Release Date:  December 22, 1999

PA NUMBER:  PA-00-032

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
National Institute on Aging



The Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch (DBSB), Center for Population 
Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 
and the Demography and Population Epidemiology Branch, Behavioral and Social 
Research Program, National Institute on Aging (NIA), invite qualified 
researchers to submit applications for research on the determinants and 
consequences of population movement.  The "determinants" of migration include 
characteristics of places and sociopolitical units, and of persons and their 
families.  The "consequences" of migration refer to the relative performance 
of migrants in their new location, the effects of migration on origin and 
destination populations, and the impact of migrants on population structure, 
density, crowding, and environmental outcomes.  The potential contribution of 
demographic research and methods to understanding individual and social 
outcomes extends broadly across the spheres of health, human development, 
aging, retirement, family, and material well-being.  Research on population 
movement encompasses studies of migration within national boundaries 
(internal migration) as well as movement across borders (international 
migration).  This announcement highlights topics especially salient to the 
former, but encompasses research on all forms of population movement.  For a 
fuller treatment of issues related to international migration, potential 
applicants are encouraged to review an earlier announcement that gives fuller 
treatment to immigration (PA-95-035, Research on U.S. Immigration).


The Public Health Service (PHS) is committed to achieving the health 
promotion and disease prevention objectives of "Healthy People 2000," a PHS-
led national activity for setting priority areas.  This Program Announcement 
(PA) is related to one or more of the priority areas.  Potential applicants 
may obtain "Healthy People 2000" at http://odphp.osophs.dhhs.gov/pubs/hp2000.


Applications may be submitted by domestic and foreign for-profit and non-
profit organizations, public and private, such as universities, colleges, 
hospitals, laboratories, units of state and local governments, and eligible 
agencies of the Federal government.  Racial/ethnic minority individuals, 
women, and persons with disabilities are encouraged to apply as Principal 


This PA will use the National Institutes of Health (NIH) research project 
grant (R01) award mechanism.  Responsibility for the planning, direction, and 
execution of the proposed project will be solely that of the applicant.  The 
total project period for an application submitted in response to this PA may 
not exceed five years.

For all research project grant (R01) applications requesting up to $250,000 
direct costs per year, specific application instructions have been modified 
to reflect "MODULAR GRANT" and "JUST-IN-TIME" streamlining efforts being 
examined by NIH.  Complete and detailed instructions and information on 
Modular Grant applications can be found at: 
https://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/modular/modular.htm.  Applications that 
request more than $250,000 in any year must use the standard PHS 398 (rev. 
4/98) application instructions. 



Migration has been an important part of human experience throughout our 
history, and these migration flows continue to play an important role in 
shaping the populations of cities, states, and regions.  Migration is 
associated with family formation and unification, retirement, and changes in 
health status.  In the United States, over 40 million people, or about 17 
percent of the total population, change residence in a year.  One of the most 
universal mobility relationships is that between age and migration.  
Migration propensities peak during the early to mid-twenties and then decline 
steadily, with an upturn at retirement age in some countries.  In the U.S., 
working age adults and children are the most mobile, although the majority of 
their moves occur within the same county.  There is considerable geographic 
mobility among certain segments of the U.S. population, such as single 
mothers, retirees, and workers in certain occupations and industries.  

Internal migration is a particularly under-researched, crosscutting area that 
is likely to gain increasing importance in the future.  Internal migration 
refers to population movement within a country, such as that between regions 
(e.g., North to South, East to West), between states, between urban and rural 
areas, between urban and suburban areas, and/or between poor and non-poor 

Internal migration patterns also differ depending on whether migrants are 
native-born, and are likely to be influenced by the spatial structure and 
levels of immigration flows.  For example, high international immigration to 
a metropolitan area is associated with increased internal out-migration and 
reduced internal in-migration among less-educated native-born residents, 
within race-ethnic gender groups. 

Internal population movements may be affected by the devolution of 
responsibilities for social programs to the states.  This may magnify cross-
area differences and stimulate more frequent changes in social programs and 
amenities, and could increase the mobility of the population as people sort 
themselves across localities in order to receive benefits or avoid program 
restrictions. The relationships among social programs, tax structures, and 
other policies that vary significantly across states have particular 
importance to retirees, who are no longer geographically limited by their 
employment.  Research is needed to better understand the relocation decisions 
of retirees, their relationship to social programs and tax policies, and 
other factors. The ability to assess the impacts of such programs and 
policies will depend on attention to population movement.

