Institute of General Medical Sciences
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
National Science Foundation 
Agricultural Research Service
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
United States Geological Survey

Letter of Intent: December 15, 1999
Application Receipt Date: March 14, 2000


The National Institutes of Health (NIH), the National Science Foundation 
(NSF), the Agricultural Research Service (ARS), the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (hereafter 
"the Government" or "the Participating Agencies") invite applications for the 
establishment of research programs to elucidate the underlying mechanisms that 
govern the relationships between anthropogenic environmental changes and the 
transmission dynamics of infectious diseases.

This RFA calls for the development of interdisciplinary research programs on 
the ecology of infectious diseases in the context of anthropogenic 
environmental changes such as biodiversity loss, habitat transformation, 
environmental contamination, climate change and other influences.  The focus 
of this RFA is on discovery of basic ecological and biological mechanisms and 
development of predictive models for the emergence and transmission of 
diseases in humans and other animals, and ultimately the development of 
strategies to prevent or control them. 


The Public Health Service (PHS) is committed to achieving the health promotion 
and disease prevention objectives of "Healthy People 2000," a PHS-led national 
activity for setting priority areas.  This Request for Applications (RFA), 
Ecology of Infectious Diseases, is related to one or more of the priority 
areas.  Potential applicants may obtain a copy of "Healthy People 2000" at


Applications may be submitted by domestic and foreign for-profit and non-
profit organizations, both public and private, (including domestic 
institutions with foreign collaborators) such as universities, colleges, 
hospitals, laboratories, units of State and local governments, and eligible 
agencies of the Federal Government.  Racial/ethnic minority individuals, 
women, and persons with disabilities are encouraged to apply as principal 


The participating agencies will jointly administer the program from receipt of 
proposals and throughout the duration of awards.  Each award will be supported 
by NSF or NIH individually, or through joint awards from both agencies, per 
agreements among these organizations.  Principal investigators may be 
requested to modify their budgets and work plans to comply with special 
requirements of the agency (agencies) supporting their award.  Grant awards by 
the NIH will use the R01 research project grant mechanism.   

Participating NIH components are the Fogarty International Center, the 
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the National Institute of 
General Medical Sciences and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious 
Diseases.  NSF participation is principally through the Directorate for 
Biological Sciences.  If collaborative support from the ARS, NASA or USGS as 
described below is of interest, applicants should prearrange this 
collaboration with the appropriate agency representatives and document this 
support in their applications. Individual agency and institute contacts are 
listed later in this announcement.  

Responsibility for the planning, direction, and execution of the proposed 
project will be solely that of the applicant.  The anticipated award date is 
August 15, 2000. 

ARS (Animal Health and Food Safety Programs) will provide, by agreement among 
investigators, support through collaboration with ARS laboratories for 
pathogen detection and identification, microbial genomics, epidemiology, 
immunology etc.  Grant funds to support research or post-doctoral associates 
will not be available through ARS National Programs.  Post-doctoral support 
will, however, be available through individual ARS laboratories.  If such 
support is of interest you must arrange it with the appropriate ARS 
laboratory, describe it and provide supporting letters in your application.  
Information on potential collaborators and resources within ARS can be found 
on the World Wide Web at 

NASA (Life Sciences Division within the Office of Life & Microgravity Sciences 
& Applications) through the Center for Health Applications of Aerospace 
Related Technologies (CHAART) at the Ames Research Center in California will 
provide, on a case by case basis, pre-arranged training for developing country 
scientists in Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing technology, 
including travel and on site per diem expenses.  Information on the CHAART 
program can be found at: or  If such support is part of your 
proposed research plan you should include in your application a letter of 
support from the CHAART program leader outlining the terms of the 

USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) will provide, by agreement among investigators, 
support through collaboration with USGS laboratories for research addressing 
needs related to the ecology of infectious diseases.  These needs include, but 
are not limited to: access to data bases for water quality, the chemical and 
physical characteristics of earth materials, land (both natural and man-made 
attributes), and satellite and airborne remotely sensed data; laboratory 
analysis of wildlife diseases, including wildlife and environmental 
toxicology; and chemical analysis of water, plants, soils, rocks, and 
sediments.  The USGS studies, assesses, and develops and maintains National 
Data Bases on the Nation's water (quantity and quality) resources, flora, 
fauna, land characteristics, and mineral and energy resources; and determines 
past ecological and climate histories.  Grant funds to support research or 
post-doctoral associates will not be available through USGS National Programs.  
Post-doctoral support, may, however, be available through individual USGS 
laboratories.  If such support is of interest, you must arrange it with the 
appropriate USGS laboratory, describe it, and provide supporting letters in 
your application.  Information on potential collaborators and resources within 
the USGS can be found on the World Wide Web at
Note that unconfirmed support from one of these agencies or any other 
collaborator cannot be considered during initial peer review of an 
application.  While such collaborations could be added to a project after it 
has been funded, investigators are encouraged to develop these for the initial 


An applicant may request a project period of up to five years with a budget of 
up to $350,000 per year direct costs.  We anticipate that the nature and scope 
of projects will vary, and accordingly the budget and duration of funded 
projects will also vary.  Generally, we expect that total costs will range 
between $300,000-500,000 per year for three- to five-year projects.  The 
Government anticipates that available funds from all collaborating agencies 
will total approximately $4 million in fiscal year 2000, providing for an 
estimated eight to ten awards.  Because the anticipated award size is greater 
than $250,000 per year, the NIH modular approach will not be used for any 
award resulting from this RFA.



For the purpose of this RFA some relevant terms are defined below. 

o Anthropogenic Environmental Change - A sustained change in the natural 
environment resulting from human activity such as deforestation, exotic 
species introduction, chemical effluent release, carbon dioxide release etc. 
o Biocomplexity - A property of systems structured or influenced by living 
organisms, their components, or biological processes.  This RFA focuses on 
biocomplexity that arises from the interactions of living organisms with all 
facets of their external environment, particularly those interactions 
involving multiple levels of biological organization and/or multiple spatial 
and temporal scales.
o Biodiversity - The structural and functional variety of life forms at 
genetic, population, species, and ecosystems levels.
o Biological Invasion - The mass movement or encroachment of organisms from 
one area into another, generally non-native area.
o Ecology - The study of the abundance and distribution of organisms and of 
the relationships between organisms and their biotic and abiotic environments. 
o Habitat Fragmentation - The disruption of extensive habitats into isolated 
and smaller patches, typically by agriculture, human settlement or development 
o Infection - The process of invasion and establishment by a microorganism or 
helminth within host tissues.
o Infectious Diseases - Diseases resulting from presence of an infectious 
o Species Richness - The absolute number of species in an assemblage or 


Over the past twenty years unprecedented rates of change in diversity of non-
human biota have coincided with the emergence and reemergence of numerous 
infectious diseases around the world.  Virtually all of the world's 
terrestrial and aquatic communities and ecosystems have undergone dramatic 
changes in biodiversity and biocomplexity due primarily to habitat 
transformation (deforestation, reforestation, agricultural intensification, 
fragmentation), invasions of exotic species, and chemical contamination.  The 
coincidence of broad scale environmental changes and emergence of infectious 
diseases may point to underlying predictable ecological relationships. 

For example, habitat fragmentation may reduce populations of mammalian 
predators of animals that are natural reservoirs of disease agents, resulting 
in increased transmission to humans.  Similarly, runoff from urban and rural 
sewage systems may carry pathogenic microorganisms and helminths that 
proliferate in shellfish and fish and eventually infect humans via consumption 
as food.  While a descriptive understanding of some cases exists, there is 
little mechanistic understanding of basic ecological principles that may 
regulate such complex systems.

The role of biological diversity and habitat structure in stabilizing 
communities of plants, animals and micro-organisms has received a great deal 
of attention from ecologists in recent years.  As a result, our capacity to 
analyze and model biocomplexity and ecological dynamics, and to evaluate 
spatial and temporal aspects of environmental change has become increasingly 
sophisticated.  However, few of these advances in ecological science have yet 
contributed to biomedical research or to public health.  

Similarly, we have improved our ability to define the molecular identity of 
pathogens or infectious agents and their vectors, and our understanding of the 
defense systems of their hosts.  These improvements have contributed 
significantly to our understanding of epidemiology and transmission patterns 
of diseases.  However, the relationship of these factors to population 
dynamics of disease reservoirs or the biotic and structural complexity of 
ecological systems in which transmission occurs remains a poorly understood 

At present, basic and applied research in infectious disease ecology is 
largely piecemeal, due in part to the differentiated missions of federal 
science agencies that support research.  The potential benefits of an 
interdisciplinary research program in this area include: development of 
disease transmission theory, improved understanding of unintended health 
effects of development projects, increased capacity to forecast outbreaks, and 
improved understanding of how diseases (re)emerge.  An interdisciplinary 
program will also solidify long-term collaborative relationships among federal 
agencies that have been independently supporting research in ecological and 
health sciences. 

