Release Date:  November 22, 1999

RFA:  DA-01-001

National Institute on Drug Abuse

Letter of Intent Receipt Date:  May 15, 2000
Application Receipt Date:       July 14, 2000



The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) invites applications in the area 
of cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience that have the potential of 
addressing issues related to drug abuse and addiction. The objective of this 
RFA is to stimulate cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience research 
that has the potential to advance our understanding of the causes, 
consequences, neuronal basis and treatment of drug abuse and addictive 
processes.  Cognitive research is encouraged that is model-driven; and either 
(1) explores and delineates basic cognitive processes related to drug abuse 
and addiction and vulnerability to drug addiction, or  (2) directly studies 
drug abuse and the effects of drugs on particular aspects of cognitive 
functions.  Basic cognitive research does not need to be conducted in drug 
abusing populations or involve administration of drugs, but investigators 
would need to provide a clear statement indicating how proposed research 
might advance the understanding of drug use and addiction.  Cognitive science 
research that involves clinical populations would also be appropriate under 
this RFA.   The research relevant to this announcement involves human 
subjects; for information about cognitive neuroscience research involving 
animal studies contact Dr. Roger Brown, 301-443-6975,

This RFA will support individual research project grants and competitive 
supplements to existing grants.  Research proposals will be considered that 
encompass either cognitive or cognitive neuroscience approaches.


The Public Health Service (PHS) is committed to achieving the health 
promotion and disease prevention objectives of “Healthy People 2000,” a PHS-
led national activity for setting priority areas.  This RFA, “Cognitive 
Approaches to Addictive Processes”, is related to the priority area of 
alcohol and other drugs.  Potential applicants may obtain a copy of “Healthy 
People 2000”  at


Applications may be submitted by domestic and foreign for-profit and non-
profit organizations, public and private, such as universities, colleges, 
hospitals, laboratories, units of State and local governments, and eligible 
agencies of the federal government.  Racial/ethnic minority individuals, 
women, and persons with disabilities are encouraged to apply as Principal 
Investigators.  Awards to foreign institutions under R-series awards are 
generally limited to 3 years.


The mechanisms of support will include the investigator-initiated research 
project grant (R01), small grant (R03), and exploratory/developmental (R21) 
grant. In addition, competitive supplements to add a research component to an 
existing grant will be eligible.  Applicants are advised to contact NIDA 
program staff listed under INQUIRIES for additional information and specific 
application procedures. 

For research in methods development, the R03 or R21 mechanisms are 
particularly appropriate. The exploratory/developmental (R21) grants are 
limited to 3 years and small grants (R03) are limited to 2 years.  Both are 
non-renewable and limited in direct cost amount per year (R03, $50,000; R21, 
$100,000).  The R03 mechanism is intended for newer, less experienced 
investigators, for investigators at institutions without well-developed 
research traditions and resources, or for experienced investigators wishing 
to change research directions or test new methods or techniques.  The R21 
mechanism is intended to encourage exploratory research projects with sound 
methodology and strong rationales in underdeveloped research areas of drug 
abuse, such as the areas covered in this RFA.  Investigators may also choose 
to include methods development as one component within any of the other 
mechanisms.  Responsibility for the planning, direction, and execution of the 
proposed project will be solely that of the applicant.  Specific information 
on individual research mechanisms can be obtained from the NIDA home page at

The competitive supplements will be reviewed in accordance with the National 
Institutes of Health (NIH) standard review procedures; i.e., peer 
review/Council review.  Competitive supplement requests are to be submitted 
on the RFA receipt date.

Support may be requested for a period of up to 5 years for R01 grants and 
shorter periods of time for the other mechanisms.  Because the nature and 
scope of the research proposed in response to this RFA may vary, it is 
anticipated that the size of an award will vary also.  Modular budgeting 
procedures apply for grants up to $250,000 per year.  See for further 
information about modular budgets. 

The anticipated award date is July 30, 2001.  This RFA is a one-time 
solicitation.  Future unsolicited competing continuation applications will 
compete with all investigator-initiated applications and be reviewed 
according to the customary peer review procedures. Applications judged to be 
nonresponsive to the RFA will be returned to the applicant.


It is anticipated that 10-12 awards may be funded in FY2001 at a total cost 
of $2 million.  


