NIH GUIDE, Volume 22, Number 5, February 5, 1993

PA NUMBER:  PA-93-46

P.T. 34


National Institute on Drug Abuse


The purpose of this program announcement (PA) is to encourage

research on the extent and nature of drug use and abuse among

ethnic/racial minority groups and other underserved populations.  As

defined in this announcement, ethnic/racial minority groups include

African-American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian American

and Pacific Islander, and Hispanic.  Underserved populations include,

but are not limited to, school dropouts, gang members, the homeless,

migrant workers, prostitutes, children of drug users, recent

immigrant groups, the unemployed or working poor, the elderly,

veterans, incarcerated adults and juveniles, the mentally ill, or

other vulnerable groups.  Research on the drug-using behavior of the

ethnic/racial minority groups and other underserved populations

mentioned is important because of the significant social, economic,

and cultural differences existing among and between these population

groups; the growing importance of these population groups upon the

social, economic, and cultural well-being of our society; and the

potentially unique nature of drug-using behaviors among each of the

minority groups and other underserved populations.


The Public Health Service (PHS) is committed to achieving the health

promotion and disease prevention objectives of "Healthy People 2000,"

a PHS-led national activity for setting priority areas.  This PA,

Drug Use and Abuse in Minority and Underserved Populations, is

related to the priority area of alcohol and other drug abuse.

Potential applicants may obtain a copy of Healthy People 2000 (Full

Report:  Stock No. 017-001-00474-0 or Summary Report:  Stock No.

017-001-00473-1) through the Superintendent of Documents, Government

Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402-9325 (telephone 202-783-3238).


Applications may be submitted by foreign and domestic, for-profit and

non-profit organizations, public and private, such as universities,

colleges, hospitals, laboratories, units of State and local

governments, and eligible agencies of the Federal government.

Applications from minority individuals and women are encouraged.

Foreign institutions are not eligible for First Independent Research

Support and Transition (FIRST) awards (R29).


Support mechanisms include research projects (R01), small grants

(R03), and FIRST awards (R29).



Background investigation into the extent and nature of drug use/abuse

behavior among the various ethnic/racial minority groups and other

underserved populations is the focus of the ethnic/racial minority

and other underserved populations research program at the National

Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), Epidemiologic Research Branch.  In

the past this program has provided financial and technical support to

studies exploring the prevalence of drug use/abuse among school

dropouts, gang members, the homeless, and American Indian, Hispanic,

and African-American high school seniors.  This program has also

funded studies investigating the role of familial factors, religious

involvement, and acculturation related stress in the drug use

behavior of African-American and Hispanic adolescents.

The findings from this research have provided evidence suggesting

that American Indian high school seniors are more likely than any

other ethnic/racial minority group seniors to use and abuse licit and

illicit drugs.  Other results from this research have also suggested

that a strong relationship exists between dropping out of school and

drug use/abuse, and that homeless individuals and gang members have a

very high rate of drug use/abuse.  Further, the data collected from

this research seem to indicate that stress due to assimilation into

American society and lack of family cohesiveness and support may be

related to the drug-using behavior of Hispanic and African-American


Despite these recent research advances, there continues to be a lack

of research on the patterns, causes, and consequences of drug use and

abuse among ethnic/racial minority groups and other underserved

populations.  Of foremost concern is the lack of culturally relevant

and theoretically driven research on the underlying factors

responsible for the drug-using behavior of individuals belonging to

the various ethnic/racial minority groups and other underserved

populations.  The majority of past and current studies on the

drug-using behavior of these populations are exploratory in nature

and lack a theoretical foundation.  Moreover, many of these studies

are not culturally relevant and many have been able to gain only

limited access to ethnic/racial minority communities or underserved

populations.  Furthermore, these study results are most often based

upon non-random samples and retrospective collection of drug use

data.  Also needed is research that will further explore the changing

patterns of drug use and abuse among the various ethnic/racial and

other underserved groups and the consequences associated with these

drug-using patterns among these different populations.

Applications submitted should focus on exploring the etiology,

patterns, or consequences of drug use among each of the population

groups listed above or any other group that may be vulnerable to the

use and abuse of drugs.  Applications that focus on exploring the

underlying individual, familial, psychiatric, psychological,

cultural, socioeconomic, and co-morbidity factors and circumstances

that expose or protect individuals belonging to these populations

from or to the use of illicit drugs are particularly encouraged.