There has been much attention to neighborhood and school effects in recent 
years, but clearly who one's neighbors are or what schools one's children 
attend depend critically on the choice (or lack of choice) of place of 
residence.  Among the issues needing attention are the relationship between 
geographic and economic mobility, effects of migration on the well-being and 
development of children, barriers to mobility, the influence of family 
considerations on mobility, and the interrelationships between migration and 

There is, thus, an important need to better understand the circumstances 
surrounding, motivations behind, and consequences of population movement and 
settlement.  The following areas describe more fully examples of areas of 
interest addressed by this PA.  Applications need not be limited to these 
topics, nor must they encompass all of these issues. 

Research Scope

o  Prior research to understand reasons for population movement has focused 
on “push” factors (e.g., deepening poverty, political instability, 
environmental degradation) and “pull” factors (e.g., better jobs, lower 
taxes, better health care, better climate).  A challenge is to integrate 
individual and household models in the broader social and political context.  
Although economic motives account for a substantial proportion of moves, 
consideration also must be given to distinguishing mobility decisions (both 
timing and place) and motivations by distance, frequency and duration of 
moves, and cohort size.  Research also must link migration with business 
cycles, and consider the important role of social networks, e.g., prior links 
between sending and receiving areas based on familial and/or cultural ties, 
political influence, trade, and investment.  Consideration also must be given 
to understanding individual-level analyses in the broader institutional 
context (e.g., political economy, inter-state relationships, legal 

o  Research has examined the characteristics of people who move.  
Specifically, research has focused on selectivity of migrants by age, 
industry, and education, as well as personality characteristics such as 
propensities for risk-taking and adaptability.  Less well studied, but no 
less universal, is the strong positive correlation between educational 
attainment and the likelihood of moving from cities to suburbs, or from poor 
neighborhoods to non-poor neighborhoods.  Equally important is to understand 
the causes for non-mobility, and the associated spatial concentration of 
poverty and wealth in American urban areas.

o  Innovative, theory-driven research on migration is needed to improve 
modeling of selection effects, and to understand the paths and barriers to 
residential mobility by specific subpopulations (e.g., welfare recipients, 
single mothers, children, elderly, immigrants).  Better insights are needed 
to explain differences in propensities to migrate by race/ethnicity, or by 
stages of family formation, particularly out of poor neighborhoods. 

o  Health status is an important indicator of many aspects of the migration 
process, reflecting, to some degree, differential selectivity and 
assimilation of migrants, as well as the impact of population density and 
crowding.  Further research is needed on migrant selectivity with respect to 
health, the relationship between health changes and migration, including the 
impact of migration on health and access to health services, and the use of 
alternative assisted living arrangements.  For example, disability or illness 
in a child or other family member may prompt migration to improve access to 
health services or family resources, or prevent a move that might otherwise 

o  Little is known about how declining disability rates seen in the 1980s and 
1990s among the elderly and how caregiving needs (of parents or children) may 
encourage or discourage migration.  To what extent does geographic dispersion 
of family members influence rates of institutionalization of the elderly?   
To what extent do patterns of household moves (including intra-metropolitan 
household moves) change to accommodate changes in functional ability, 
including moves into assisted living environments and nursing homes?  How has 
the rise of alternative assisted living arrangements and the changing 
geographic distribution of health care organizations, including hospitals, 
influenced elderly mobility rates, particularly where proximity to health 
services is an important consideration?

o  Further research is needed on the interrelationships of demographic 
processes (fertility, mortality, formation and dissolution of marriages and 
marriage-like relationships) and migration.  Moves may be precipitated by 
divorce or death, the impending birth of a child, or entry into a new stage 
of the family life cycle (school-age children or empty nest).  What is the 
impact of changing family structure, including the increase in divorce rates, 
nonmarital childbearing, and ratios of step- to biological children on 
migration?  Alternatively, migration may have an influence on the timing and 
volume of fertility, and on subsequent health and well-being.