Cognitive processes are likely to play an important role in vulnerability to 
drug addiction and in the addiction process itself.  However, more cognitive 
science research is needed to address this complex public health problem.  
Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that has many characteristics, 
including a persistent desire or compulsion to use a drug, loss of control of 
drug intake, reduction in other important activities because of drug use, 
continued use despite knowledge of harm, marked tolerance, characteristic 
withdrawal symptoms, and increased negative emotional state or stress when 
the drug is unavailable.  The process of becoming addicted to drugs often 
begins with non-compulsive or less frequent use, which, over time, can lead 
to compulsive uncontrollable drug taking.  Relapse to drug use occurs 
following short or long periods of abstinence and may result from stress 
and/or re-exposure to environments previously associated with drug use.  
Individuals addicted to drugs often can, but also often fail, to report 
intense “craving” for an abused drug.  A complex mix of developmental and 
genetic factors play a role in vulnerability to drug abuse.  Acute drug 
administration alters brain activity, and persistent changes in brain 
function in response to chronic drug use may contribute to chronic drug use.  

Conceptual Basis and Rationale:
For the most part, neuropsychological methods have been used to study drug 
effects on cognitive processes and have examined cognitive processes, such as 
executive function, that may be antecedents to drug use or the consequences 
of drug abuse and addiction. This approach has been, and will continue to be, 
valuable in furthering our understanding of the antecedents and consequences 
of drug abuse and addiction.  However, relatively few studies in basic 
cognitive science or cognitive neuroscience have related their fundamental 
methods and models to the problem of drug abuse and addiction.  This is 
despite the prominence of cognition in basic science and the fact that 
cognitive factors potentially play an important role in virtually every 
problem associated with drug abuse and addiction.  This RFA underscores 
NIDA’s appreciation that basic cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience 
methods, models, and approaches should provide new directions and innovative 
ideas for understanding fundamental problems associated with drug abuse and 
addiction.  Fundamental cognitive research into the organization and neuronal 
substrates of processes such as inhibitory functions, modulation of cognitive 
processes by emotion, decision-making, automatic and controlled information 
processing, ability to monitor and evaluate ongoing cognitive performance, 
and acquisition (development) of cognitive skills are examples of the types 
of research that are relevant for appreciating conditions that promote, 
maintain, and may be involved in drug abuse and addiction and its treatment. 
It is likely that new and innovative basic cognitive research in these and 
other domains will inform and enhance our understanding of drug abuse and 
addiction and its neuronal substrates.  At the same time, cognitive science 
research that directly studies drug abusers and related clinical populations, 
or studies the effects of drugs of abuse on cognitive processes, can continue 
to make important contributions to understanding this complex problem. 

One of the major goals of this RFA, therefore, is to invite research 
applications in basic cognitive research relevant to drug abuse and 
addiction.  Basic cognitive science research that uses model-driven 
experimental cognitive science approaches to problems identified by 
investigators as being potentially relevant to issues of drug abuse and 
addiction (examples of such problems are listed below) is encouraged.  Such 
research would capitalize on the rapid advances that have been made 
concerning the functional and neurobiological determinants of both simple and 
complex cognitive operations.  In the context of this RFA, model-driven 
research implies the use of an experimental approach intended to test the 
operation of specific cognitive processes through systematic use of control 
conditions to rule out alternative interpretations.  Applications that employ 
either functional or neuroscience approaches to cognitive processes are 
appropriate for this RFA.  This research does not need to be conducted in 
drug abusing populations or involve administration of drugs, it but does need 
to address its potential for advancing the understanding of drug abuse and 
addiction.  In addition, the research could be exploratory in nature in its 
attempt to better understand basic cognitive processes and with regard to its 
potential application to drug abuse and addiction.   In such cases, 
applicants should provide a clear statement as to the relevance of the 
research to drug abuse and addiction.