This RFA seeks to bring together advances in methods and understanding from 
these and other fields in an interdisciplinary program of research aimed at 
the interface of ecology and human health.

Scientific Objectives

Fundamentally, the goal of this effort is to encourage development of 
predictive models and discovery of principles for relationships between 
anthropogenic environmental change and transmission of infectious agents.  To 
that end, research should focus on understanding the ecological determinants 
of transmission by vectors or abiotic agents, the population dynamics of 
reservoir species, and transmission to humans or other hosts.  These 
anthropogenic environmental changes include, but are not limited to, 
deforestation, habitat destruction or fragmentation, biological invasion, 
climate change, agricultural practices, and environmental pollution.  

A variety of topics, questions and approaches are appropriate.  Research could 
focus on particular infectious agents, individual diseases or groups of 
diseases, and might involve one or more regions, habitats or groups of 
organisms.  Depending on the hypotheses being addressed, investigations might 
entail laboratory experiments, field observations or manipulations, novel 
analyses of existing data, theoretical investigations of ecological dynamics 
or all of the above.  Field investigations that elucidate extensive temporal 
and/or spatial patterns from nature are among those most likely to yield 
important insights.  Such insights are likely to be gained through integrating 
work among several scales of observation, including molecular, individual, 
population, and regional levels of analysis.  Use of remote sensing, 
geographic information systems, and other information technologies may be 
useful in such efforts. 

Investigations may also consider dynamic processes using model biological 
systems, even in a laboratory setting.  New insights gained from the study of 
biological interactions involving organisms or ecological settings other than 
those of ultimate concern may very well improve our understanding of complex 
interactions in natural ecological systems.

The primary focus should be on ecological dynamics related to disease agent 
transmission and infection.  Analysis of environmental influences on the 
susceptibility of individuals or populations to infection by particular agents 
is appropriate.  However, research that focuses largely on disease expression 
in individuals is outside the scope of this RFA.  Investigators interested in 
such a focus are encouraged to examine other opportunities for NIH support in 
this area.  Similarly, while the evolution of pathogens and hosts may be 
inseparable from many ecological questions, investigations focused primarily 
on genetic change in diseases or hosts are outside the scope of this RFA.  
Investigators interested in this area are encouraged to examine the NIH 
Program Announcement PA-99-147 Evolutionary Mechanisms in Infectious Diseases 
(  Furthermore, 
this RFA is intended to support research related to anthropogenic 
environmental changes.  Therefore, investigators focused on the relationship 
of disease to normal climate variability, such as El Nino cycles, should seek 
other opportunities, including an upcoming program led by the National 
Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) on Climate Variability and 
Human Health.
Examples of the kinds of ecological relationships that may be studied include, 
but are not limited to, the following:
o effect of changes in species richness on the persistence and relative 
abundance of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms, and their 
transmission to hosts,
o identification and evaluation of habitats favorable to the emergence of new 
o influences of climate change on transmission or risk of disease,
o impact of chemical pollutants on abundance of pathogens and rates of 
o consequences of newly introduced species on competitive interactions among 
o impact of deforestation on human population density and the incidence of 
zoonotic and vector-borne disease,
o habitat fragmentation and changes in the geographic range of disease 
o effects of pollution-related algal blooms on abundance of associated 
infectious organisms and their transmission to humans,
o meta-analyses of historical patterns of transmission and the underlying 
environmental determinants,
o factors affecting reservoir abundance and risk of zoonotic disease,
o role of habitat-specific diseases in shaping the community structure of non-
human hosts,
o ecology of migration and population structure on emergence or regional 
maintenance of disease.

Funded research under this RFA will aim beyond description to achieve 
mechanistic insights into such phenomena.  