o  Since movement from rural to urban areas is often a useful way to describe 
internal migration patterns, it is important to recognize health problems 
associated with urbanization as an important consequence of migration.  The 
urban environment can be particularly hostile to children. Although studies 
have linked urbanization with mental health outcomes (e.g., depression and 
anxiety, schizophrenia, and alcohol and substance abuse), research needs to 
go beyond the standard age/sex/social class studies associated with mental 
illness, and needs to elaborate on the mechanisms by which these factors 
operate, being careful to tease out effects due specifically to urbanization, 
and effects due to selectivity of particular migrant streams.

o  Urbanization is associated with higher concentrations of people, 
increasing the potential for the spread of pathogens.  High density of 
populations can exacerbate transmission, particularly if sewage and water 
systems, housing, and public health provisions are inadequate.  Research 
needs to  reference explicitly the interactions between mobility and 
infectious disease transmission-- a key issue in HIV spread.  Little is known 
empirically about the geographic pattern and span of networks that spread 
o  Rural to urban and urban to suburban migration may have other important 
effects on the sending and receiving communities.  Sending areas may lose 
population, changing the population age structure and threatening economic 
viability.  Encroaching suburbanization may create environmental and economic 
challenges for existing populations.  Research is needed on the mechanisms 
that influence the adaptation of rural communities and their inhabitants to 
migratory patterns.

o  It has become increasingly clear that moving and timing of moves may 
affect children in important ways, presumably because of changes in school 
and peer group.  In general, these effects have not been estimated well.  For 
parents, one of the ways to change the environment in which the child is 
growing up, and one of the few ways to have an impact on the child's peer 
group, is to move.  Research is needed to study parental decisions to move 
and the impact of moves on a variety of child outcomes.

o  Studies of contextual influences at the school or community level must 
account for the fact that families often choose these contexts for themselves 
and their children.  Strategies must be developed to model such mobility-
related selection effects in contextual and multi-level research.

o  Defederalizing public benefits could lead to substantial variation among 
the states in program benefits and eligibility requirements.  It is opportune 
to study the consequent or anticipatory movement of people in response to 
welfare program developments and the impact of moves on states and local 
communities.  One could broaden the perspective toward a set of environmental 
issues involving location and housing.  The effects of other public policies, 
such as school choice proposals, on migration decisions may also merit study.

o  Many states have tax advantages that are targeted toward retirees, such as 
tax exemptions for pension income.  States also have different eligibility 
criteria for programs that provide benefits to older residents.  Traditional 
retirement destinations, most notably those in southern and southwestern 
states, appear to attract populations self-selected for higher income, better 
health, and strong social supports.  The demand for public services actually 
may be lower and net economic benefits higher.  As these migrants age, 
however, pressures on community resources (e.g., public transportation, 
emergency medical services, home care, long term care, and perhaps income 
support) may be expected to rise.  Research is encouraged on how varying 
state policies influence relocation decisions in retirement, and on factors 
influencing "reverse migration."  Research is also encouraged on the economic 
consequences for states (both costs and benefits) of in- or out-migration 
among retirees.

o  Recent changes in Federal tax policy with respect to capital gains on the 
sale of a primary residence are likely to induce homeowners to relocate or 
buy-down.  To what extent can Federal tax policies explain changes in 
migration propensities, particularly among the elderly?

o  Swings in national economic conditions also help shape the propensity to 
migrate, and the characteristics of migrants.  Migrants tend to be self-
selected in that they typically possess greater motivation to improve their 
situation.  Since lower costs are associated with migration during periods of 
relatively good economic conditions, the average migrant during those times 
may be expected to be of lower socioeconomic status.  Tracking changing 
characteristics of migrants in relation to macro-economic conditions should 
be considered to address such issues. 

o  Patterns of "continuation migration" and "reverse migration," and the 
relation of socioeconomic status and other demographic characteristics to 
choice of destination are also important areas of study.  For example, how 
are retirement migration patterns influenced by changing wealth levels and 
consumption patterns, as well as the rise of dual wage earner households?  
How are regional trends in employment opportunities related to migration 
streams for households at different economic levels?
o  The U.S. stands out as having high population movement between local areas 
and within local areas.  Yet in other developed countries (e.g., Canada, 
Germany, Japan, Netherlands), internal migration rates have fallen during the 
past 25 years.  A rigorous comparison of patterns across countries could help 
us better understand (and perhaps quantify) the contribution of factors such 
as later age at marriage, increasing female labor force participation, 
economic opportunities, and cohort and period effects.

