Department of Health and Human Services
Part 1. Overview Information


Participating Organization(s)

National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Components of Participating Organizations

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)

National Institute on Aging (NIA)
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB)

Funding Opportunity Title

Development and Application of PET and SPECT Imaging Ligands as Biomarkers for Drug Discovery and for Pathophysiological Studies of CNS Disorders (R01)

Activity Code

R01 Research Project Grant

Announcement Type


Related Notices
Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) Number


Companion Funding Opportunity


Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number(s)

93.242, 93.866, 93.273, 93.279, 93.286 

Funding Opportunity Purpose

This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) invites research grant applications from organizations/institutions that propose the development of novel radioligands for positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging in human brain, and that incorporate pilot or clinical feasibility evaluation in pre-clinical studies, model development, or clinical studies. 

Key Dates


Posted Date

May 17, 2016

Open Date (Earliest Submission Date)

September 5, 2016

Letter of Intent Due Date(s)

Not Applicable

Application Due Date(s)

Any due dates on or after Jan 25, 2018 must use reissued FOA.

Standard dates apply, by 5:00 PM local time of applicant organization. All types of non-AIDS applications allowed for this funding opportunity announcement are due on these dates.

Applicants are encouraged to apply early to allow adequate time to make any corrections to errors found in the application during the submission process by the due date.

AIDS Application Due Date(s)

Not Applicable

Scientific Merit Review
Advisory Council Review
Earliest Start Date
Expiration Date
New Date January 24, 2018 per reissuance of FOA (Original Expiration Date: September 8, 2019)
Due Dates for E.O. 12372

Not Applicable

Required Application Instructions

It is critical that applicants follow the instructions in the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide, except where instructed to do otherwise (in this FOA or in a Notice from the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts). Conformance to all requirements (both in the Application Guide and the FOA) is required and strictly enforced. Applicants must read and follow all application instructions in the Application Guide as well as any program-specific instructions noted in Section IV. When the program-specific instructions deviate from those in the Application Guide, follow the program-specific instructions. Applications that do not comply with these instructions may be delayed or not accepted for review.

Table of Contents

Part 1. Overview Information
Part 2. Full Text of the Announcement

Section I. Funding Opportunity Description
Section II. Award Information
Section III. Eligibility Information
Section IV. Application and Submission Information
Section V. Application Review Information
Section VI. Award Administration Information
Section VII. Agency Contacts
Section VIII. Other Information

Part 2. Full Text of Announcement
Section I. Funding Opportunity Description

This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) encourages the submission of research grant applications for the development of PET and SPECT probes for molecular targets (e.g., receptors, intracellular messengers, disease-related proteins) that are implicated in mental disorders, drug and alcohol abuse, and nervous system disorders associated with aging or as tools to study disease pathophysiology for assessing target engagement of potential therapeutic candidates.  The objective of this FOA is to stimulate research in the identification and development of PET and SPECT probes for disorders of primary interest to the NIMH, NIAAA, NIA, NIBIB and NIDA. 

The use of radiotracers for imaging molecular events in preclinical and clinical studies is essential for understanding the circuitry that underlies normal brain function and the pathophysiology of brain disorders.  The long-term goal of this FOA is to facilitate the broad application of neuroimaging probes that are fit-for-purpose for their intended use in pathophysiological studies, drug discovery/development research, or biomarker development/qualification studies as quantifiable indicators of disease progression and treatment efficacy.


Tremendous opportunities exist for the application of PET and SPECT imaging in studies of the pathophysiology and treatment of brain disorders, but relatively few radioligands are currently available for functional imaging of target molecules implicated in normal brain function, aging, and in brain and behavioral disorders.  Increasing the availability of PET and SPECT radiotracers will aid in:  a) understanding the abnormal biological processes that underlie mood and cognitive disorders and other brain disorders; b) determining the interaction of a drug or drug candidate with a specified target; c) guiding initial dosing of new therapeutic agents; and d) identifying central biomarkers of the illness, with the potential to predict symptom onset, monitor the progression of the disease, and assess the efficacy of therapeutic compounds. 

Research Scope

This FOA is intended to stimulate the development of radioligands for molecular targets (e.g., receptors, cell adhesion molecules, intracellular messengers, and disease related proteins) that are of broad interest to the scientific community.  The widespread availability and use of these radioligands are expected to:  1) accelerate research on identifying and characterizing the neural circuits and pathways implicated in the pathophysiology of brain disorders (especially mental and behavioral disorders, substance abuse, neurodegenerative disorders, and pediatric brain disorders) and brain changes with age, and 2) facilitate the identification of new therapeutic targets and the development of new compounds as potential therapeutic agents.  Research partnerships among investigators in both academia and pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries are encouraged to more rapidly develop PET and SPECT radiotracers and apply neuroimaging in drug discovery, biomarker development/qualification, and pathophysiological studies.

The proposed development of a radioligand (agonist, antagonist, or allosteric modulator) for a molecular target or for a radioimaging probe to monitor changes in a cellular process should be well-justified and the resulting radiotracer fit for the intended purpose.  There is limited interest, without compelling justification, in another tracer of the same class of targets listed in the CNS Radiotracer Table, or for targets in which a radioligand development effort is underway in the pharmaceutical industry.

The preponderance of tracers for molecular targets developed and utilized to date fall into the pharmacologic class of orthosteric antagonists with the most notable exceptions being ligands for benzodiazepine and opiate receptors (see  Our understanding of the relationship between occupancy and downstream effects of agonists and allosteric modulators is still at an early stage such that ligands that would enable more in depth exploration of such relationships would be of particular interest, especially for those neurotransmitter targets that represent opportunities for novel drug discovery.

