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PA-06-055: Bioengineering Approaches to Energy Balance and Obesity (SBIR [R43/R44])
Part I Overview Information

Department of Health and Human Services

Participating Organizations
National Institutes of Health (NIH), (http://www.nih.gov)

Components of Participating Organizations
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), (http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov)
National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), (http://www.nibib.nih.gov)
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), (http://www.niddk.nih.gov)
National Cancer Institute (NCI), (http://www.nci.nih.gov)
National Institute on Aging (NIA), (http://www.nia.nih.gov)

Title: Bioengineering Approaches to Energy Balance and Obesity (SBIR [R43/R44])

Announcement Type
This is a reissue of PA-04-156 which was previously released September 3, 2004, and now is divided into separate announcements for SBIR and STTR funding mechanisms.

Update: The following update relating to this announcement has been issued:

NOTICE: Applications submitted in response to this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) for Federal assistance must be submitted electronically through Grants.gov (http://www.grants.gov) using the SF424 (R&R forms and the Grants.gov SBIR/STTR Application Instruction Guide.


This FOA must be read in conjunction with the application guidelines included with this announcement in Grants.gov/Apply for Grants (hereafter called Grants.gov/Apply)

A registration process is necessary before submission and should be started at least two weeks in advance of the planned submission. See Section IV.

Two steps are required for on time submission:

1) The application must be submitted to grants.gov by the submission date (see Key Dates below)

2) Applicants must complete a verification step in the eRA Commons within two business days of notification from NIH. Note: Since email can be unreliable, it is the responsibility of the applicant to periodically check the Commons.

ProgramAnnouncement (PA) Number: PA-06-055

Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Number(s)
93.837, 93.286, 93.847, 93.848, 93.393, 93.399, 93.866

Key Dates
Release Date: November 25, 2005
Opening Date:  November 25, 2005 (Earliest date an application may be submitted to Grants.gov)
Letters of Intent Receipt Date(s): Not Applicable
Application Submission Dates(s): Standard dates apply through August 1, 2007, please see https://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/submissionschedule.htm#SBIR for details.
AIDS Application Submission Dates(s): See https://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/submissionschedule.htm#AIDS.
Peer Review Date(s): Standard dates apply, please see https://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/submissionschedule.htm#reviewandaward  for details.
Council Review Date(s): Standard dates apply, please see https://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/submissionschedule.htm#reviewandaward  for details.
Earliest Anticipated Start Date: See https://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/submissionschedule.htm#reviewandaward.
Additional Information To Be Available Date (Activation Date): Not Applicable
Expiration Date:  August 6, 2007

Due Dates for E.O. 12372
Not Applicable

Additional Overview Content

Executive Summary

Table of Contents

Part I Overview Information

Part II Full Text of Announcement

Section I. Funding Opportunity Description
    1. Research Objectives

Section II. Award Information
    1. Mechanism of Support
    2. Funds Available

Section III. Eligibility Information
      1. Eligible Applicants
          A. Eligible Institutions
            B. Eligible Individuals
    2.Cost Sharing or Matching
    3. Other - Special Eligibility Criteria

Section IV. Application and Submission Information
 1. Request Application Information
 2. Content and Form of Application Submission
 3. Submission Dates and Times
   A. Submission Review and Anticipated Start Dates
     1. Letter of Intent
   B. Sending an Application to the NIH
   C. Application Processing
 4. Intergovernmental Review
 5. Funding Restrictions
 6. Other Submission Requirements

Section V. Application Review Information
 1. Criteria
 2. Review and Selection Process
   A. Additional Review Criteria
   B. Additional Review Considerations
   C. Sharing Research Data
   D. Sharing Research Resources
 3. Anticipated Announcement and Award Dates

Section VI. Award Administration Information
 1. Award Notices
 2. Administrative and National Policy Requirements
 3. Reporting

Section VII. Agency Contact(s)
 1. Scientific/Research Contact(s)
 2. Peer Review Contact(s)
 3. Financial/ Grants Management Contact(s)

Section VIII. Other Information - Required Federal Citations

Part II - Full Text of Announcement

Section I. Funding Opportunity Description

1. Research Objectives

The objective of this FOA is to encourage and enable engineers and scientists at small businesses to develop and evaluate new technologies, instrumentation, and medical devices to better assess appropriate biomedical parameters and provide feedback and/or therapy to reduce the prevalence of obesity and overweight.  Development of new technologies and application of existing technologies may be proposed.  Studies may include use of animal models and/or human participants, but are not required to do so. If appropriate, plans for manufacturing and clinical evaluation of developed instrumentation and medical devices should be included in the application.

Applications are encouraged that represent scientific and technical expertise and collaborations from fields such as biomedical engineering, computer sciences, physics, human and animal nutrition, aging, exercise sciences, behavioral sciences, medicine, biochemistry, and biotechnology.

The purpose of this FOA is to solicit applications to develop and validate new and innovative bioengineering technology to address clinical problems related to energy balance, intake, and expenditure. Novel sensors, devices, imaging, and other approaches are expected to be developed and evaluated by collaborating engineers, physical scientists, and scientists from other relevant disciplines with expertise in obesity and nutrition. The goal is to increase the number of useful technologies and tools available to scientists to facilitate their research in energy balance and health. Eventually these research tools should facilitate therapeutic advances and behavioral changes to address such problems as weight control and obesity.

Public Health Need

Obesity is a problem of energy balance, wherein adipose tissue stores accumulate to excess levels when expenditure does not keep up with intake. At present, approximately 65% of American adults are either overweight (greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2) or obese (greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2), and approximately 15% of American children are similarly categorized (by age-adjusted percentiles of weight for height).  This situation reflects the high energy efficiency of American life, where little physical effort is needed for work and recreation, and where the national diet is abundant in low-cost, energy-dense food.  Popular approaches to weight control have been generally unsuccessful, despite constant publicity about the problem and considerable individual efforts at weight loss. 

The health consequences of obesity (e.g., diabetes, cancer, heart disease) are predicted to grow worse. Type 2 diabetes rates are rising in adults and children, and a substantial increase in morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease is expected. Furthermore, obesity has been linked to the development of several types of cancer.  Ultimately, resolution of the obesity epidemic at the population level will depend on individual behavioral change that takes place within the larger societal environment.  Such changes may be facilitated through better medical therapies.  However, technologies and tools to more easily monitor behavior and achieve treatment goals are also needed.