o  Migration within and across national boundaries in the developing world 
also merits study.  For example, what is the impact of cross-national 
migration (e.g., between the U.S. and Mexico) on dependent family members 
(e.g., elderly, children)?  Many of the topics highlighted above are 
applicable across the globe; additional issues relating to developing world 
migration include the interrelationships among environmental quality, 
urbanization, economic development, health, capital investments, and 
international migration flows.

o  New methodological approaches for the study of migration are needed, 
including better ways to collect and analyze data to describe and explain 
migration patterns and trends, and indirect estimation of migration streams.  
Data collection strategies are needed that go beyond the traditional sample 
surveys of individual respondents to also capture broader aspects of the 
social and biophysical context.  Innovative and useful linkage of migration 
and population distribution data with spatial data should be considered.  To 
the extent that geographic context variables appear to be important, 
retrospective residence histories should be included.  More methodological 
work is needed on how best to collect retrospective histories that can then 
be linked to geographic indices, making it possible to model the internal 
migration process.  Geocoding migration histories also could inform our 
understanding of the relationship between the geographical distribution of 
disease and environment-related conditions over time.  It is also important 
to model adjacent area characteristics (e.g., proximity to large cities) in 
migration decisions.

Many data sources - continuing national surveys such as the Current 
Population Survey (CPS), U.S. Census, National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 
(NLSY), and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), and ad hoc studies at 
the state and local levels - may be drawn upon.  Baseline data from the NIA-
funded Health and Retirement Study includes a 100 percent oversample of the 
state of Florida and is likely to be especially helpful to understanding 
these influences on elderly migration.

It is the policy of the NIH that women and members of minority groups and 
their sub-populations must be included in all NIH-supported biomedical and 
behavioral research projects involving human subjects, unless a clear and 
compelling rationale and justification are provided that inclusion is 
inappropriate with respect to the health of the subjects or the purpose of 
the research. This policy results from the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993 
(Section 492B of Public Law 103-43).

All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should read the 
"NIH Guidelines For Inclusion of Women and Minorities as Subjects in Clinical 
Research," that was published in the Federal Register of March 28, 1994 (FR 
59 14508-14513) and in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts, Volume 23, 
Number 11, March 18, 1994, and are available on the Internet at 


It is the policy of NIH that children (i.e., individuals under the age of 21) 
must be included in all human subjects research, conducted or supported by 
the NIH, unless there are scientific and ethical reasons not to include them.  
This policy applies to all initial (Type 1) applications submitted for 
receipt dates after October 1, 1998.

All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should read the 
"NIH Policy and Guidelines on the Inclusion of Children as Participants in 
Research Involving Human Subjects" that was published in the NIH Guide for 
Grants and Contracts, March 6, 1998 and is available on the Internet at 

Investigators also may obtain copies of these policies from the program staff 
listed under INQUIRIES.  Program staff also may provide additional relevant 
information concerning the policy.


Applications are to be submitted on grant application form PHS 398 (rev. 
4/98) and will be accepted at the standard application deadlines, as 
indicated in the application kit.  Application kits are available at most 
institutional offices of sponsored research and may be obtained from the 
Division of Extramural Outreach and Information Resources, National 
Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, MSC 7910, Bethesda, MD 20892-
7910, telephone (301) 710-0267, E-mail grantsinfo@nih.gov.  Application forms 
also are available on the Internet at 

Applicants planning to submit an investigator-initiated new (Type 1), 
competing continuation (Type 2), competing supplement, or any amended/revised 
version of the preceding grant application types requesting $500,000 or more 
in direct costs for any year are advised that they must contact NICHD or NIA 
program staff before submitting the application, i.e., as plans for the study 
are being developed.  Furthermore, applicants must obtain agreement from 
NICHD or NIA staff that the Institute will accept the application for 
consideration for award.  Finally, applicants must identify, in a cover 
letter sent with the application, the staff member and Institute who agreed 
to accept assignment of the application.