A second goal of this RFA is to invite research applications that can be 
directly applied to problems associated with drug abuse and addiction 
including studies of individuals at risk for addiction, consequences of drug 
abuse, and treatment.  Knowledge gained from this research could be directly 
applied to the development and refinement of treatment and prevention 

The following are illustrative examples of the intersection of basic 
cognitive research topics with issues relevant to drug use and addiction.  
Cognitive neuroscience research that addresses the neural functioning that 
subserves these cognitive processes is especially appropriate for this RFA.  
These examples are intended as a guide and are not meant to subsume or limit 
the cognitive science research themes that would be appropriate and welcome 
under this RFA:

o  Study of modulation of cognitive processes by emotion and motivation.  
(This broadly defined research theme is central to nearly all aspects of 
addiction, as well as issues of co-morbidity with other disorders.) 

o  Development of mathematical or computational models of cognitive 
processes.  (Such models, particularly those that incorporate modulation by 
motivational/emotional states, are relevant and may provide new insights into 
many aspects of drug abuse and addiction.)

o  Basic studies of decision-making processes under conditions of risk, 
uncertainty and high motivational states.  (Risk-taking and decision-making 
are relevant to addiction vulnerability and medical consequences of drug use 
such as risky sexual behavior and exposure to HIV).

o  Basic research on top-down and bottom-up control of attention and 
allocation of cognitive resources.  (This research is likely to be relevant 
to cue-related drug craving and its relation to relapse).

o  Study of inhibitory functions, especially with respect to suppression of 
prepotent or conflicting responses, as well as metacognition and operations 
that subserve the ability to evaluate and monitor ongoing cognitive 
performance.  (Such research has wide relevance to issues of drug abuse, 
addiction, and treatment since impaired inhibition and monitoring functions 
are seen as important for understanding craving and relapse.)

o  Study of cognitive mechanisms that control the transition to and from 
automatic and controlled information processing.  (For example, this type of 
research is directly relevant to understanding drug craving, drug abuse 
relapse, and treatment). 

o  Basic studies of cognitive mechanisms that play a role in the ability to 
monitor and evaluate ongoing cognitive performance. (This is particularly 
relevant to many issues concerning self-regulation and drug craving.)

o  Study of the acquisition (development) of cognitive skills; such as, 
inhibition, evaluative functions, and ability to plan and strategically 
allocate cognitive resources.  (Knowledge gained from this research may be 
particularly important in delineating the types of cognitive skills that may 
serve to protect youth from vulnerability for drug abuse.)

In addition, the following are illustrative examples of cognitive research 
topics that are directly related to problems of drug use and addiction.  
Again, these examples are intended as a guide and are not meant to subsume or 
limit the research themes that would be appropriate and welcome under this 

o  Studies of acute and chronic drug-induced alterations in cognitive 
processes.  (Such applied cognitive research may provide important new 
information about: the reward properties of abused drugs, facets of executive 
functioning, or impaired cognitive functioning that increases risk-taking 

o  Characterization of cognitive processes and effects of drugs of abuse and 
HIV/AIDS progression, and explore and evaluate the effects of treatment 
procedures on reversing these deficits.

o  Assessment of the effects of prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse, and/or 
drug abuse pharmacotherapies on postnatal and cognitive performance and 

o  Studies of brain processes that underlie any of the above topics or other 
cognitive functions that constitute innovative approaches to problems in drug 
use and addiction.


It is the policy of the NIH that women and members of minority groups and 
their subpopulations must be included in all NIH supported biomedical and 
behavioral research projects involving human subjects, unless a clear and 
compelling rationale or justification is provided that inclusion is 
inappropriate with respect to the health of the subjects or the purpose of 
the research.  This new policy results from the NIH Revitalization Act of 
1993 (Section 492B of Public Law 103-43).

All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should read the 
“NIH Guidelines for Inclusion of Women and Minorities as Subjects in Clinical 
Research,” published in the Federal Register on March 28, 1994 (FR 59 14508-
14513) and in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts, Volume 23, Number 11, 
March 18, 1994, available on the web at:


It is the policy of NIH that children (i.e., individuals under the age of 21) 
must be included in all human subjects research, conducted or supported by 
the NIH, unless there are scientific and ethical reasons not to include them.  
This policy applies to all initial (Type 1) applications  submitted for 
receipt dates after October 1, 1998.

All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should read the 
“NIH Policy  and Guidelines on the Inclusion of Children as Participants in 
Research Involving Human Subjects” that was published in the NIH Guide for 
Grants and Contracts, March 6, 1998, and is available at the following URL 

Investigators also may obtain copies of these policies from the program staff 
listed under INQUIRIES.  Program staff may also provide additional relevant 
information concerning these policies.