Conversely, inadvertent weight loss (cachexia) is also of high concern, particularly in the aging population.  Cachexia represents a situation of persistent negative energy balance that often is accompanied by disproportionate loss of muscle tissue, weakness, and steady deterioration of physical function.  Aged individuals are less likely than younger persons to be able to restore body weight after a period of impaired intake, perhaps due to aging-related blunting of compensatory effects on appetite.  Overall, little is known about how best to reverse cachexia once it develops; methods for detecting the onset of such periods would be useful.  Cachectic states also are common among patients with advanced stages of chronic diseases such as heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer.

Aging poses additional interesting questions related to energy balance and its assessment.   When studying these, one must distinguish between the normal biology of aging, as opposed to age-associated ailments that are part of the health and social experience of the aged population.  Even relatively healthy, high functioning individuals will experience age-related declines in metabolic rate, muscle mass, energy intake, energy expenditure. However many aged individuals are characterized by existing poor function, an ever-increasing propensity to adverse unpredictable events (such as falls and sudden illness), and impaired response to such events.  Prediction of the propensity to such events, and detection of early stages of impaired adaptive responses, is needed in order to preserve functional capacity.      

Clearly, the ability to measure states of energy balance and its various components, such as dietary intake, resting metabolism, and physical activity, is a critical public health need.  However, this is remarkably difficult to achieve in satisfactory fashion, and the inconvenience, expense, and relative inaccuracy of current methods are a persistent and serious barrier to progress.  Engineering approaches have the potential to overcome these limitations, but represent a relatively untapped area of scientific expertise for tackling the research issues and practical aspects of the obesity epidemic.  Emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology, also offer unique opportunities for interfacing with engineering approaches to help address some of the problems in obesity research.  

Challenged in Measuring Energy Balance

Assessment of human energy balance, the net difference between energy intake (by diet) and expenditure (by work and heat), is a key component of obesity research, prevention, and treatment.  The importance of accurate measurement of states of energy balance can be appreciated by considering average weight gain in middle-aged adults (~10 lb/decade).  This significant gain in weight results from very small, persistent excesses of intake over expenditure of approximately 0.3% of the daily calorie consumption.  This imbalance is well below the level of perception for most individuals.  Similarly, energy expenditure from physical activity must be quantified accurately in order to understand the dose effects of exercise on body weight and other aspects of health, such as blood pressure.  Weight loss programs often include ~5% increments of expenditure and ~20% decrements of intake.  Research on the degree of increased activity or dietary changes that include energy reduction necessary for weight loss suggests that objective measurable differences can be undetectable, even if reported behavior varies between groups.  At present, apart from body weight, objective measures of achievement of behavioral goals related to weight control is difficult.

To overcome the limitations of current methods to assess energy balance and control weight, innovative approaches are needed.  The problems associated with measuring and monitoring components of human energy balance present unique opportunities for engineers with expertise in the disciplines of thermodynamics, mechanics, heat transfer, instrumentation, imaging, and design. By collaborating with obesity researchers, such engineers, especially those with biomedical backgrounds, may develop the novel approaches to successfully address the problem of obesity.

Each component of the energy balance equation presents unique challenges.  For example, the difficulty of ascertaining food intake with acceptable levels of accuracy is well known to nutritionists.  The standard self-report questionnaire and recall techniques can provide valuable data on dietary patterns, and have been improved by electronic information technologies and by judicious use of results from cognitive process research.  Nevertheless, these techniques are time-consuming and inconvenient.  Furthermore, considerable under-reporting of total energy intake is typical, with this error more severe in overweight than non-overweight individuals.  At the other extreme of precision and cost is the research technique (also occasionally used in therapeutic situations) of providing a controlled diet with all food intake observed and defined by chemical analysis.  Use of these techniques is severely limited by their high cost and limited applicability because of the population samples typically enrolled and the highly controlled conditions used. Therefore, new and improved methods of determining energy intake are critically needed for research as well as practical purposes.

Measuring the various modes of physical activity is difficult as well, particularly outside the laboratory.  Devices must be convenient, cost-effective, suitable for short-term and habitual activity, and valid for an array of circumstances and states of health and fitness.  None of the available methods (pedometers, accelerometers, electronic load transducers, foot contact time monitors, heart rate monitoring) is fully satisfactory, because they only capture a fraction of needed information.  They do not yield data that are easily understood, particularly by the lay public, nor can they easily detect changes in behavior, except for the pedometer, which yields data in terms of steps and can foster behavior change (i.e., more walking).  In addition, the data yielded by these devices do not readily translate into calories expended over the entire course of a day, which must be compared with energy from food intake to obtain an estimate of energy balance.  Therefore, there is a problem of inter-converting measurements of energy expenditure and intake into the same units as food intake.

Assessment of states of total energy balance also is a critical research need.  Recently improved research tools include small or portable indirect calorimeters for short-term expenditure measurements during physical tasks, room calorimeters with floor mounted force plates to study movement energetics, and global positioning system (GPS) transponders to track outdoor activity patterns.  Doubly-labeled water is valuable for determining total expenditure but is expensive, involves stable isotopes, and only is suitable for basic research.  Nevertheless, we need to be able to accurately, precisely, and directly measure whether an individual is in energy balance, deficit, or excess, and to translate the results into everyday behavior.  The overall state of body energy stores also cannot be easily ascertained, particularly at the individual level, because data outputs are usually based on group-derived algorithms.  However, there has been some recent progress in techniques used to estimate energy stores (e.g., bioelectric impedance for percent body fat, MRI-quantified adipose depots to define metabolically active compartments).

Such imaging and sensor technologies will also be beneficial to the elderly. In this population, such tools are needed to assess rates of change in total energy intake, balance, and expenditure, and in the size and function of multiple metabolic compartments (especially muscle mass), over relatively long intervals and in response to rare but cumulative events.  These technologies need to be able to distinguish between changes related to the physiological process of aging, as opposed to age-associated ailments and other changes reflecting the health and social experience of the aged population.  Any methodology used for the elderly population must accommodate a spectrum of functioning ranging from the unusually fit, to typical level, to the frail. Also, the information gathered should be translatable to research and/or practical applications related to preservation or impairment of ability to undertake activities of daily living.  Assessment techniques and data analysis methods need to be able to distinguish between true capacity vs. elicited performance; these are highly variable among the aged, and are unusually susceptible to measurement biases and errors.  Human factors issues are particularly important for the elderly population, and must acknowledge participant burdens related to time (including that of caregivers/assistants), transportation, cognitive capacity and effort, discomfort, and physical capabilities (such as vision, hearing, strength, mobility). 