In addition to PET tracers for potential therapeutic molecular targets, there is interest in tracers that bind to targets that can be used to monitor changes in cellular processes that are linked to brain plasticity or pathophysiology (e.g., neuroinflammation, neurogenesis, mitochondrial function).  For instance, markers of microglial activation would fall into this class as would any binding site alteration that could be linked to neurodegenerative processes.  Applications  to develop these classes of tracers that are not amenable to validation with existing pharmacologic tool compounds should include description of a feasible validation path (e.g., differences in binding as a function of degree of brain pathology such as is the case for PiB (Pittsburgh compound B) or florbetapir measures of amyloid load in Alzheimer’s Disease).

Prioritization of molecular targets for ligand development is an ongoing exercise and interested parties are encouraged to contact one of the NIH Scientific/Research Contacts to discuss the perceived level of need for a particular PET tracer.

Note:  A feasibility assessment (e.g., density and affinity of the tracer target in brain region(s) of interest in post-mortem human brain) must be conducted, or reference to such information in the published literature, before submission of a tracer discovery project.

The following objectives would make appropriate topics for proposed R01 projects.  This list is not meant to be all-inclusive:

  • Lead compound identification/development and syntheses of chemicals with suitable binding affinity, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and physiochemical properties allowing radiochemical synthesis.
  • Pre-clinical studies, including:  initial pharmacology and toxicology to screen out compounds that are unlikely to be promising candidates for PET or SPECT imaging; radiolabeling procedures; in vitro and ex vivo autoradiography; in vivo imaging including micro PET (rodent and/or primate); and studies of pharmacological specificity, biodistribution, and pharmacokinetics.
  • Determination of toxicology (FDA approved) for submission of an exploratory Investigational New Drug (IND) application or IND application.
  • Exploratory IND or IND application development and submission to the FDA prior to pilot human studies.
  • Pilot human imaging studies with normal controls, pharmacological challenges with analyses of radiometabolites under the auspices of IRB approval (e.g., exploratory IND or IND development and submission)
  • Pilot studies of the PET or SPECT radiotracer in patient/disease populations to assess its utility for research in pathophysiology, drug discovery, or biomarker development.

The development and strengthening of partnerships between scientists from academia and the pharmaceutical industry are highly desirable outcomes of this FOA and are strongly encouraged.  Pharmaceutical scientists are encouraged to actively participate as PDs/PIs or key personnel/collaborators.

Institute Interests

Projects proposing to develop probes where PET or SPECT ligands already exist may be of lower programmatic interest to participating ICs, unless applicants provide a compelling case that there are significant advantages to their approach.


NIMH supports neuroscience research to discover the causes of mental illness and to develop more effective and safer treatments.  Specifically the NIMH is interested in the discovery of innovative treatment development targets for mental disorders and for advancing our understanding of the pathological processes contributing to disorders.

NIMH is particularly interested in developing probes that can be used to assess adequacy of target engagement in clinical trials that employ an experimental medicine approach   

Further information on NIMH research priorities can be found in the NIMH Strategic Plan, Strategic Research Priorities, and Interventions Workgroup Report

Applicants are strongly encouraged to discuss applications with NIMH staff listed in Section VII - Agency Contact(s) Scientific/Research Contacts.


NIAAA promotes discovery, synthesis and screening of novel small molecules for innovative priority targets, and supports evaluation of their efficacy in validated preclinical models to assess their therapeutic potential for treating alcohol dependence. The focus of proposed research projects should follow that described above, but should be relevant to the mission of NIAAA.

The identification and pursuit of agents towards novel targets previously un-recognized or understudied for the treatment of alcohol abuse disorders are especially encouraged. In particular, NIAAA encourages applications focusing on agents that alleviate craving and dysphoria during protracted abstinence, and agents effective in patients who have co-morbid psychiatric illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder). Applications that essentially propose to further extend established or well-studied strategies and agents are not appropriate for this FOA.

Applicants are strongly encouraged to discuss applications with NIAAA staff listed in Section VII - Agency Contact(s) Scientific/Research Contacts.


NIA supports research relevant to the process of normal aging and age-related diseases and conditions: including normal cognitive aging, age related cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias of aging, and other age–related changes in the CNS that occur during the human lifespan.  NIA is particularly interested in identifying new therapeutic targets and, novel therapeutic agents. NIA is also interested in identifying protective factors or processes that may contribute to slowing or reversing the progression of age related cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias of aging, as well as other age-related adverse molecular, biochemical, genetic, cellular, or physiological changes that contribute to multiple age-related diseases.


The mission of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) is to improve health by leading the development and accelerating the application of biomedical technologies.  The Institute is committed to integrating engineering with the physical and life sciences to advance basic research and medical care.  One way that this is achieved is through the support of research and development of new biomedical imaging and bioengineering tools and technologies to improve the prevention, detection, treatment, and monitoring of disease.  NIBIB supports research from early stage technology development through first in human demonstrations and early feasibility clinical studies. 

NIBIB is interested in early stage probe development including synthesis and characterization of novel probes, novel radiolabeling techniques, and the generation of multi-functional probes for multi-modality imaging. Only applications that include early stages of preclinical discovery will be considered by NIBIB. NIBIB will support small, early stage clinical studies as part of a probe development project, but will not support purely clinical studies of already developed probes, or studies that seek to repurpose existing tracers for new uses. NIBIB strongly urges applicants to speak to  Scientific/Research staff prior to submission of an application.