These kinds of problems are fundamentally interdisciplinary, and teams of 
investigators with expertise in a wide range of scientific training and skills 
from diverse disciplines are likely to be most effective.  Integrated, 
collaborative efforts might involve infectious disease epidemiologists, 
population ecologists, statisticians, immunologists, parasitologists, 
taxonomists, molecular biologists, environmental health scientists, 
climatologists, and mathematical modelers, for example.  A team approach is 
encouraged to answer questions that normally cannot be addressed within a 
single discipline.  Work under this RFA can involve the collection or 
development of new data, the reanalysis of existing data, or a combination of 


Each application should budget for travel by one or more investigators to the 
Washington D.C. area every year for a network meeting of all funded projects 
under this RFA.

Protection of Research Subjects

Applicants should be aware that provisions for the protection of human 
research subjects and laboratory animals must be met in research done in both 
domestic and foreign institutions including obtaining any necessary single 
project assurances.  Applicants should see Title 45 CFR, Part 46 for 
information concerning Department of Health and Human Services regulations for 
the protection of human subjects and the PHS Policy on the Humane Care and Use 
of Laboratory Animals.  These are available from the Office for Protection 
from Research Risks, National Institutes of Health, 6100 Executive Boulevard, 
MSC 7507, Rockville, MD 20892-7507 (


It is the policy of the NIH that women and members of minority groups and 
their subpopulations must be included in all NIH supported biomedical and 
behavioral research projects involving human subjects, unless a clear and 
compelling rationale and justification is provided that inclusion is 
inappropriate with respect to the health of the subjects or the purpose of the 
research.  This policy results from the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993 
(Section 492B of Public Law 103-43).

All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should read the 
"NIH Guidelines for Inclusion of Women and Minorities as Subjects in Clinical 
Research," which was published in the Federal Register of March 28, 1994 (FR 
59 14508-14513) and in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts, Vol. 23, No. 
11, March 18, 1994, available on the web at:  


It is the policy of NIH that children (i.e., individuals under the age of 21) 
must be included in all human subjects research conducted or supported by the 
NIH, unless there are scientific and ethical reasons not to include them.  
This policy applies to all initial (Type 1) applications submitted for receipt 
dates after October 1, 1998. 

All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should read the 
"NIH Policy and Guidelines" on the Inclusion of Children as Participants in 
Research Involving Human Subjects that was published in the NIH Guide for 
Grants and Contracts, March 6, 1998, and is available at the following URL 

Investigators also may obtain copies of these policies from the program staff 
listed under INQUIRIES.  Program staff may also provide additional relevant 
information concerning the policy.


Prospective applicants are asked to submit, by December 15, 1999, a letter of 
intent that includes a descriptive title of the proposed project, the name 
address, and telephone number of the Principal Investigator, the identities of 
other key personnel and participating institutions, and the number and title 
of the RFA in response to which the application may be submitted.  The letter 
of intent is requested in order to provide an indication of the number and 
scope of applications to be reviewed, to assist in the formation of an initial 
peer review group, and to help identify proposals that may be clearly outside 
the bounds of this RFA.  The letter of intent does not commit the sender to 
submit an application, nor is it a requirement for submission of an 
application. The letter of intent is to be sent to:

Dr. Joshua Rosenthal
Fogarty International Center
National Institutes of Health
BETHESDA  MD  20892-2220
FAX: 301-402-2056

The regular research grant application Form PHS-398 (Rev. 4/98) must be used 
in applying.  General instructions for completing the Form PHS-398 are 
contained in the application package.  Apply additional instructions as 
outlined in this RFA.  The Form PHS-398 is available through the NIH pages on 
the World Wide Web (  
These forms are available at most institutional offices of sponsored research 
and from the Division of Extramural Outreach and Information Resources, 
National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, MSC 7910, Bethesda, MD 
20892-7910, telephone 301/710-0267, email:

The RFA label available in the PHS 398 (rev. 4/98) application form must be 
affixed to the bottom of the face page of the application and must indicate 
the RFA number.  Failure to use this label could result in delayed processing 
of the application such that it may not reach the review committee in time for 
review.  In addition, the RFA title and number must be typed on line 2 of the 
face page of the application form and the YES box must be marked.

The sample RFA label available at: has been modified to 
allow for this change.  Please note this is in pdf format.