In conclusion, most techniques for measuring either side of the energy equation are costly, cumbersome, and suitable primarily for research use.  They do not address the critical issue of overall energy balance, nor do they take advantage of new knowledge of biochemical markers.  Moreover, the available devices are not sufficiently precise or specific for guiding individual behavior, and their measurement errors may be greater than the treatment effect.  Devices designed for use by the public are particularly hampered by these problems. At present, we do not have the equivalent of a "magic wristwatch" that can readily convey whether the wearer has exceeded an intake goal or fallen short on expenditure.  New approaches might provide accurate, convenient, easily understood, and inexpensive devices to foster research and improve clinical management of adults and children.

The greatest scientific need is for improved ways to achieve short- and long-term measurement of total energy intake, expenditure, exchange, and balance, and components thereof (e.g., resting and basal metabolic rate, physical activity, thermic effect of food) under various physiologic conditions and activities, including work, sleep, and leisure activity, and related body composition and metabolic compartments.  The use of micro-electro-mechanical systems for biomedical applications (BioMEMs) to measure appropriate biomarkers of energy balance may be of great benefit to assessing energy balance. Since many materials exhibit novel and unique properties at the nano level, their use might represent a new approach for precise measurements of energy status and metabolic activity. 

Research Topics

Research topics are intended to provide a perspective on the scope of research that would meet the objectives of this program. It is not required that all or any of these topics be included. Applicants are encouraged to consider other topics that are relevant to the goals of this FOA. Examples of research topics include:

See Section VIII, Other Information - Required Federal Citations, for policies related to this announcement.

Section II. Award Information

1. Mechanism(s) of Support

This funding opportunity will use the SBIR (R43/R44) grant mechanisms. Applications may be submitted for support as Phase I, Phase II or Fast-Track grants as described in the SF424 (R&R) SBIR/STTR Application Guide (MS Word or PDF).

A parallel funding opportunity announcement of identical scientific scope, “Bioengineering Approaches to Energy Balance and Obesity(PA-06-056) utilizes the Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR [R41/R42]) grant mechanism. Applicants may not simultaneously submit identical/essentially identical applications under both this funding opportunity and another HHS FOA, including the SBIR or STTR Parent FOAs (see Small Business Funding Opportunities web page).

Phase II applications in response to this funding opportunity will only be accepted as competing renewals (formerly “competing continuations”) of previously funded Phase I SBIR awards. The Phase II must be a logical extension of the Phase I research but not necessarily as a Phase I project supported in response to this funding opportunity.

The applicant SBC will be solely responsible for planning, directing, and executing the proposed project. Future unsolicited, competing renewal applications based on this project will compete with all SBIR applications and will be reviewed according to the customary peer review procedures. Applications that are not funded in the competition described in this FOA may be submitted as RESUBMISSION applications through Grants.gov Apply using the standard NIH SBIR receipt dates of April 1, August 1, and December 1 (or January 2, May 1, and September 1 for AIDS and AIDS-related SBIR applications).

This funding opportunity uses just-in-time concepts. The modular budget format is no longer accepted for SBIR grant applications. Applicants must complete and submit budget requests using the Research and Related budget component found in the application package attached to this announcement in Grants.gov Apply.

2. Funds Available

The SF424 (R&R) SBIR/STTR Application Guide (MS Word or PDF) indicates the statutory guidelines of funding support and project duration periods for SBIR Phase I and Phase II awards. For this funding opportunity, budgets up to $250,000 total costs per year and time periods up to 2 years for Phase I may be requested. Budgets up to $1,000,000 total costs per year and up to 3 years may be requested for Phase II. Total costs include direct costs, F&A, and fee/profit.

Section III. Eligibility Information

1. Eligible Applicants

1.A. Eligible Institutions

Only United States small business concerns (SBCs) are eligible to submit SBIR applications. A small business concern is one that, at the time of award for both Phase I and Phase II awards, meets all of the following criteria:

  1. Is independently owned and operated, is not dominant in the field of operation in which it is proposing, has a place of business in the United States and operates primarily within the United States or makes a significant contribution to the US economy, and is organized for profit.

  2. Is (a) at least 51% owned and controlled by one or more individuals who are citizens of, or permanent resident aliens in, the United States, or (b) for SBIR only, it must be a for-profit business concern that is at least 51% owned and controlled by another for-profit business concern that is at least 51% owned and controlled by one or more individuals who are citizens of, or permanent resident aliens in, the United States.

  3. Has, including its affiliates, an average number of employees for the preceding 12 months not exceeding 500, and meets the other regulatory requirements found in 13 C.F.R. Part 121. Business concerns are generally considered to be affiliates of one another when either directly or indirectly, (a) one concern controls or has the power to control the other; or (b) a third-party/parties controls or has the power to control both.

Control can be exercised through common ownership, common management, and contractual relationships. The term "affiliates" is defined in greater detail in 13 C.F.R. 121.103. The term "number of employees" is defined in 13 C.F.R. 121.106.

A business concern may be in the form of an individual proprietorship, partnership, limited liability company, corporation, joint venture, association, trust, or cooperative. Further information may be obtained at http://sba.gov/size, or by contacting the Small Business Administration's Government Contracting Area Office or Office of Size Standards.

One of the circumstances that would lead to a finding that an organization is controlling or has the power to control another organization involves sharing common office space and/or employees and/or other facilities (e.g., laboratory space). Access to special facilities or equipment in another organization is permitted (as in cases where the awardee organization has entered into a subcontractual agreement with another organization for a specific, limited portion of the research project). However, research space occupied by an SBIR awardee organization must be space that is available to and under the control of the SBIR awardee for the conduct of its portion of the proposed project.

Title 13 C.F.R. 121.3 also states that control or the power to control exists when “key employees of one concern organize a new concern ... and serve as its officers, directors, principal stockholders, and/or key employees, and one concern is furnishing or will furnish the other concern with subcontracts, financial or technical assistance, and/or other facilities, whether for a fee or otherwise.” Where there is indication of sharing of common employees, a determination will be made on a case-by-case basis of whether such sharing constitutes control or the power to control.

For purposes of the SBIR program, personnel obtained through a Professional Employer Organization or other similar personnel leasing company may be considered employees of the awardee. This is consistent with SBA’s size regulations, 13C.F.R. 121.106 – Small Business Size Regulations.

All SBIR grant applications will be examined with the above eligibility considerations in mind. If it appears that an applicant organization does not meet the eligibility requirements, NIH will request a size determination by the SBA. If eligibility is unclear, NIH will not make an SBIR award until the SBA provides a determination.  