NIDA supports research to elucidate the mechanisms underpinning drug addiction and the treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs). The focus of this announcement is to, in addition to the previously well-known targets, identify novel targets (such as TRP channels, oxytocin, and orexin systems etc), identify and develop novel small molecules with the potential to treat SUDs and pain with minimal side-effects, especially the potential for addiction. NIDA is interested in projects in the early stages of preclinical discovery and development.

Although not covered herein, applicants interested in the development of novel assays to measure neurobiological endpoints and help build a pipeline of drug discovery should consider the following funding opportunities:

PAR-15-070 (Innovation Grants to Nurture Initial Translational Efforts (IGNITE): Assay Development and Therapeutic Agent Identification and Characterization to Support Therapeutic Discovery [R21/R33]);

PAR-15-071 (Innovation Grants to Nurture Initial Translational Efforts (IGNITE): Pharmacodynamics and In vivo Efficacy Studies for Small Molecules and Biologics/Biotechnology Products [R21/R33]);

PAR-15-066 (Building on High Impact Basic Neurobiology Through Assay Development: Advancing Tools for Therapeutic Discovery [R01]); or,

PAR-13-350 (Early Career Award in Chemistry of Drug Abuse and Addiction (ECHEM) [R21/R33]).

Applicants are strongly encouraged to discuss applications with NIDA staff listed in Section VII - Agency Contact(s) Scientific/Research Contacts.

See Section VIII. Other Information for award authorities and regulations.
Section II. Award Information


Funding Instrument

Grant: A support mechanism providing money, property, or both to an eligible entity to carry out an approved project or activity.

Application Types Allowed


The OER Glossary and the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide provide details on these application types.

Funds Available and Anticipated Number of Awards

The number of awards is contingent upon NIH appropriations and the submission of a sufficient number of meritorious applications.

Award Budget

Application budgets are not limited but need to reflect the actual needs of the proposed project.

Award Project Period

The scope of the proposed project should determine the project period.  The maximum period is 3 years. 

NIH grants policies as described in the NIH Grants Policy Statement will apply to the applications submitted and awards made in response to this FOA.

Section III. Eligibility Information
1. Eligible Applicants
Eligible Organizations

Higher Education Institutions

  • Public/State Controlled Institutions of Higher Education
  • Private Institutions of Higher Education

The following types of Higher Education Institutions are always encouraged to apply for NIH support as Public or Private Institutions of Higher Education:

o    Hispanic-serving Institutions

o    Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)

o    Tribally Controlled Colleges and Universities (TCCUs)

o    Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian Serving Institutions

o    Asian American Native American Pacific Islander Serving Institutions (AANAPISIs)

Nonprofits Other Than Institutions of Higher Education

  • Nonprofits with 501(c)(3) IRS Status (Other than Institutions of Higher Education)
  • Nonprofits without 501(c)(3) IRS Status (Other than Institutions of Higher Education)

For-Profit Organizations

  • Small Businesses
  • For-Profit Organizations (Other than Small Businesses)


  • State Governments
  • County Governments
  • City or Township Governments
  • Special District Governments
  • Indian/Native American Tribal Governments (Federally Recognized)
  • Indian/Native American Tribal Governments (Other than Federally Recognized)
  • Eligible Agencies of the Federal Government, Including the NIH Intramural Program”
  • U.S. Territory or Possession


  • Independent School Districts
  • Public Housing Authorities/Indian Housing Authorities
  • Native American Tribal Organizations (other than Federally recognized tribal governments)
  • Faith-based or Community-based Organizations
  • Regional Organizations
  • Non-domestic (non-U.S.) Entities (Foreign Institutions)
Foreign Institutions

Non-domestic (non-U.S.) Entities (Foreign Institutions) are eligible to apply.
Non-domestic (non-U.S.) components of U.S. Organizations are eligible to apply.
Foreign components, as defined in the NIH Grants Policy Statement, are allowed.

Required Registrations

Applicant Organizations

Applicant organizations must complete and maintain the following registrations as described in the SF 424 (R&R) Application Guide to be eligible to apply for or receive an award. All registrations must be completed prior to the application being submitted. Registration can take 6 weeks or more, so applicants should begin the registration process as soon as possible. The NIH Policy on Late Submission of Grant Applications states that failure to complete registrations in advance of a due date is not a valid reason for a late submission.

  • Dun and Bradstreet Universal Numbering System (DUNS) - All registrations require that applicants be issued a DUNS number. After obtaining a DUNS number, applicants can begin both SAM and eRA Commons registrations. The same DUNS number must be used for all registrations, as well as on the grant application.
  • System for Award Management (SAM) (formerly CCR) – Applicants must complete and maintain an active registration, which requires renewal at least annually. The renewal process may require as much time as the initial registration. SAM registration includes the assignment of a Commercial and Government Entity (CAGE) Code for domestic organizations which have not already been assigned a CAGE Code.
  • NATO Commercial and Government Entity (NCAGE) Code – Foreign organizations must obtain an NCAGE code (in lieu of a CAGE code) in order to register in SAM. 
  • eRA Commons - Applicants must have an active DUNS number and SAM registration in order to complete the eRA Commons registration. Organizations can register with the eRA Commons as they are working through their SAM or registration. eRA Commons requires organizations to identify at least one Signing Official (SO) and at least one Program Director/Principal Investigator (PD/PI) account in order to submit an application.
  • – Applicants must have an active DUNS number and SAM registration in order to complete the registration.