The National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse recognizes the importance of 
research involving the administration of drugs to human subjects and has 
developed guidelines relevant to such research.   Potential applicants are 
encouraged to obtain and review these recommendations of Council before 
submitting an application that will administer compounds to human subjects.  
The guidelines are available on NIDA’s Home Page at
 or may be obtained by calling (301) 443-2755.


Prospective applicants are asked to submit by May 15, 2000 a letter of intent 
that includes a descriptive title of the overall proposed research; the name, 
address and telephone number of the Principal Investigator; and the number 
and title of this RFA.  In addition, the letter of intent should identify 
other "key personnel" whom will be involved in the research and their 
institutions. Although the letter of intent is not required, is not binding, 
does not commit the sender to submit an application, and does not enter into 
the review of subsequent applications, the information that it contains 
allows NIH staff to estimate the potential review workload and to plan for 
the review of the applications.  The letter of intent is to be sent to 
program official at the address listed under INQUIRIES.

The letter of intent is to be sent to:

Director, Office of Extramural Program Review
National Institute on Drug Abuse
6001 Executive Blvd., Room 3158, MSC 9547
Bethesda, MD  20892-9547
Telephone:  (301) 443-2755
FAX:  (301) 443-0538


The research grant application form PHS 398 (rev. 4/98) is to be used in 
applying for these grants.  Application kits are available at most 
institutional offices of sponsored research and may be obtained from the 
Division of Extramural Outreach and Information Resources, National 
Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, MSC 7910, Bethesda, MD 20892-
7910, telephone (301) 710-0267,  E-mail:  


The modular grant concept establishes specific modules in which direct costs 
may be requested, as well as a maximum level for requested budgets.  Only 
limited budgetary information is required under this approach.  The 
just-in-time concept allows applicants to submit certain information only 
when there is a possibility for an award.  It is anticipated that these 
changes will reduce the administrative burden for the applicants, reviewers, 
and Institute staff.  The research grant application form PHS 398 (rev. 4/98) 
is to be used in applying for these grants, with the modifications noted 


Modular Grant applications will request direct costs in $25,000 modules, up 
to a total direct cost request of $250,000 per year.  (Applications that 
request more than $250,000 direct costs in any year must follow the 
traditional PHS 398 application instructions.)  The total direct costs must 
be requested in accordance with the program guidelines and the modifications 
made to the standard  PHS 398 application instructions described below:

PHS 398

FACE PAGE - Items 7a and 7b should be completed, indicating Direct Costs (in 
$25,000 increments up to a maximum of $250,000) and Total Costs [Modular 
Total Direct plus Facilities and Administrative  (F&A) costs] for the initial 
budget period. Items 8a and 8b should be completed indicating the Direct and 
Total Costs for the entire proposed period of support.

of the PHS 398.  It is not required and will not be accepted with the 

categorical budget table on Form Page 5 of the PHS 398.  It is not required 
and will not be accepted with the application.

NARRATIVE BUDGET JUSTIFICATION - Prepare a Modular Grant Budget Narrative 
page. (See for 
sample pages.)  At the top of the page, enter the total Direct Costs 
requested for each year.  This is not a Form page.

Under Personnel, list key project personnel, including their names, percent 
of effort, and roles on the project.  No individual salary information should 
be provided.  However, the applicant should use the NIH appropriation 
language salary cap and the NIH policy for graduate student compensation in 
developing the budget request.

For Consortium/Contractual costs, provide an estimate of total costs (Direct 
plus F&A) for each year, each rounded to the nearest $1,000.  List the 
individuals/organizations with whom consortium or contractual arrangements 
have been made, the percent effort of key personnel, and the role on the 
project.  Indicate whether the collaborating institution is foreign or 
domestic.  The total cost for a consortium/contractual arrangement is 
included in the overall requested Modular Direct Cost amount.  Include the 
letter of intent to establish a consortium.

Provide an additional narrative budget justification for any variation in the 
number of modules requested.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH - The Biographical Sketch provides information used by 
reviewers in the assessment of each individual's qualifications for a 
specific role in the proposed project, as well as to evaluate the overall 
qualifications of the research team.  A biographical sketch is required for 
all key personnel, following the instructions below.  No more than three 
pages may be used for each person.  A sample biographical sketch may be 
viewed at:

- Complete the educational block at the top of the Form page;
- List position(s) and any honors;
- Provide information, including overall goals and responsibilities, on 
research projects ongoing or completed during the last three years; and
- List selected peer-reviewed publications, with full citations.