1.B. Eligible Individuals

Any individual with the skills, knowledge, and resources necessary to carry out the proposed research is invited to work with their organization to develop an application for support. Individuals from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups as well as individuals with disabilities are always encouraged to apply for NIH programs.

Under the SBIR program, for both Phase I and Phase II, the primary employment of the Project Director/Principal Investigator (PD/PI) must be with the small business concern at the time of award and during the conduct of the proposed project. Primary employment means that more than one half of the PD/PI’s time is spent in the employ of the small business concern. Primary employment with a small business concern precludes full-time employment at another organization. Occasionally, deviations from this requirement may occur. Such deviations must be approved in writing by the grants management officer after consultation with the NIH SBIR/STTR Program Coordinator.

As defined in 42 C.F.R. 52, the PD/PI is the “single individual designated by the grantee in the grant application … who is responsible for the scientific and technical direction of the project.” When the proposed PD/PI clearly does not have sufficient qualifications to assume this role, the application is not likely to receive a favorable evaluation.

If the application has the likelihood for funding, the awarding component will require documentation to verify the eligibility of the PD/PI, if at the time of submission of the application, the PD/PI is a less-than-full-time employee of the small business concern, is concurrently employed by another organization, or gives the appearance of being concurrently employed by another organization, whether for a paid or unpaid position.

If the PD/PI is employed or appears to be employed by an organization other than the applicant organization in a capacity such as Research Fellow, Consultant, Adjunct Professor, Clinical Professor, Clinical Research Professor, or Associate, a letter must be provided by each employing organization confirming that, if an SBIR grant is awarded to the applicant small business concern, the PD/PI is or will become a less-than-half-time employee of such organization and will remain so for the duration of the SBIR project. If the PD/PI is employed by a university, such a letter must be provided by the Dean's office or equivalent; for other organizations, the letter must be signed by a corporate official.

This requirement applies also to those individuals engaged currently as the PD/PI on an active SBIR project. All current employment and all other appointments of the PD/PI must be identified in his or her “Biographical Sketch” required as part of the application. Be certain that correct beginning and ending dates are indicated for each employment record listed.

2. Cost Sharing or Matching
This program does not require cost sharing as defined in the current NIH Grants Policy Statement.

3. Other-Special Eligibility Criteria

The NIH will accept as many "different" applications as the applicant organization chooses. However, the NIH will not accept similar grant applications with essentially the same research focus from the same applicant organization. This includes derivative or multiple applications that propose to develop a single product, process or service that, with non-substantive modifications, can be applied to a variety of purposes. Likewise, identical or essentially identical grant applications submitted by different applicant organizations will not be accepted. Applicants may not simultaneously submit identical/essentially identical applications under both this funding opportunity and another HHS FOA, including the HHS Parent STTR (see Small Business Funding Opportunities web page).

Section IV. Application and Submission Information

Registration and Instructions for Submission via Grants.gov

To download an Application Package and Instructions for completing the SF424 Research and Related (R&R) Forms for this FOA, link to http://www.grants.gov/Apply/ and follow the directions provided on that site.

A one-time registration is required for institutions at both:

PD/PIs should work with their institutions/organizations to make sure they are registered in the NIH Commons.

Several additional separate actions are required before an applicant SBC can submit an application through Grants.gov. See "Preparing for Electronic Submission" at http://era.nih.gov/ElectronicReceipt/preparing.htm.

Several of the steps of the registration process could take up to two weeks. Therefore, applicants should immediately check with their business official to determine whether their small business is already registered in both Grants.gov and the Commons.

1. Request Application Information

Applicants must download the SF424 (R&R) application forms and instructions for this FOA through the Grants.gov Apply http://www.grants.gov/Apply Web site.

Note: Only the forms package directly attached to a specific FOA can be used. You will not be able to use any other SF424 (R&R) forms (e.g., sample forms, forms from another FOA), although some of the "Attachment" files may be useable for more than one FOA.

For further assistance contact GrantsInfo, Telephone (301) 710-0267, Email: GrantsInfo@nih.gov.

Telecommunications for the hearing impaired: TTY 301-451-5936.

2. Content and Form of Application Submission

Prepare all SBIR applications using the using the SF424 (R&R) application forms and SF424 (R&R) SBIR/STTR Application Guide (MS Word or PDF) instructions.

The SF424 (R&R) application is comprised of data arranged in separate components. Some components are required, others are optional. The forms package associated with this announcement in Grants.gov APPLY will include all applicable components, required and optional. A completed application in response to this announcement will include the following components:

Required Components:

SF424 (R&R) (Cover component)
Research & Related Project/Performance Site Locations
Research & Related Other Project Information
Research & Related Senior/Key Person
Research & Related Budget

PHS398 Cover Page Supplement
PHS398 Research Plan
PHS398 Checklist
SBIR/STTR Information

Optional Components:

PHS398 Cover Letter File
Research & Related Subaward Budget Form

3. Submission Dates and Times
See Section IV.3.A for details.

3.A. Submission, Review and Anticipated Start Dates

Opening Date:  November 7, 2005
Letter of Intent Receipt Date:  Not Applicable
Application Submission Date(s): https://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/submissionschedule.htm
AIDS Application Submission Dates(s): https://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/submissionschedule.htm#AIDS
Peer Review Date: https://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/submissionschedule.htm
Council Review Date: https://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/submissionschedule.htm
Earliest Anticipated Start Date: https://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/submissionschedule.htm

3.A.1. Letter of Intent
A letter of intent is not required for the funding opportunity.

3.B. Sending an Application to the NIH

Applications in response to this FOA may only be submitted to Grants.gov through Grants.gov Apply and follow steps 1-4.

3.C. Application Processing

Applications may be submitted to Grants.gov on or after November 7, 2005 (i.e., the Open Date on Grants.gov) and must be submitted no later than 5:00 p.m. local time (of the applicant institution/organization) on the application submission date described above (Section IV.3.A.). If an application is not submitted by that date, the application may be delayed in the review process or not reviewed.

Upon receipt, applications will be transferred from Grants.gov to the NIH Electronic Research Administration process for validation. Both the PD/PI and the Signing Official for the organization must verify the submission via Commons within 2 business days of notification of the NIH validation.

Upon receipt applications will be evaluated for completeness by CSR. Incomplete applications will not be reviewed.

The NIH will not accept any application in response to this FOA that is essentially the same as one currently pending initial merit review unless the applicant withdraws the pending application. The NIH will not accept any application that is essentially the same as one already reviewed. This does not preclude the submission of an application already reviewed with substantial changes, but such application must include an Introduction addressing the previous critique. Note such an application is considered a "resubmission" for the SF424 (R&R).