Program Directors/Principal Investigators (PD(s)/PI(s))

All PD(s)/PI(s) must have an eRA Commons account.  PD(s)/PI(s) should work with their organizational officials to either create a new account or to affiliate their existing account with the applicant organization in eRA Commons. If the PD/PI is also the organizational Signing Official, they must have two distinct eRA Commons accounts, one for each role. Obtaining an eRA Commons account can take up to 2 weeks.

Eligible Individuals (Program Director/Principal Investigator)

Any individual(s) with the skills, knowledge, and resources necessary to carry out the proposed research as the Program Director(s)/Principal Investigator(s) (PD(s)/PI(s)) is invited to work with his/her organization to develop an application for support. Individuals from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups as well as individuals with disabilities are always encouraged to apply for NIH support.

For institutions/organizations proposing multiple PDs/PIs, visit the Multiple Program Director/Principal Investigator Policy and submission details in the Senior/Key Person Profile (Expanded) Component of the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide.

2. Cost Sharing

This FOA does not require cost sharing as defined in the NIH Grants Policy Statement.

3. Additional Information on Eligibility
Number of Applications

Applicant organizations may submit more than one application, provided that each application is scientifically distinct.

The NIH will not accept duplicate or highly overlapping applications under review at the same time.  This means that the NIH will not accept:

  • A new (A0) application that is submitted before issuance of the summary statement from the review of an overlapping new (A0) or resubmission (A1) application.
  • A resubmission (A1) application that is submitted before issuance of the summary statement from the review of the previous new (A0) application.
  • An application that has substantial overlap with another application pending appeal of initial peer review (see NOT-OD-11-101).
Section IV. Application and Submission Information
1. Requesting an Application Package

Applicants must obtain the SF424 (R&R) application package associated with this funding opportunity using the “Apply for Grant Electronically” button in this FOA or following the directions provided at

2. Content and Form of Application Submission

It is critical that applicants follow the instructions in the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide, including Supplemental Grant Application Instructions except where instructed in this funding opportunity announcement to do otherwise. Conformance to the requirements in the Application Guide is required and strictly enforced. Applications that are out of compliance with these instructions may be delayed or not accepted for review.

For information on Application Submission and Receipt, visit Frequently Asked Questions – Application Guide, Electronic Submission of Grant Applications.

Page Limitations

All page limitations described in the SF424 Application Guide and the Table of Page Limits must be followed.

Instructions for Application Submission

The following section supplements the instructions found in the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide and should be used for preparing an application to this FOA.

SF424(R&R) Cover

All instructions in the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide must be followed.  

SF424(R&R) Project/Performance Site Locations

All instructions in the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide must be followed.  

SF424(R&R) Other Project Information

All instructions in the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide must be followed.  

SF424(R&R) Senior/Key Person Profile

All instructions in the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide must be followed. 

R&R or Modular Budget

All instructions in the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide must be followed.

R&R Subaward Budget

All instructions in the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide must be followed.

PHS 398 Cover Page Supplement

All instructions in the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide must be followed.  

PHS 398 Research Plan

All instructions in the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide must be followed, with the following additional instructions:

Research Strategy: Applicants must include the following information as part of the Research Strategy: 

1. Provide a strong justification for why a radiotracer is needed for the target. Include the intended uses of the tracer and examples of questions that the tracer will enable to be addressed.  The involvement of a biological advisor or collaborator, who would use the radiotracer to address clinical questions, or feedback from the field, is encouraged in the selection of the tracer target.  See

2. Address the feasibility of developing a radiotracer for the target: data regarding the density and affinity of the tracer target in brain region(s) of interest in post-mortem human brain) must be included, or reference to such information in the published literature provided, before submission of a tracer discovery project.

3. State a plan and timeline for achieving the desired properties for the radiotracer (see considerations below).

Critical considerations for lead compound identification and development:

1. Feasibility based on the density and affinity of the tracer target in brain region(s) of interest in post-mortem human brain.

2. Affinity, lipophilicity, and target selectivity

a. Bmax/Kd  > 5 in human subjects

b. Lipophilicity: logD (ideally ~ 2)

c. Target selectivity in brain region of interest; appropriate for proposed context of radiotracer use    

3. Delivery: adequate penetration of blood-brain barrier with standardized uptake values (SUV) > 2 in the brain regions of interest, without influence by ABC efflux transporters;

Lack of substrate for ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) or ABCG2 (BCRP)

4. Amenability to labeling with 11C or 18F and metabolic stability of the label (e.g., 18F label is in a metabolically stable position)

5. Amenability to production: radiochemical yield (%); practical yield (MBq); specific activity

6. Specific binding: sufficient binding potential (BP) or volume of distribution (BP > 2) to assess target occupancy by drugs or to characterize CNS pathophysiology

Considerations for in vivo assessment of a PET radiotracer candidate:

1. Lack of radiometabolites: within brain, or of [18F] fluoride ion in skull

2. Amenability to accurate quantification: e.g., stable total distribution volume (VT) within scan session

3. Time-activity curves for brain and plasma

4. Robust test-retest reliability: < 10% by variation

5. Compartmental modeling with arterial input function

Protections for Human Subjects: Applications with data collection plans that involve multiple respondent groups (e.g., clients/patients, therapists/providers, supervisors, administrators) should address provisions for human subject protections and consenting procedures for all participant groups, accordingly. The NIMH has published updated policies and guidance for investigators regarding human research protection and clinical research data and safety monitoring (NOT-MH-15-025). The application’s Protection of Human Subjects section should reflect the policies and guidance in this notice. Plans for the protection of research subjects and data and safety monitoring will be reviewed by the NIMH for consistency with NIMH and NIH policies and federal regulations.