Studies that focus on the relationship between drug use/abuse and

violence and other related consequences due to drug use are also


Areas of Research Interest:

Etiologic studies

Familial and peer related studies:  Research in this area should

focus on the role that such factors as lack of family support

including ineffective parenting and lack of mutual parent-child

attachment and warmth, family violence, and lack of male role models

have upon the initiation, continuation, escalation, and cessation of

drug use among ethnic/racial minority groups and other underserved

populations.  Encouraged also are studies that investigate the impact

that poor parental supervision, parental and older sibling or other

relative drug use, breakdown of the extended family system, the

changing role of the mother and father within the family system, and

parents' socioeconomic status have upon the drug-using behavior of

these population groups.  Studies that explore the relationship

between drug use and abuse, peer influence and association with

drug-using peers among ethnic/racial minority youth are also

appropriate for this research.

Cultural related studies:  Research in this area should focus on

exploring the importance of cultural values and attitudes toward drug

use, acculturation related stress, or loss of cultural identification

upon the drug-using behavior of the various ethnic/racial minority

groups previously identified.  Of particular interest are studies

that explore the role of cultural values that may protect

ethnic/racial minority female, particularly those belonging to recent

immigrant groups, from the use and abuse of drugs.  Also needed is

research that investigates whether or not a subculture of drug use

exists among the various underserved population groups.

Methodological studies that seek to develop scales to measure

accurately the complex and multidimensional nature of the construct

of culture among each of the various racial/ethnic minority groups

are also encouraged.

Community and societal related factor studies:  Research in this area

centers on exploring the impact that factors such as the availability

and price of drugs and drug distribution networks, local laws against

the use and selling of drugs, neighborhood attitudes and social norms

and mores related to drug using/dealing, poor school systems, and a

lack of adequate community recreational and employment opportunities

have upon the drug use behavior of ethnic/racial minority groups and

other underserved populations.  Encouraged also are studies that

investigate the role that racism, negative social sanctioning by

established social institutions such as schools and social service

programs, law enforcement programs/strategies, membership in gangs

and organized criminal associations, lack of religious affiliations,

and feelings of powerlessness toward society have upon the drug-using

behavior of the identified population groups.

Individual psychology and developmental vulnerability related

studies:  Research in this area concentrates on studies of the impact

of psychological, developmental, and psychopathological factors upon

the use and eventual abuse of drugs.  Feelings of low self-esteem,

depression, low self-efficacy, aggressive, or noncompliant behavior,

coping styles, misperceptions of harmful consequences,

maturation-related transitions from infancy to adulthood,

psychopathological conditions, and other related psychological

problems also are appropriate study foci.

Of interest are studies that investigate the interactive roles of

intrapersonal, interpersonal, familial, cultural community, and other

larger societal factors upon the onset, casual use, escalation to

use, maintenance, development of dependence, cessation of use, and

relapse of drugs among ethnic/racial minority groups and other

underserved populations.  These studies should be based upon a

multidimensional and multidisciplinary perspective where the

exploration of drug use will be grounded within a

person-in-situation-environment configuration with reciprocal

interactions existing among and within the various systems an

individual interacts.  Especially encouraged is research that

investigates resiliency and protective factors among minority

children who may otherwise be at high risk of using drugs but do not.

Studies that help in the development of information which can lead to

the early identification of those at risk of drug use and abuse among

the various ethnic/racial groups and underserved populations are

particularly needed.  Studies that provide data on identifying the

motivating factors responsible for the cessation of drug use among

school dropouts, children of drug users, longtime drug addicts, young

African-American, Asian American and Hispanic male and female adults

are also invited.

Projects are encouraged to utilize qualitative and quantitative

methods in combination; a reliance on retrospective data is

discouraged.  Community-based studies with matched control groups

where feasible are encouraged; longitudinal efforts and secondary

analysis of existing data studies also are supported as appropriate.

Also encouraged are studies that critically validate the cultural

relevance of current methodological approaches and those that utilize

rigorous research designs within the context of their data collection


Epidemiologic studies

Patterns and prevalence of drug use related studies:  Research in

this area seeks to evaluate whether the patterns, including the

sequencing and multiple use and abuse of drugs of ethnic/racial

minority youth, school dropouts, gang members, children of drug

users, and homeless youth differs from non-minority youth as reported

by drug abuse researchers.  Also encouraged are studies that gather

information on the prevalence of drug use among Asian American,

Hispanic individuals of South, Central American, and Caribbean

extraction, migrant workers, and U.S.-Mexican border populations.