There will be an acknowledgement of receipt of applications from Grants.gov and the Commons. Information related to the assignment of an application to a Scientific Review Group is also in the Commons.

4. Intergovernmental Review
This initiative is not subject to intergovernmental review.

5. Funding Restrictions

All NIH awards are subject to the terms and conditions, cost principles, and other considerations described in the NIH Grants Policy Statement (https://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/policy.htm).

Pre-Award Costs are allowable. A grantee may, at its own risk and without NIH prior approval, incur obligations and expenditures to cover costs up to 90 days before the beginning date of the initial budget period of a new or competing renewal award if such costs: are necessary to conduct the project, and would be allowable under the grant, if awarded, without NIH prior approval. If specific expenditures would otherwise require prior approval, the grantee must obtain NIH approval before incurring the cost. NIH prior approval is required for any costs to be incurred more than 90 days before the beginning date of the initial budget period of a new or competing renewal award.

The incurrence of pre-award costs in anticipation of a competing or non-competing award imposes no obligation on NIH either to make the award or to increase the amount of the approved budget if an award is made for less than the amount anticipated and is inadequate to cover the pre-award costs incurred. NIH expects the grantee to be fully aware that pre-award costs result in borrowing against future support and that such borrowing must not impair the grantee's ability to accomplish the project objectives in the approved time frame or in any way adversely affect the conduct of the project. See NIH Grants Policy Statement https://grants.nih.gov/archive/grants/policy/nihgps_2003/index.htm.

6. Other Submission Requirements

Annual Investigator Meetings: Upon initiation of the program, all participating ICs will sponsor joint annual meetings to encourage the exchange of information among investigators who participate in this program, perhaps in conjunction with other Institute sponsored stem cell programs. In the preparation of the budget for the grant application, applicants should include travel funds for the one meeting each year to be held in Bethesda, Maryland. Applicants should also include a statement in the applications indicating their willingness to participate in such meetings.

All application instructions outlined in the SF424 (R&R) SBIR/STTR Application Guide (MS Word or PDF) are to be followed, with the following requirements.

Note: While each section of the Research Plan needs to eventually be uploaded separately as a PDF attachment, applicants are encouraged to construct the Research Plan as a single document, separating sections into distinct PDF attachments just before uploading the files. This approach will enable applicants to better monitor formatting requirements such as page limits.

SBIR Phase I applications:

SBIR Phase II applications:

SBIR Fast-Track applications

Plan for Sharing Research Data

Applicants requesting $500,000 or more in direct costs in any year should include a brief one paragraph description of how final research data will be shared, or explain why data-sharing is not possible. The specific nature of the data to be collected will determine whether or not the final dataset may be shared. If the final data are not amenable to sharing, for example, if they are proprietary, this must be explained in the application. The Small Business Act requires NIH to protect from disclosure and nongovernmental use all SBIR and STTR data developed from work performed under an SBIR and STTR funding agreement for a period of 4 years after the closeout of either a Phase I or Phase II grant unless NIH obtains permission from the awardee to disclose these data. The data rights protection period lapses only upon expiration of the protection period applicable to the SBIR and STTR award, or by agreement between the small business concern and NIH. Applicants are encouraged to discuss their data-sharing plan with the Institute/Center staff likely to accept assignment of their application.

The reasonableness of the data sharing plan or the rationale for not sharing research data may be assessed by the reviewers. However, reviewers will not factor the proposed data sharing plan into the determination of scientific merit or the priority score. For more information on data sharing see https://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/data_sharing/ and https://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/data_sharing/data_sharing_faqs.htm. (See FAQ #13.)

Sharing Research Resources

NIH policy requires that grant awardee recipients make unique research resources readily available for research purposes to qualified individuals within the scientific community after publication (NIH Grants Policy Statement https://grants.nih.gov/archive/archive/grants/policy/nihgps_2003/index.htm and https://grants.nih.gov/archive/grants/policy/nihgps_2003/index.htm#_Toc54600131). Investigators responding to this funding opportunity should include a plan for sharing research resources addressing how unique research resources will be shared or explain why sharing is not possible.

The adequacy of the resources sharing plan and any related data sharing plans will be considered by Program staff of the funding organization when making recommendations about funding applications. The effectiveness of the resource sharing will be evaluated as part of the administrative review of each non-competing Grant Progress Report (PHS 2590, https://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/2590/2590.htm). See Section VI.3. Reporting.

Section V. Application Review Information

1. Criteria
Only the review criteria described below will be considered in the review process.

2. Review and Selection Process

Applications submitted for this funding opportunity will be assigned to the ICs on the basis of established PHS referral guidelines.

Appropriate scientific review groups convened in accordance with the standard NIH peer review procedures (http://www.csr.nih.gov/refrev.htm) will evaluate applications for scientific and technical merit.

As part of the initial merit review, all applications will:

Applications submitted in response to this funding opportunity will compete for available funds with all other recommended SBIR applications. The following will be considered in making funding decisions:

The goals of NIH-supported research are to advance our understanding of biological systems, improve the control of disease, and enhance health. In the written comments, reviewers will be asked to discuss the following aspects of the application in order to judge the likelihood that the proposed research will have a substantial impact on the pursuit of these goals. The scientific review group will address and consider each of these criteria in assigning the application's overall score, weighting them as appropriate for each application.

The application does not need to be strong in all categories to be judged likely to have major scientific impact and thus deserve a high priority score.

All SBIR Applications

Significance: Does the proposed project have commercial potential to lead to a marketable product, process or service? Does this study address an important problem? What may be the anticipated commercial and societal benefits that may be derived from the proposed research? If the aims of the application are achieved, how will scientific knowledge or clinical practice be advanced? What will be the effect of these studies on the concepts, methods, technologies, treatments, services, or preventative interventions that drive this field? Does the application lead to enabling technologies (e.g., instrumentation, software) for further discoveries? Will the technology have a competitive advantage over existing/alternate technologies that can meet the market needs?

Approach: Are the conceptual or clinical framework, design, methods, and analyses adequately developed, well-integrated, and appropriate to the aims of the project? Is the proposed plan a sound approach for establishing technical and commercial feasibility? Does the applicant acknowledge potential problem areas and consider alternative strategies? Are the milestones and evaluation procedures appropriate?