CHECKLIST - This page should be completed and submitted with the application.  
If the F&A rate agreement has been established, indicate the type of 
agreement and the date.  All appropriate exclusions must be applied in the 
calculation of the F&A costs for the initial budget period and all future 
budget years.

The applicant should provide the name and phone number of the individual to 
contact concerning fiscal and administrative issues if additional information 
is necessary following the initial review. 

The RFA label available in the PHS 398 (rev. 4/98) application form must be 
affixed to the bottom of the face page of the application.  Failure to use 
this label could result in delayed processing of the application such that it 
may not reach the review committee in time for review.
In addition, the title and number of this RFA must be typed in Item 2 on the 
face page of the application form, and the YES box must be marked.

The sample RFA label available at: has been modified to 
allow for this change.  Please note this is in pdf format.

Submit a signed, typewritten original of the application, including the 
Checklist, and three signed photocopies in one package to:

6701 ROCKLEDGE DRIVE, ROOM 1040 - MSC 7710
BETHESDA, MD  20892-7710
BETHESDA, MD  20817 (for express/courier service)

At the time of submission, two additional copies of the application must be 
sent to:

Director, Office of Extramural Program Review
National Institute on Drug Abuse
6001 Executive Blvd., Room 3158, MSC 9547
Bethesda, MD  20892-9547
Rockville, MD  20852 (for express/courier service)

Applications must be received by July 14, 2000.  If an application is 
received after that date, it will be returned to the applicant without 
review.  The Center for Scientific Research (CSR) will not accept any 
application in response to this RFA that is essentially the same as one 
currently pending initial review, unless the applicant withdraws the pending 
application.  The CSR will not accept any application that is essentially the 
same as one already reviewed.  This does not preclude the submission of 
substantial revisions of applications already reviewed, but such applications 
must include an introduction addressing the previous critique.


This RFA invites applications from investigators who have not typically 
conducted drug abuse research.  Therefore, reviewers will not expect 
applicants to have publications or training in the substance abuse area.  
Since exploratory research is encouraged, preliminary data may not be 
provided in the application.  In such cases, reviewers will assess 
innovation, creativity, and related factors as described below.

Applications that are complete will be evaluated for scientific and technical 
merit by a peer review group convened by NIDA in accordance with the standard 
NIH peer review procedures.  As part of the initial merit review, all 
applications will receive a written critique and undergo a process in which 
only those applications deemed to have the highest scientific merit, 
generally the top half of the applications under review, will be discussed, 
assigned a priority score, and receive a second level review by the NIDA 
National Advisory Council.


The goals of NIH-supported research are to advance the understanding of 
biological systems, improve the control of disease, and enhance health.  In 
the written comments, reviewers will be asked to discuss the following 
aspects of the application in order to judge the likelihood that the proposed 
research will have a substantial impact on the pursuit of these goals.  Each 
of these criteria will be addressed and considered in assigning the overall 
score, weighting them as appropriate for each application.  Note that the 
application does not need to be strong in all categories to be judged likely 
to have major scientific impact and thus deserve a high priority score.

(1)  Significance:   Are the goals and objectives of this application 
relevant to this RFA?  Does this study address an important problem?  If the 
aims of the application are achieved, how will scientific knowledge be 
advanced?  What will be the effect of these studies on the concepts or 
methods that drive this field?  

(2)  Approach:  Are the conceptual framework, design, methods, and analyses 
adequately developed, well-integrated, and appropriate to the aims of the 
project?  Does the applicant acknowledge potential problem areas and consider 
alternative tactics?  

(3)  Innovation:  Does the project employ novel concepts, approaches, or 
method? Are the aims original and innovative?  Does the project challenge 
existing paradigms or develop new methodologies or technologies?  

(4)  Investigator:  Is the investigator appropriately trained and well suited 
to carry out this work?  Is the work proposed appropriate to the experience 
level of the principal investigator and other researchers (if any)?