Resource Sharing Plan: Individuals are required to comply with the instructions for the Resource Sharing Plans as provided in the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide, with the following modification:

  • All applications, regardless of the amount of direct costs requested for any one year, should address a Data Sharing Plan.
  • Investigators responding to this funding opportunity are expected to include a plan to share protocols, procedures, unlabeled PET and SPECT ligands, analytical tools, IND filing information, and other materials that may be developed in the course of the project with the scientific community.

Appendix:  Do not use the Appendix to circumvent page limits. Follow all instructions for the Appendix as described in the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide.

PHS Inclusion Enrollment Report

When conducting clinical research, follow all instructions for completing PHS Inclusion Enrollment Report as described in the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide.

PHS Assignment Request Form

All instructions in the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide must be followed. 

Foreign Institutions

Foreign (non-U.S.) institutions must follow policies described in the NIH Grants Policy Statement, and procedures for foreign institutions described throughout the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide.

3. Unique Entity Identifier and System for Award Management (SAM)

See Part 1. Section III.1 for information regarding the requirement for obtaining a unique entity identifier and for completing and maintaining active registrations in System for Award Management (SAM), NATO Commercial and Government Entity (NCAGE) Code (if applicable), eRA Commons, and

4. Submission Dates and Times

Part I. Overview Information contains information about Key Dates and times. Applicants are encouraged to submit applications before the due date to ensure they have time to make any application corrections that might be necessary for successful submission. When a submission date falls on a weekend or Federal holiday, the application deadline is automatically extended to the next business day.

Organizations must submit applications to (the online portal to find and apply for grants across all Federal agencies). Applicants must then complete the submission process by tracking the status of the application in the eRA Commons, NIH’s electronic system for grants administration. NIH and systems check the application against many of the application instructions upon submission. Errors must be corrected and a changed/corrected application must be submitted to on or before the application due date and time.  If a Changed/Corrected application is submitted after the deadline, the application will be considered late. Applications that miss the due date and time are subjected to the NIH Policy on Late Application Submission.

Applicants are responsible for viewing their application before the due date in the eRA Commons to ensure accurate and successful submission.

Information on the submission process and a definition of on-time submission are provided in the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide.

5. Intergovernmental Review (E.O. 12372)

This initiative is not subject to intergovernmental review.

6. Funding Restrictions

All NIH awards are subject to the terms and conditions, cost principles, and other considerations described in the NIH Grants Policy Statement.

Pre-award costs are allowable only as described in the NIH Grants Policy Statement.

7. Other Submission Requirements and Information

Applications must be submitted electronically following the instructions described in the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide.  Paper applications will not be accepted.

Applicants must complete all required registrations before the application due date. Section III. Eligibility Information contains information about registration.

For assistance with your electronic application or for more information on the electronic submission process, visit Applying Electronically. If you encounter a system issue beyond your control that threatens your ability to complete the submission process on-time, you must follow the Guidelines for Applicants Experiencing System Issues. For assistance with application submission, contact the Application Submission Contacts in Section VII.

Important reminders:

All PD(s)/PI(s) must include their eRA Commons ID in the Credential field of the Senior/Key Person Profile Component of the SF424(R&R) Application Package. Failure to register in the Commons and to include a valid PD/PI Commons ID in the credential field will prevent the successful submission of an electronic application to NIH. See Section III of this FOA for information on registration requirements.

The applicant organization must ensure that the DUNS number it provides on the application is the same number used in the organization’s profile in the eRA Commons and for the System for Award Management. Additional information may be found in the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide.

See more tips for avoiding common errors.

Upon receipt, applications will be evaluated for completeness and compliance with application instructions by the Center for Scientific Review, NIH. Applications that are incomplete or non-compliant will not be reviewed.

Requests of $500,000 or more for direct costs in any year

Applicants requesting $500,000 or more in direct costs in any year (excluding consortium F&A) must contact a Scientific/ Research Contact at least 6 weeks before submitting the application and follow the Policy on the Acceptance for Review of Unsolicited Applications that Request $500,000 or More in Direct Costs as described in the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide.

Applications Involving the NIH Intramural Research Program

The requests by NIH intramural scientists will be limited to the incremental costs required for participation.   As such, these requests will not include any salary and related fringe benefits for career, career conditional or other Federal employees (civilian or uniformed service) with permanent appointments under existing position ceilings or any costs related to administrative or facilities support (equivalent to Facilities and Administrative or F&A costs).  These costs may include salary for staff to be specifically hired under a temporary appointment for the project, consultant costs, equipment, supplies, travel, and other items typically listed under Other Expenses.  Applicants should indicate the number of person-months devoted to the project, even if no funds are requested for salary and fringe benefits. 

If selected, appropriate funding will be provided by the NIH Intramural Program.  NIH intramural scientists will participate in this program as PDs/PIs in accord with the Terms and Conditions provided in this FOA.  Intellectual property will be managed in accord with established policy of the NIH in compliance with Executive Order 10096, as amended, 45 CFR Part 7; patent rights for inventions developed in NIH facilities are NIH property unless NIH waives its rights. 

Should an extramural application include the collaboration with an intramural scientist, no funds for the support of the intramural scientist may be requested in the application.  The intramural scientist may submit a separate request for intramural funding as described above.