Innovation: Are the aims original and innovative? Does the project challenge existing paradigms or clinical practice; address an innovative hypothesis or critical barrier to progress in the field? Does the project develop or employ novel concepts, approaches, methodologies, tools, or technologies for this area?

Investigator: Is the principal investigator appropriately trained and capable of coordinating and managing the proposed SBIR? Are the investigators well suited to carry out this work? Does the investigative team bring complementary and integrated expertise to the project (if applicable)? Is the work proposed appropriate to the experience level of the principal investigator and other researchers, including consultants and subcontractors (if any)? Are the relationships of the key personnel to the small business and to other institutions appropriate for the work proposed?

Environment: Is there sufficient access to resources (e.g., equipment, facilities)? Does the scientific and technological environment in which the work will be done contribute to the probability of success? Do the proposed studies benefit from unique features of the scientific environment, or subject populations, or employ useful collaborative arrangements? Is there evidence of institutional support?

Phase II Applications
In addition to the above review criteria:

1. How well did the applicant demonstrate progress toward meeting the Phase I objectives, demonstrating feasibility, and providing a solid foundation for the proposed Phase II activity?

2. Did the applicant submit a concise Commercialization Plan that adequately addresses the specific areas described in the SF424 (R&R) SBIR/STTR Application Guide (MS Word or PDF) and the SBIR/STTR Information Component?

3. Does the project carry a high degree of commercial potential, as described in the Commercialization Plan?

Resubmission Applications (formerly “amended” applications)

In addition to the above criteria, the following criteria will be applied to resubmission applications.

1. Are the responses to comments from the previous SRG review adequate?

2. Are the improvements in the revised application appropriate?

Phase I/Phase II Fast-Track Application Review Criteria
For Phase I/Phase II Fast Track applications, the following criteria also will be applied:

1. Does the Phase I application specify clear, appropriate, measurable goals (milestones) that should be achieved prior to initiating Phase II?

2. Did the applicant submit a concise Commercialization Plan that adequately addresses the specific areas described in the SF424 (R&R) SBIR/STTR Application Guide (MS Word or PDF) and the SBIR/STTR Information Component?

3. To what extent was the applicant able to obtain letters of interest, additional funding commitments, and/or resources from the private sector or non-SBIR funding sources that would enhance the likelihood for commercialization?

4. Does the project carry a high degree of commercial potential, as described in the Commercialization Plan?

Phase I and Phase II Fast-Track applications that satisfy all of the review criteria will receive a single rating.

For Fast-Track applications, the Phase II portion may not be funded until a Phase I final report and other documents necessary for continuation have been received and assessed by program staff that the Phase I milestones have been successfully achieved. Items 2-5 of the Research Plan may not exceed 25 pages. That is, the combined Phase I and Phase II plans for a Fast-track application (for items 2-5) must be contained within the 25-page limit.

2.A. Additional Review Criteria:

In addition to the above criteria, the following items will continue to be considered in the determination of scientific merit and the priority score:

Protection of Human Subjects from Research Risk: The involvement of human subjects and protections from research risk relating to their participation in the proposed research will be assessed. See item 6 of the Research Plan component of the SF424 (R&R).

Inclusion of Women, Minorities and Children in Research: The adequacy of plans to include subjects from both genders, all racial and ethnic groups (and subgroups), and children as appropriate for the scientific goals of the research will be assessed. Plans for the recruitment and retention of subjects will also be evaluated.  See item 7 of the Research Plan component of the SF424 (R&R).

Care and Use of Vertebrate Animals in Research: If vertebrate animals are to be used in the project, the five items described under item 11 of the Research Plan component of the SF 424 (R&R) will be assessed.

Biohazards: If materials or procedures are proposed that are potentially hazardous to research personnel and/or the environment, determine if the proposed protection is adequate.

2.B. Additional Review Considerations

Budget: The reasonableness of the proposed budget and the requested period of support in relation to the proposed research may be assessed by the reviewers. Is the percent effort listed for the PD/PI appropriate for the work proposed? Is each budget category realistic and justified in terms of the aims and methods?

Period of Support: The appropriateness of the requested period of support in relation to the proposed research.

2.C. Sharing Research Data

The reasonableness of the data sharing plan or the rationale for not sharing research data may be assessed by the reviewers. However, reviewers will not factor the proposed data sharing plan into the determination of scientific merit or the priority score. The funding organization will be responsible for monitoring the data sharing policy. https://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/data_sharing and https://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/data_sharing/data_sharing_faqs.htm. (See FAQ #13.)  

2.D. Sharing Research Resources

NIH policy requires that grant awardee recipients make unique research resources readily available for research purposes to qualified individuals within the scientific community after publication (See the NIH Grants Policy Statement https://grants.nih.gov/archive/grants/policy/nihgps/part_ii_5.htm#availofrr and http://www.ott.nih.gov/policy/rt_guide_final.html). Investigators responding to this funding opportunity should include a sharing research resources plan addressing how unique research resources will be shared or explain why sharing is not possible.

Program staff will be responsible for the administrative review of the plan for sharing research resources.

The adequacy of the resources sharing plan will be considered by Program staff of the funding organization when making recommendations about funding applications. Program staff may negotiate modifications of the data and resource sharing plans with the awardee before recommending funding of an application. The final version of the data and resource sharing plans negotiated by both will become a condition of the award of the grant. The effectiveness of the resource sharing will be evaluated as part of the administrative review of each Non-Competing Grant Progress Report (PHS 2590). See Section VI.3. Reporting.

3. Anticipated Announcement and Award Dates
Not Applicable

Section VI. Award Administration Information

1. Award Notices

If the application is under consideration for funding, NIH will request "just-in-time" information from the applicant. For details, applicants may refer to the NIH Grants Policy Statement Part II: Terms and Conditions of NIH Grant Awards, Subpart A: General (https://grants.nih.gov/archive/grants/policy/nihgps_2003/index.htm).

A formal notification in the form of a Notice of Award (NoA) will be provided to the applicant organization. The NoA signed by the grants management officer is the authorizing document. Once all administrative and programmatic issues have been resolved, the NoA will be generated via email notification from the awarding component to the grantee business official.

Selection of an application for award is not an authorization to begin performance. Any costs incurred before receipt of the NoA are at the recipient's risk. These costs may be reimbursed only to the extent considered allowable pre-award costs. See Also Section IV.5. Funding Restrictions.

2. Administrative and National Policy Requirements

All NIH grant and cooperative agreement awards include the NIH Grants Policy Statement as part of the Notice of Award. For these terms of award, see the NIH Grants Policy Statement Part II: Terms and Conditions of NIH Grant Awards, Subpart A: General and Part II: Terms and Conditions of NIH Grant Awards, Subpart B: Terms and Conditions for Specific Types of Grants, Grantees, and Activities.