Submit a signed, typewritten original of the application, including a single 
Checklist, and three signed, single sided photocopies in one package to:

6701 ROCKLEDGE DRIVE, ROOM 1040 - MSC 7710
BETHESDA, MD  20892-7710
BETHESDA, MD  20817 (for express/courier service)

Applications must be received by the application receipt date listed in the 
heading of this RFA.  If an application is received after that date, it will 
be returned to the applicant without review.

The Center for Scientific Review (CSR) will not accept any application in 
response to this RFA that is essentially the same as one currently pending 
initial review, unless the applicant withdraws the pending application.  The 
CSR will not accept any application that is essentially the same as one 
already reviewed.  This does not preclude the submission of substantial 
revisions of applications already reviewed, but such applications must include 
an introduction addressing the previous critique.

To ensure that your application receives appropriate consideration, it is 
essential to send two additional copies of your application with all 
appendices directly to:

Dr. Joshua Rosenthal
Fogarty International Center
National Institutes of Health
BETHESDA  MD  20892-2220


Review Procedures

Upon receipt, applications will be reviewed for completeness by CSR and for 
responsiveness by staff from the participating agencies.  Incomplete 
applications will be returned to the applicant without further consideration.  
Applications that are judged to be non-responsive will be administratively 
withdrawn and the proposed Principal Investigator will be notified.  

Applications that are both complete and responsive to the RFA will be further 
evaluated, using the review criteria below, for scientific and technical merit 
by an appropriate interdisciplinary peer review group convened by the National 
Science Foundation.  The composition of the initial review group, as well as 
the review procedures and criteria they employ will satisfy both NSF and NIH 
regulations.  The initial review group will provide analytical and descriptive 
evaluation using adjectival criteria and rank order applications in terms of 
scientific and technical merit.  For NIH awards, a second level review will be 
provided by the Advisory Board or Council of the awarding Institute or Center.  
Based on recommendations from the peer review process, the Participating 
Agencies will recommend funding levels and priorities.  Final funding 
decisions will be made considering the outcome of the above process.  

Review Criteria

The goals of research supported under this RFA are to advance our 
understanding of biological systems, improve the control of disease, and 
enhance health.  In the written comments reviewers will be asked to discuss 
the following aspects of the application in order to judge the likelihood that 
the proposed research will have a substantial impact on the pursuit of these 
goals.  Each of these criteria will be addressed and considered in assigning 
the overall rank, weighting them as appropriate for each application.  Note 
that the application does not need to be strong in all categories to be judged 
likely to have major scientific impact and thus deserve a high priority score.  
For example, an investigator may propose to carry out important work that by 
its nature is not innovative but is essential to move a field forward.

(1) Significance:  Does this study address an important problem?  If the aims 
of the application are achieved, how will scientific knowledge be advanced?  
What will be the effect of these studies on the concepts or methods that drive 
this field?

(2) Approach:  Are the conceptual framework, design, methods, and analyses 
adequately developed, well-integrated, and appropriate and to the aims of the 
project?  Does the applicant acknowledge potential problem areas and consider 
alternative tactics?  

 (3) Innovation:  Does the project employ novel concepts, approaches or 
methods?  Are the aims original and innovative?  Does the project challenge 
existing paradigms or develop new methodologies or technologies?

(4) Investigator:  Are the investigators appropriately trained and well suited 
to carry out this work?  Is the work proposed appropriate to the experience 
level of the principal investigator and other researchers (if any)?  Are the 
nature and quality of the collaborations appropriate for the proposed 

(5) Environment:  Does the scientific environment in which the work will be 
done contribute to the probability of success?  Do the proposed experiments 
take advantage of unique features of the scientific environment or employ 
useful collaborative arrangements?  Is there evidence of institutional 

(6) Integration:  Will the proposed research team and program function as a 
truly interdisciplinary unit that integrates models, methods, and expertise 
from both ecological and biomedical sciences?

In addition, reviewers will be asked to comment on other issues including:

a) How well does the activity advance discovery and understanding while 
promoting teaching, training, and learning?  To what extent will it enhance 
the infrastructure for research and education, such as facilities, 
instrumentation, networks, and partnerships?  Will the results be disseminated 
broadly to enhance scientific and technological understanding?

b) The adequacy of plans to include participation by underrepresented groups 
(e.g. gender, ethnicity, geographic, and children) as appropriate for the 
scientific goals of the research.  Plans for the recruitment and retention of 
subjects will also be evaluated.

c) The reasonableness of the proposed budget and duration in relation to the 
proposed research.

d) The adequacy of the proposed protection for humans, animals or the 
environment, to the extent they may be adversely affected by the project 
proposed in the application.

e) Lastly, if working in a developing country context, are investigators from 
the host country participating substantially in the design and implementation 
of the program?