Use of Common Data Elements in NIH-funded Research

NIH encourages the use of common data elements (CDEs) in basic, clinical, and applied research, patient registries, and other human subject research to facilitate broader and more effective use of data and advance research across studies.  CDEs are data elements that have been identified and defined for use in multiple data sets across different studies. Use of CDEs can facilitate data sharing and standardization to improve data quality and enable data integration from multiple studies and sources, including electronic health records.  NIH ICs have identified CDEs for many clinical domains (e.g., neurological disease), types of studies (e.g., genome-wide association studies (GWAS)), types of outcomes (e.g., patient-reported outcomes), and patient registries (e.g., the Global Rare Diseases Patient Registry and Data Repository).  NIH has established a “Common Data Element (CDE) Resource Portal" ( to assist investigators in identifying NIH-supported CDEs when developing protocols, case report forms, and other instruments for data collection. The Portal provides guidance about and access to NIH-supported CDE initiatives and other tools and resources for the appropriate use of CDEs and data standards in NIH-funded research.  Investigators are encouraged to consult the Portal and describe in their applications any use they will make of NIH-supported CDEs in their projects.

Post Submission Materials

Applicants are required to follow our Post Submission Application Materials policy.

Section V. Application Review Information
1. Criteria

Only the review criteria described below will be considered in the review process. As part of the NIH mission, all applications submitted to the NIH in support of biomedical and behavioral research are evaluated for scientific and technical merit through the NIH peer review system.

Overall Impact

Reviewers will provide an overall impact score to reflect their assessment of the likelihood for the project to exert a sustained, powerful influence on the research field(s) involved, in consideration of the following review criteria and additional review criteria (as applicable for the project proposed).

Scored Review Criteria

Reviewers will consider each of the review criteria below in the determination of scientific merit, and give a separate score for each. An application does not need to be strong in all categories to be judged likely to have major scientific impact. For example, a project that by its nature is not innovative may be essential to advance a field.


Does the project address an important problem or a critical barrier to progress in the field? Is there a strong scientific premise for the project? If the aims of the project are achieved, how will scientific knowledge, technical capability, and/or clinical practice be improved? How will successful completion of the aims change the concepts, methods, technologies, treatments, services, or preventative interventions that drive this field? Is there a compelling justification for the development of a radiotracer for the target or cellular process, for the proposed tracer's intended use(s), and types of questions that it would enable to be addressed?  Is there evidence of involvement of a biological collaborator or advisor, who would use the radiotracer or feedback from the field in the selection of the tracer target?     


Are the PD(s)/PI(s), collaborators, and other researchers well suited to the project? If Early Stage Investigators or those in the early stages of independent careers, do they have appropriate experience and training? If established, have they demonstrated an ongoing record of accomplishments that have advanced their field(s)? If the project is collaborative or multi-PD/PI, do the investigators have complementary and integrated expertise; are their leadership approach, governance and organizational structure appropriate for the project?   


Does the application challenge and seek to shift current research or clinical practice paradigms by utilizing novel theoretical concepts, approaches or methodologies, instrumentation, or interventions? Are the concepts, approaches or methodologies, instrumentation, or interventions novel to one field of research or novel in a broad sense? Is a refinement, improvement, or new application of theoretical concepts, approaches or methodologies, instrumentation, or interventions proposed?   


Are the overall strategy, methodology, and analyses well-reasoned and appropriate to accomplish the specific aims of the project? Have the investigators presented strategies to ensure a robust and unbiased approach, as appropriate for the work proposed? Are potential problems, alternative strategies, and benchmarks for success presented? If the project is in the early stages of development, will the strategy establish feasibility and will particularly risky aspects be managed? Have the investigators presented adequate plans to address relevant biological variables, such as sex, for studies in vertebrate animals or human subjects? Is there evidence of feasibility that the target can be detected in the brain region(s) of interest with a radiotracer? Are the desired properties for the radiotracer clearly stated and reasonable for the proposed target? Are there a clearly delineated plan and timeline for achieving the desired properties for the radiotracer? 

If the project involves human subjects and/or NIH-defined clinical research, are the plans to address 1) the protection of human subjects from research risks, and 2) inclusion (or exclusion) of individuals on the basis of sex/gender, race, and ethnicity, as well as the inclusion or exclusion of children, justified in terms of the scientific goals and research strategy proposed?  


Will the scientific environment in which the work will be done contribute to the probability of success? Are the institutional support, equipment and other physical resources available to the investigators adequate for the project proposed? Will the project benefit from unique features of the scientific environment, subject populations, or collaborative arrangements?   

Additional Review Criteria

As applicable for the project proposed, reviewers will evaluate the following additional items while determining scientific and technical merit, and in providing an overall impact score, but will not give separate scores for these items.

Protections for Human Subjects

For research that involves human subjects but does not involve one of the six categories of research that are exempt under 45 CFR Part 46, the committee will evaluate the justification for involvement of human subjects and the proposed protections from research risk relating to their participation according to the following five review criteria: 1) risk to subjects, 2) adequacy of protection against risks, 3) potential benefits to the subjects and others, 4) importance of the knowledge to be gained, and 5) data and safety monitoring for clinical trials.

For research that involves human subjects and meets the criteria for one or more of the six categories of research that are exempt under 45 CFR Part 46, the committee will evaluate: 1) the justification for the exemption, 2) human subjects involvement and characteristics, and 3) sources of materials. For additional information on review of the Human Subjects section, please refer to the Guidelines for the Review of Human Subjects.