3. Reporting

Awardees will be required to submit the PHS Non-Competing Grant Progress Report, Form 2590 annually (https://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/2590/2590.htm) and financial statements as required in the NIH Grants Policy Statement.

Section VII. Agency Contacts

We encourage your inquiries concerning this funding opportunity and welcome the opportunity to answer questions from potential applicants. Inquiries may fall into three areas: scientific/research, peer review, and financial or grants management issues:

1. Scientific/Research Contacts:


Abby G. Ershow, Sc.D.
Division of Heart and Vascular Diseases
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Two Rockledge Center, Suite 10-193, MSC 7956
6701 Rockledge Drive
Bethesda, MD 20892-7956
Phone (301) 435-0550
Fax (301) 480-2858
Email: ErshowA@mail.nih.gov

Tim Baldwin, Ph.D.
Biomedical Engineer
Division of Heart and Vascular Diseases
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Two Rockledge Center, Room 9051, MSC 7956
6701 Rockledge Drive
Bethesda, MD 20892-7956
Phone (301) 435-0513
Fax (301) 480-1335
Email: BaldwinT@mail.nih.gov


Peter Moy, Ph.D.
Division of Discovery Science & Technology
National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering
6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 200
Bethesda, MD  20892-5469
Phone: 301-451-4772
Fax: 301-480-1614 
Email: moype@mail.nih.gov


Maren R. Laughlin, Ph.D.
Metabolism and Structural Biology Program
Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolic Diseases
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
National Institutes of Health
6707 Democracy Blvd, Room 6101
Bethesda, Maryland  20895
(Fed Ex 20817)
FAX 301-480-3503


Sharon Ross, Ph.D.
Nutritional Sciences Research Program
Division of Cancer Prevention
National Cancer Institute
6130 Executive Blvd EPN-3157
Bethesda, MD 20892-7328 
FAX 301-480-3925

Connie Dresser, RDPH, LN
Health Communication and Informatics Research Branch
Behavioral Research Program
Division of Cancer Control & Population Sciences
National Cancer Institute
6130 Executive Blvd, EPN-4072
Bethesda, MD 20892-7365
FAX 301-480-2087

Audie A. Atienza, Ph.D.
Division of Cancer Control & Population Sciences
National Cancer Institute
6130 Executive Boulevard, EPN 4074A
Bethesda, MD  20892-7335
Phone: 301-402-8426
Fax: 301-480-2087
Email: atienzaa@mail.nih.gov


Winifred K. Rossi, M.A.
Geriatrics and Clinical Gerontology Program
National Institute on Aging, NIH, DHHS
7201 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 3C307
Bethesda, Maryland 20892-9205 (Express: 20814)
Telephone: 301-496-3836
Fax: 301-402-1784
Email: rossiw@nia.nih.gov

2. Peer Review Contacts:
Not applicable

3. Financial or Grants Management Contacts:
David Reiter
Grants Operations Branch
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
2 Rockledge Center, Room 7172, MSC 7926
6701 Rockledge Drive
Bethesda, MD  20892-7926 (Express 20817)
Telephone:  (301) 435-0177
Fax:  (301) 480-3510
Email:  reiterd@nhlbi.nih.gov

Section VIII. Other Information

Required Federal Citations

Use of Animals in Research:
Recipients of PHS support for activities involving live, vertebrate animals must comply with PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (https://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/PHSPolicyLabAnimals.pdf) as mandated by the Health Research Extension Act of 1985 (https://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/hrea1985.htm), and the USDA Animal Welfare Regulations (http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/legislat/usdaleg1.htm) as applicable.

Human Subjects Protection:
Federal regulations (45CFR46) require that applications and proposals involving human subjects must be evaluated with reference to the risks to the subjects, the adequacy of protection against these risks, the potential benefits of the research to the subjects and others, and the importance of the knowledge gained or to be gained (http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/45cfr46.htm).

Data and Safety Monitoring Plan:
Data and safety monitoring is required for all types of clinical trials, including physiologic toxicity and dose-finding studies (Phase I); efficacy studies (Phase II); efficacy, effectiveness and comparative trials (Phase III). Monitoring should be commensurate with risk. The establishment of data and safety monitoring boards (DSMBs) is required for multi-site clinical trials involving interventions that entail potential risks to the participants (NIH Policy for Data and Safety Monitoring, NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts, https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/not98-084.html).

Sharing Research Data:
Investigators submitting an NIH application seeking $500,000 or more in direct costs in any single year are expected to include a plan for data sharing or state why this is not possible (https://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/data_sharing).

Investigators should seek guidance from their institutions on issues related to institutional policies and local IRB rules, as well as local, State and Federal laws and regulations, including the Privacy Rule. Reviewers will consider the data sharing plan but will not factor the plan into the determination of scientific merit or the priority score.

Access to Research Data through the Freedom of Information Act:
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-110 has been revised to provide access to research data through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) under some circumstances. Data that are (1) first produced in a project that is supported in whole or in part with Federal funds and (2) cited publicly and officially by a Federal agency in support of an action that has the force and effect of law (i.e., a regulation) may be accessed through FOIA. It is important for applicants to understand the basic scope of this amendment. NIH has provided guidance at https://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/a110/a110_guidance_dec1999.htm. Applicants may wish to place data collected under this funding opportunity in a public archive, which can provide protections for the data and manage the distribution for an indefinite period of time. If so, the application should include a description of the archiving plan in the study design and include information about this in the budget justification section of the application. In addition, applicants should think about how to structure informed consent statements and other human subjects procedures given the potential for wider use of data collected under this award.

Sharing of Model Organisms:
NIH is committed to support efforts that encourage sharing of important research resources including the sharing of model organisms for biomedical research (see https://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/model_organism/index.htm). At the same time the NIH recognizes the rights of grantees and contractors to elect and retain title to subject inventions developed with Federal funding pursuant to the Bayh Dole Act (see the NIH Grants Policy Statement https://grants.nih.gov/archive/archive/grants/policy/nihgps_2003/index.htm). All investigators submitting an NIH application or contract proposal, beginning with the October 1, 2004 receipt date, are expected to include in the application/proposal a description of a specific plan for sharing and distributing unique model organism research resources generated using NIH funding or state why such sharing is restricted or not possible. This will permit other researchers to benefit from the resources developed with public funding. The inclusion of a model organism sharing plan is not subject to a cost threshold in any year and is expected to be included in all applications where the development of model organisms is anticipated.