(5)  Environment:  Does the scientific environment in which the work will be 
done contribute to the probability of success?  Do the proposed experiments 
take advantage of unique features of the scientific environment or employ 
useful collaborative arrangements?  Is there evidence of institutional 

Additional Specific Review Criteria

The following section expands upon the above review criteria.   Since the 
objective of this proposal is to invite research applications for an area 
currently not well represented within NIDA, the significance of the proposals 
and the qualifications of the applicants will be evaluated with respect to 
the potential for the studies to contribute to the mission of NIDA, broadly 
defined, rather than explicit expertise in substance abuse research or 
inclusion of substance abuse populations.  In addition, it is anticipated 
that many applications in whole or part will consist of exploratory research 
rather than proof of a well-established idea.   Such exploratory research is 
highly relevant to this RFA and is strongly encouraged.  Therefore, 
innovation will be given high priority in the review.  Furthermore, there 
will be less emphasis on preliminary data with respect to highly innovative 
proposals.  Although preliminary data should provide evidence that the 
applicant has the means and understanding to carry out the proposed studies, 
preliminary data does not necessarily have to provide a specific 
demonstration of the hypotheses to be tested.

In addition to the above criteria, in accordance with NIH policy, all 
applications will also be reviewed with respect to the following:

- The adequacy of plans to include both genders, minorities, and their 
subgroups, as appropriate for the scientific goals of the research.  
Plans for the recruitment and retention of subjects will also be 
- The adequacy of plans to make data available to other investigators in 
a timely fashion.
- The reasonableness of the proposed budget and duration in relation to 
the proposed research.
- The adequacy of the proposed protection for humans, animals, or the 
environment, to the extent they may be adversely affected by the 
project proposed in the application.
- The adequacy of plans for including children as appropriate for the 
scientific goals of the research.

Letter of Intent:          May 15, 2000			
Application Receipt Date:  July 14, 2000
Council Review:            February 20001	
Earliest Start Date:       April 2001


Award criteria that will be used to make award decisions include:  scientific 
merit as determined by peer review, availability of funds, and programmatic 


Inquiries concerning this RFA are strongly encouraged.  The opportunity to 
clarify issues or questions from potential applicants is welcome.

Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to:

Steven Grant, Ph.D.
Cognitive Neuroscience of Addiction Program
Division of Treatment Research and Development
National Institute on Drug Abuse
6001 Executive Blvd. Rm. 4234, MSC 9559
Bethesda, MD 20892-9559
Telephone:  (301) 443-4877
FAX:  (301) 443-6814

Herbert Weingartner, Ph.D.
Behavioral Sciences Branch
Division of Neuroscience and Behavioral Research
National Institute on Drug Abuse
6001 Executive Blvd., Room 4258, MSC 9555
Bethesda, MD 20892-9555
Telephone:  (301) 443-1263
FAX:  (301) 594-6043

Direct inquiries regarding fiscal matters to:

Gary Fleming, J.D., M.A.
Grants Management Branch
National Institute on Drug Abuse
6001 Executive Blvd., Room 3131, MSC 9541
Bethesda, MD  20892-9541
Telephone:  (301) 443-6710
FAX :  (301) 594-6847

Direct inquiries regarding review matters to:

Teresa Levitin, Ph.D.
Office of Extramural Program Review
National Institute on Drug Abuse
6001 Executive Blvd., Room 3158, MSC 9547
Bethesda, MD  20892-9547
Telephone :  (301) 443-2755
FAX:  (301) 443-0538


This program is described in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. 
93.279.  Awards are made under authorization of the Public Health Service 
Act, Title IV, Part A (Public Law 78-410, as amended by Public Law 99-158, 42 
USC 241 and 285) and are administered under PHS grants policies and Federal 
Regulations 42 CFR 52 and 45 CFR Part 74.  This program is not subject to the 
intergovernmental review requirements of Executive Order 12372 or Health 
Systems Agency review.

The PHS strongly encourages all grant recipients to provide a smoke-free 
workplace and promote the non-use of all tobacco products.  In addition, 
Public Law 103-227, the Pro-Children Act of 1994, prohibits smoking in 
certain facilities (or in some cases, any portion of a facility) in which 
regular or routine education, library, day care, health care or early 
childhood development services are provided to children.  This is consistent 
with the PHS mission to protect and advance the physical and mental health of 
the American people.

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