Award criteria that will be used to make award decisions include:
o scientific merit (as determined by peer review)
o availability of funds
o programmatic priorities.


It is strongly advised that prospective applicants contact program 
representatives early in their planning process to discuss their applications 
and to obtain any clarifying information or instructions that may be 
developed.  You are encouraged to contact the agency representative below that 
is closest to your interest, background or affiliation.

Dr. Joshua Rosenthal
Program Director
Fogarty International Center
National Institutes of Health
BETHESDA  MD  20892-2220
Telephone: 301-496-1653
FAX:  301-402-2056

Dr. Allen Dearry
Chief, Chemical Exposures and Molecular Biology Branch
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)
MD EC-21
P.O. Box 12233
Research Triangle Park  NC 27709
Telephone:  919-541-4943
FAX:  919-541-2843

Dr. Irene Eckstrand
Program Director
Division of Genetics and Developmental Biology
National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS)
45 Center Drive
Bethesda  MD  20892
Telephone:  301-594-0943
FAX:  301-480-2753

Dr. Samuel M. Scheiner
Program Director
Division of Environmental Biology
National Science Foundation (NSF)
4201 Wilson Blvd., Rm. 635
Arlington  VA  22230
Telephone:  703-306-1481
FAX:  703-306-0817

Dr. Kathryn Aultman
Program Officer, DMID/PIP
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
6700B Rockledge Drive, Room 3100
Bethesda  MD  20892
Telephone: 301-496-2544
FAX:  301-402-0659

Dr. James A. Lindsay
National Program Leader-Food Safety
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
National Program Staff
5601 Sunnyside Avenue
Beltsville  MD  20705-5138
Telephone:  301-504-4674
FAX:  301-504-5467

Dr. Byron L. Wood 
CHAART Point of Contact (NASA)
MS 242-4 
NASA Ames Research Center 
Moffett Field  CA  94035 
Telephone:  650-604-4187 
Fax:  650-604-4680 

Dr. Janet Hren 
Science Advisor for Environment 
U.S. Geological Survey 
107 National Center 
Reston  VA 20192 
Telephone: 703-648-4480 
Fax: 703-648-5470 
Direct inquires regarding peer review of applications to:

Dr. Samuel M. Scheiner
Division of Environmental Biology
National Science Foundation (NSF)
4201 Wilson Blvd., Rm. 635
Arlington  VA  22230
Telephone:  703-306-1481
FAX:  703-306-0817


NSF awards made as a result of this document are administered in accordance 
with the terms and conditions of NSF GC-1, "Grant General Conditions."  FDP-
III "Federal Demonstration Partnership General Terms and Conditions," 
depending on the grantee organization.  Copies of these documents are 
available at no cost from the Clearinghouse, P.O. Box 218, Jessup, MD 20794-
0218, phone (301) 947-2722, or via e-mail to  More comprehensive 
information is contained in the NSF Grant Policy Manual, GPM (NSF 95-26), for 
sale through the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, 
Washington, DC 20402.  The telephone number at GPO is (202) 783-3238 for 
subscription information.  The GPM is also be available on the NSF OnLine 
Document System located at the

NIH Awards are made under authorization of the Public Health Service Act, 
Title III, Part A, Sections 301 and 307, and Title IV, Part A of Section 482 
(P.L. 78-410, as amended by P.L. 99-158, 42 USC 241, 242l, and 287b) and 
administered under PHS grants policies and Federal Regulations 42 CFR 52 and 
45 CFR Part 74.  This program is not subject to the intergovernmental review 
requirements of Executive Order 12372 or Health Systems Agency review. 

The PHS strongly encourages all grant recipients to provide a smoke-free 
workplace and promote the non-use of all tobacco products.  In addition, 
Public Law 103-227, the Pro-Children Act of 1994, prohibits smoking in certain 
facilities (or in some cases, any portion of a facility) in which regular or 
routine education, library, day care, health care, or early childhood 
development services are provided to children.  This is consistent with the 
PHS mission to protect and advance the physical and mental health of the 
American people.

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