Inclusion of Women And Minorities in Clinical Research:
It is the policy of the NIH that women and members of minority groups and their sub-populations must be included in all NIH-supported clinical research projects unless a clear and compelling justification is provided indicating that inclusion is inappropriate with respect to the health of the subjects or the purpose of the research. This policy results from the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993 (Section 492B of Public Law 103-43). All investigators proposing clinical research should read the "NIH Guidelines for Inclusion of Women and Minorities as Subjects in Clinical Research (https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-02-001.html); a complete copy of the updated Guidelines is available at https://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/women_min/guidelines_amended_10_2001.htm. The amended policy incorporates: the use of an NIH definition of clinical research; updated racial and ethnic categories in compliance with the new OMB standards; clarification of language governing NIH-defined Phase III clinical trials consistent with the SF424 (R&R); and updated roles and responsibilities of NIH staff and the extramural community. The policy continues to require for all NIH-defined Phase III clinical trials that: a) all applications or proposals and/or protocols must provide a description of plans to conduct analyses, as appropriate, to address differences by sex/gender and/or racial/ethnic groups, including subgroups if applicable; and b) investigators must report annual accrual and progress in conducting analyses, as appropriate, by sex/gender and/or racial/ethnic group differences.

Inclusion of Children as Participants in Clinical Research:
The NIH maintains a policy that children (i.e., individuals under the age of 21) must be included in all clinical research, conducted or supported by the NIH, unless there are scientific and ethical reasons not to include them.

All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should read the "NIH Policy and Guidelines" on the inclusion of children as participants in research involving human subjects (https://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/children/children.htm).

Required Education on the Protection of Human Subject Participants:
NIH policy requires education on the protection of human subject participants for all investigators submitting NIH applications for research involving human subjects and individuals designated as key personnel. The policy is available at https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-00-039.html.

Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESC):
Criteria for federal funding of research on hESCs can be found at http://stemcells.nih.gov/index.asp and at https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-02-005.html. Only research using hESC lines that are registered in the NIH Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry will be eligible for Federal funding (http://escr.nih.gov). It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide in the project description and elsewhere in the application as appropriate, the official NIH identifier(s) for the hESC line(s)to be used in the proposed research. Applications that do not provide this information will be returned without review.

NIH Public Access Policy:
NIH-funded investigators are requested to submit to the NIH manuscript submission (NIHMS) system (http://www.nihms.nih.gov) at PubMed Central (PMC) an electronic version of the author's final manuscript upon acceptance for publication, resulting from research supported in whole or in part with direct costs from NIH. The author's final manuscript is defined as the final version accepted for journal publication, and includes all modifications from the publishing peer review process.

NIH is requesting that authors submit manuscripts resulting from 1) currently funded NIH research projects or 2) previously supported NIH research projects if they are accepted for publication on or after May 2, 2005. The NIH Public Access Policy applies to all research grant and career development award mechanisms, cooperative agreements, contracts, Institutional and Individual Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Awards, as well as NIH intramural research studies. The Policy applies to peer-reviewed, original research publications that have been supported in whole or in part with direct costs from NIH, but it does not apply to book chapters, editorials, reviews, or conference proceedings. Publications resulting from non-NIH-supported research projects should not be submitted.

For more information about the Policy or the submission process please visit the NIH Public Access Policy Web site at http://www.nih.gov/about/publicaccess/ and view the Policy or other Resources and Tools including the Authors' Manual (http://www.nih.gov/about/publicaccess/publicaccess_Manual.htm).

Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information:
The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) issued final modification to the "Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information", the "Privacy Rule", on August 14, 2002. The Privacy Rule is a federal regulation under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 that governs the protection of individually identifiable health information, and is administered and enforced by the DHHS Office for Civil Rights (OCR).

Decisions about applicability and implementation of the Privacy Rule reside with the researcher and his/her institution. The OCR Website (http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/) provides information on the Privacy Rule, including a complete Regulation Text and a set of decision tools on "Am I a covered entity?" Information on the impact of the HIPAA Privacy Rule on NIH processes involving the review, funding, and progress monitoring of grants, cooperative agreements, and research contracts can be found at https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-03-025.html.

URLs in NIH Grant Applications or Appendices:
All applications and proposals for NIH funding must be self-contained within specified page limitations. Unless otherwise specified in an NIH solicitation, Internet addresses (URLs) should not be used to provide information necessary to the review because reviewers are under no obligation to view the Internet sites. Furthermore, we caution reviewers that their anonymity may be compromised when they directly access an Internet site.

Healthy People 2010:
The Public Health Service (PHS) is committed to achieving the health promotion and disease prevention objectives of "Healthy People 2010," a PHS-led national activity for setting priority areas. This FOA is related to one or more of the priority areas. Potential applicants may obtain a copy of "Healthy People 2010" at http://www.health.gov/healthypeople.

Authority and Regulations: 
This program is described in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance at http://www.cfda.gov/ and is not subject to the intergovernmental review requirements of Executive Order 12372 or Health Systems Agency review. Awards are made under the authorization of Sections 301 and 405 of the Public Health Service Act as amended (42 USC 241 and 284) and under Federal Regulations 42 CFR 52 and 45 CFR Parts 74 and 92. All awards are subject to the terms and conditions, cost principles, and other considerations described in the NIH Grants Policy Statement. The NIH Grants Policy Statement can be found at https://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/policy.htm.

The PHS strongly encourages all grant recipients to provide a smoke-free workplace and discourage the use of all tobacco products. In addition, Public Law 103-227, the Pro-Children Act of 1994, prohibits smoking in certain facilities (or in some cases, any portion of a facility) in which regular or routine education, library, day care, health care, or early childhood development services are provided to children. This is consistent with the PHS mission to protect and advance the physical and mental health of the American people.

Loan Repayment Programs:
NIH encourages applications for educational loan repayment from qualified health professionals who have made a commitment to pursue a research career involving clinical, pediatric, contraception, infertility, and health disparities related areas. The LRP is an important component of NIH's efforts to recruit and retain the next generation of researchers by providing the means for developing a research career unfettered by the burden of student loan debt. Note that an NIH grant is not required for eligibility and concurrent career award and LRP applications are encouraged. The periods of career award and LRP award may overlap providing the LRP recipient with the required commitment of time and effort, as LRP awardees must commit at least 50% of their time (at least 20 hours per week based on a 40 hour week) for two years to the research. For further information, please see: http://www.lrp.nih.gov.

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NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices

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