Consequences related studies:  Research in this area concentrates on

providing information on the impact that drug use has upon the

emotional and economic well-being of minority individuals, their

families, and communities.  Research on the interrelationship between

drug abuse and violence, including domestic violence among

ethnic/racial minority youth, school dropouts, gang members is

particularly encouraged.  Research in this program component may

include studies on the effects that drug abuse and related

criminality has upon the social and economic well-being of minority

neighborhoods.  Encouraged also are studies that investigate to what

extent drug use and drug dealing is responsible for violence reported

among ethnic/racial minority groups and other underserved





Applications for grants and cooperative agreements that involve human

subjects are required to include minorities and both genders in study

populations so that research findings can be of benefit to all

persons at risk of the disease, disorder, or condition under study;

special emphasis should be placed on the need for inclusion of

minorities and women in studies of diseases, disorders and conditions

which disproportionately affect them.  This policy applies to all

research involving human subjects and human materials, and applies to

males and females of all ages.  If one gender and/or minorities are

excluded or are inadequately represented in this research,

particularly in proposed population-based studies, a clear compelling

rationale for exclusion or inadequate representation should be

provided.  The composition of the proposed study population must be

described in terms of gender and racial/ethnic group, together with a

rationale for its choice.  In addition, gender and racial/ethnic

issues should be addressed in developing a research design and sample

size appropriate for the scientific objectives of the study.

Applicants are urged to assess carefully the feasibility of including

the broadest possible representation of minority groups.  However,

NIH recognizes that it may not be feasible or appropriate in all

research projects to include representation of the full array of

United States racial/ethnic minority populations (i.e., American

Indians or Alaskan Natives, Asians or Pacific Islanders, Blacks,

Hispanics).  Investigators must provide the rationale for studies on

single minority population groups.

Applications for support of research involving human subjects must

employ a study design with minority and/or gender representation (by

age distribution, risk factors, incidence/prevalence, etc.)

appropriate to the scientific objectives of the research.  It is not

an automatic requirement for the study design to provide statistical

power to answer the questions posed for men and women and

racial/ethnic groups separately; however, whenever there are

scientific reasons to anticipate differences between men and women,

and racial/ethnic groups, with regard to the hypothesis under

investigation, applicants should include an evaluation of these

gender and minority group differences in the proposed study.  If

adequate inclusion of one gender and/or minorities is impossible or

inappropriate with respect to the purpose of the research, because of

the health of the subjects, or other reasons, or if in the only study

population available, there is a disproportionate representation of

one gender or minority/majority group, the rationale for the study

population must be well explained and justified.

The NIH funding components will not make awards of grants,

cooperative agreements or contracts that do not comply with this

policy.  For research awards which are covered by this policy,

awardees will report annually on enrollment of women and men, and on

the race and ethnicity of subjects.


Applications are to be submitted on the grant application form PHS

398 (rev. 9/91) and will be accepted at the standard application

deadlines as indicated below and in the application kit.  The receipt

dates for applications for AIDS-related research are found in the PHS

398 instructions.

Application kits are available at most institutional business offices

or offices of sponsored research and may be obtained from the Office

of Grants Inquiries, Division of Research Grants, National Institutes

of Health, Westwood Building, Room 449, Bethesda, Maryland 20892,

telephone 301/496-7441.  The title and number of this announcement

must be typed in item 2a on the face page of the application for PHS


FIRST award applications must include at least three sealed letters

of reference attached to the face page of the original application.

FIRST award applications submitted without the required number of

reference letters will be considered incomplete and will be returned

without review.

The completed original and five legible copies of the application

form PHS 398 must be sent or delivered to:

Division of Research Grants

National Institutes of Health

Westwood Building, Room 240

Bethesda, MD  20892**


The Division of Research Grants, NIH, serves as a central point for

receipt of applications.  Applications will be assigned in accordance

with established Public Health Service referral guidelines and will

be reviewed by an initial review group (IRG) for scientific and

technical merit in accordance with the standard NIH peer review



Applications will compete for available funds with all other

applications recommended for further consideration and assigned to

the appropriate institute.  R03 applications do not receive a second

level review.  The following will be considered in making funding


o  Quality of the proposed project as determined by peer review

o  Availability of funds

o  Program balance among research areas of the announcement


Written and telephone inquiries are encouraged.  The opportunity to

clarify any issues or questions from potential applicants is welcome.

Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to:

Mario R. De La Rosa, Ph.D.

Division of Epidemiology and Prevention Research

National Institute on Drug Abuse

Rockwall II, Suite 615

5600 Fishers Lane

Rockville, MD  20857

Telephone:  (301) 443-2974

Direct inquiries regarding fiscal matters to:

Mrs. Shirley Denney

Grants Management Branch

National Institute on Drug Abuse

Parklawn Building, Room 8A54

5600 Fishers Lane

Rockville, MD  20857

Telephone:  (301) 443-6710


This program is described in the Catalog of Federal Domestic

Assistance No. 93.279.  Awards are made under the authority of

Section 301 of the Public Health Service Act (42 USC 241).  Federal

regulations at 42 CFR Part 52, "Grants for Research Projects," and

Title 45 CFR Parts 74 and 92, generic requirements concerning the

administration of grants, are applicable to these awards.  The

program is not subject to the intergovernmental review requirements

of Executive Order 12372 or Health Systems Agency review.


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