Inclusion of Women, Minorities, and Children 

When the proposed project involves human subjects and/or NIH-defined clinical research, the committee will evaluate the proposed plans for the inclusion (or exclusion) of individuals on the basis of sex/gender, race, and ethnicity, as well as the inclusion (or exclusion) of children to determine if it is justified in terms of the scientific goals and research strategy proposed. For additional information on review of the Inclusion section, please refer to the Guidelines for the Review of Inclusion in Clinical Research.

Vertebrate Animals

The committee will evaluate the involvement of live vertebrate animals as part of the scientific assessment according to the following criteria: (1) description of proposed procedures involving animals, including species, strains, ages, sex, and total number to be used; (2) justifications for the use of animals versus alternative models and for the appropriateness of the species proposed; (3) interventions to minimize discomfort, distress, pain and injury; and (4) justification for euthanasia method if NOT consistent with the AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals. Reviewers will assess the use of chimpanzees as they would any other application proposing the use of vertebrate animals. For additional information on review of the Vertebrate Animals section, please refer to the Worksheet for Review of the Vertebrate Animal Section.


Reviewers will assess whether materials or procedures proposed are potentially hazardous to research personnel and/or the environment, and if needed, determine whether adequate protection is proposed.


For Resubmissions, the committee will evaluate the application as now presented, taking into consideration the responses to comments from the previous scientific review group and changes made to the project.


Not Applicable


For Revisions, the committee will consider the appropriateness of the proposed expansion of the scope of the project. If the Revision application relates to a specific line of investigation presented in the original application that was not recommended for approval by the committee, then the committee will consider whether the responses to comments from the previous scientific review group are adequate and whether substantial changes are clearly evident.

Additional Review Considerations

As applicable for the project proposed, reviewers will consider each of the following items, but will not give scores for these items, and should not consider them in providing an overall impact score.

Applications from Foreign Organizations

Reviewers will assess whether the project presents special opportunities for furthering research programs through the use of unusual talent, resources, populations, or environmental conditions that exist in other countries and either are not readily available in the United States or augment existing U.S. resources.

Select Agent Research

Reviewers will assess the information provided in this section of the application, including 1) the Select Agent(s) to be used in the proposed research, 2) the registration status of all entities where Select Agent(s) will be used, 3) the procedures that will be used to monitor possession use and transfer of Select Agent(s), and 4) plans for appropriate biosafety, biocontainment, and security of the Select Agent(s).

Resource Sharing Plans

Reviewers will comment on whether the following Resource Sharing Plans, or the rationale for not sharing the following types of resources, are reasonable: (1) Data Sharing Plan; (2) Sharing Model Organisms; and (3)  Genomic Data Sharing Plan (GDS).

Authentication of Key Biological and/or Chemical Resources:

For projects involving key biological and/or chemical resources, reviewers will comment on the brief plans proposed for identifying and ensuring the validity of those resources.

Budget and Period of Support

Reviewers will consider whether the budget and the requested period of support are fully justified and reasonable in relation to the proposed research.

2. Review and Selection Process

Applications will be evaluated for scientific and technical merit by (an) appropriate Scientific Review Group(s) convened by the Center for Scientific Review , in accordance with NIH peer review policy and procedures, using the stated review criteria. Assignment to a Scientific Review Group will be shown in the eRA Commons.

As part of the scientific peer review, all applications:

  • May undergo a selection process in which only those applications deemed to have the highest scientific and technical merit (generally the top half of applications under review) will be discussed and assigned an overall impact score.
  • Will receive a written critique.

Applications will be assigned on the basis of established PHS referral guidelines to the appropriate NIH Institute or Center. Applications will compete for available funds with all other recommended applications . Following initial peer review, recommended applications will receive a second level of review by the appropriate national Advisory Council or Board. The following will be considered in making funding decisions:

  • Scientific and technical merit of the proposed project as determined by scientific peer review.
  • Availability of funds.
  • Relevance of the proposed project to program priorities.

Program staff will be responsible for the administrative review of the plan for sharing research resources. The adequacy of the resources sharing plan will be considered by Program staff of the funding organization when making recommendations about funding applications. Program staff may negotiate modifications of the resource sharing plans with the awardee before recommending funding of an application. The final version of the data and resource sharing plans negotiated by both will become a condition of the award of the grant.

3. Anticipated Announcement and Award Dates

After the peer review of the application is completed, the PD/PI will be able to access his or her Summary Statement (written critique) via the eRA Commons. Refer to Part 1 for dates for peer review, advisory council review, and earliest start date.

Information regarding the disposition of applications is available in the NIH Grants Policy Statement.

Section VI. Award Administration Information
1. Award Notices

If the application is under consideration for funding, NIH will request "just-in-time" information from the applicant as described in the NIH Grants Policy Statement.

A formal notification in the form of a Notice of Award (NoA) will be provided to the applicant organization for successful applications. The NoA signed by the grants management officer is the authorizing document and will be sent via email to the grantee’s business official.

Awardees must comply with any funding restrictions described in Section IV.5. Funding Restrictions. Selection of an application for award is not an authorization to begin performance. Any costs incurred before receipt of the NoA are at the recipient's risk. These costs may be reimbursed only to the extent considered allowable pre-award costs.

Any application awarded in response to this FOA will be subject to terms and conditions found on the Award Conditions and Information for NIH Grants website.  This includes any recent legislation and policy applicable to awards that is highlighted on this website.

Special modification for awards made by NIMH:

To advance the goal of advancing research through widespread data sharing among researchers, investigators funded under this FOA are expected to share human subjects data via the NIMH Data Archive (NDA) (; see NOT-MH-09-005, NOT-MH-14-015 and NOT-MH-15-012). Established by the NIH, the NDA is a secure informatics platform for scientific collaboration and data-sharing that enables the effective communication of detailed research results, tools, and supporting documentation.  Investigators funded under this FOA are expected to use NDA technologies to submit data in accordance with the NDA Data Sharing Terms and Conditions, incorporated by reference, which can be found at The resource sharing plan should be formulated in accordance with the NDA Data Sharing Terms and Conditions. 

2. Administrative and National Policy Requirements

All NIH grant and cooperative agreement awards include the NIH Grants Policy Statement as part of the NoA. For these terms of award, see the NIH Grants Policy Statement Part II: Terms and Conditions of NIH Grant Awards, Subpart A: General  and Part II: Terms and Conditions of NIH Grant Awards, Subpart B: Terms and Conditions for Specific Types of Grants, Grantees, and Activities. More information is provided at Award Conditions and Information for NIH Grants.

Recipients of federal financial assistance (FFA) from HHS must administer their programs in compliance with federal civil rights law. This means that recipients of HHS funds must ensure equal access to their programs without regard to a person’s race, color, national origin, disability, age and, in some circumstances, sex and religion. This includes ensuring your programs are accessible to persons with limited English proficiency.  HHS recognizes that research projects are often limited in scope for many reasons that are nondiscriminatory, such as the principal investigator’s scientific interest, funding limitations, recruitment requirements, and other considerations. Thus, criteria in research protocols that target or exclude certain populations are warranted where nondiscriminatory justifications establish that such criteria are appropriate with respect to the health or safety of the subjects, the scientific study design, or the purpose of the research.

For additional guidance regarding how the provisions apply to NIH grant programs, please contact the Scientific/Research Contact that is identified in Section VII under Agency Contacts of this FOA. HHS provides general guidance to recipients of FFA on meeting their legal obligation to take reasonable steps to provide meaningful access to their programs by persons with limited English proficiency. Please see The HHS Office for Civil Rights also provides guidance on complying with civil rights laws enforced by HHS. Please see; and Recipients of FFA also have specific legal obligations for serving qualified individuals with disabilities. Please see Please contact the HHS Office for Civil Rights for more information about obligations and prohibitions under federal civil rights laws at or call 1-800-368-1019 or TDD 1-800-537-7697. Also note it is an HHS Departmental goal to ensure access to quality, culturally competent care, including long-term services and supports, for vulnerable populations. For further guidance on providing culturally and linguistically appropriate services, recipients should review the National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services in Health and Health Care at

Cooperative Agreement Terms and Conditions of Award

Not Applicable

3. Reporting

When multiple years are involved, awardees will be required to submit the Research Performance Progress Report (RPPR) annually and financial statements as required in the NIH Grants Policy Statement.

A final progress report, invention statement, and the expenditure data portion of the Federal Financial Report are required for closeout of an award, as described in the NIH Grants Policy Statement.

The Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 (Transparency Act), includes a requirement for awardees of Federal grants to report information about first-tier subawards and executive compensation under Federal assistance awards issued in FY2011 or later.  All awardees of applicable NIH grants and cooperative agreements are required to report to the Federal Subaward Reporting System (FSRS) available at on all subawards over $25,000.  See the NIH Grants Policy Statement for additional information on this reporting requirement.

Section VII. Agency Contacts

We encourage inquiries concerning this funding opportunity and welcome the opportunity to answer questions from potential applicants.

Application Submission Contacts

eRA Service Desk (Questions regarding ASSIST, eRA Commons registration, submitting and tracking an application, documenting system problems that threaten submission by the due date, post submission issues)
Finding Help Online: (preferred method of contact)
Telephone: 301-402-7469 or 866-504-9552 (Toll Free) Customer Support (Questions regarding registration and submission, downloading forms and application packages)
Contact CenterTelephone: 800-518-4726

GrantsInfo (Questions regarding application instructions and process, finding NIH grant resources)
Email: (preferred method of contact)
Telephone: 301-945-7573

Scientific/Research Contact(s)

Enrique Michelotti, Ph.D.
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Telephone:  301-443-5415

John Hsiao, M.D.
National Institute on Aging (NIA)
Telephone: 301-496-9350

John A. Matochik, Ph.D.
National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
Telephone: 301-451-7319

Sastre, Antonio, Ph.D.
National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB)
Telephone: 301-402-1373 

Steven Grant, Ph.D.
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Telephone: 301-443-4877

Peer Review Contact(s)

Eileen Bradley
Center for Scientific Review (CSR)
Telephone: 301-435-1179

Financial/Grants Management Contact(s)

Rebecca Claycamp 
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Telephone: 301-443-2811

Jessi Perez
National Institute on Aging (NIA)
Telephone: 301-402-7739

Judy Fox
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
Telephone: 301-443-4704

Holly Atherton
National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB)
Telephone: 301-496-4782

Yinka Abu
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Telephone: 301-595-0572

Section VIII. Other Information

Recently issued trans-NIH policy notices may affect your application submission. A full list of policy notices published by NIH is provided in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts. All awards are subject to the terms and conditions, cost principles, and other considerations described in the NIH Grants Policy Statement.

Authority and Regulations

Awards are made under the authorization of Sections 301 and 405 of the Public Health Service Act as amended (42 USC 241 and 284) and under Federal Regulations 42 CFR Part 52 and 45 CFR Part 75.

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