This policy requires applicants to obtain prior agreement for acceptance of 
both any such application and any such subsequent amendment.  Refer to the 
NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts, March 20, 1998, at 

Application Instructions

The modular grant concept establishes specific modules in which direct costs 
may be requested, as well as a maximum level for requested budgets.  Only 
limited budgetary information is required under this approach.  The just-in-
time concept allows applicants to submit certain information only when there 
is a possibility for an award.  It is anticipated that these changes will 
reduce the administrative burden for the applicants, reviewers, and Institute 
staff.  The research grant application form PHS 398 (rev. 4/98) is to be used 
in applying for these grants, with the modifications noted below.

Modular Grant applications will request direct costs in $25,000 modules, up 
to a total direct cost request of $250,000 per year.  (Applications that 
request more than $250,000 direct costs in any year must follow the 
traditional PHS 398 application instructions.)  The total direct costs must 
be requested in accordance with the program guidelines and the modifications 
made to the standard PHS 398 application instructions described below:

o  FACE PAGE:  Items 7a and 7b should be completed, indicating Direct Costs 
(in $25,000 increments up to a maximum of $250,000) and Total Costs [Modular 
Total Direct plus Facilities and Administrative (F&A) costs] for the initial 
budget period.  Items 8a and 8b should be completed indicating the Direct and 
Total Costs for the entire proposed period of support.

4 of the PHS 398.  It is not required and will not be accepted with the 

categorical budget table on Form Page 5 of the PHS 398.  It is not required 
and will not be accepted with the application.

o  NARRATIVE BUDGET JUSTIFICATION:  Prepare a Modular Grant Budget Narrative 
page.  (See https://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/modular/modular.htm for 
sample pages.)  At the top of the page, enter the Total Direct Costs 
requested for each year.  This is not a Form Page.

Under Personnel, list key project personnel, including their names, percent 
of effort, and roles on the project.  No individual salary information should 
be provided.  However, the applicant should use the NIH appropriation 
language salary cap and the NIH policy for graduate student compensation in 
developing the budget request.

For Consortium/Contractual costs, provide an estimate of Total Costs (Direct 
plus F&A) for each year, each rounded to the nearest $1,000.  List the 
individuals/organizations with whom consortium or contractual arrangements 
have been made, the percent effort of key personnel, and the role on the 
project.  Indicate whether the collaborating institution is foreign or 
domestic.  The total cost for a consortium/contractual arrangement is 
included in the overall requested modular direct cost amount.  Include the 
Letter of Intent to establish a consortium.

Provide an additional narrative budget justification for any variation in the 
number of modules requested.

o  BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH:  The Biographical Sketch provides information used by 
reviewers in the assessment of each individual's qualifications for a 
specific role in the proposed project, as well as to evaluate the overall 
qualifications of the research team.  A biographical sketch is required for 
all key personnel, following the instructions below.  No more than three 
pages may be used for each person.  A sample biographical sketch may be 
viewed at: 

- Complete the educational block at the top of the Form Page;
- List position(s) and any honors;
- Provide information, including overall goals and responsibilities, on 
research projects ongoing or completed during the last three years;
- List selected peer-reviewed publications, with full citations.

o  CHECKLIST:  This page should be completed and submitted with the 
application.  If the F&A rate agreement has been established, indicate the 
type of agreement and the date.  All appropriate exclusions must be applied 
in the calculation of the F&A costs for the initial budget period and all 
future budget years.

o  The applicant should provide the name and phone number of the individual 
to contact concerning fiscal and administrative issues if additional 
information is necessary following the initial review.

Submission Instructions

The title and number of this program announcement must be typed on line 2 of 
the face page of the application form and the YES box must be marked.

Submit a signed, typewritten original of the application, including the 
Checklist, and five signed photocopies in one package to:

BETHESDA, MD 20892-7710
BETHESDA, MD 20817 (for express/courier service)


Applications will be assigned on the basis of established PHS referral 
guidelines.  Applications that are complete will be evaluated for scientific 
and technical merit by an appropriate peer review group convened in 
accordance with the standard NIH peer review procedures.  As part of the 
initial merit review, all applications will receive a written critique and 
undergo a process in which only those applications deemed to have the highest 
scientific merit, generally the top half of applications under review, will 
be discussed, assigned a priority score, and receive a second level review by 
the appropriate national advisory council or board.

Review Criteria

The goals of NIH-supported research are to advance our understanding of 
biological systems, improve the control of disease, and enhance health.  In 
the written comments, reviewers will be asked to discuss the following 
aspects of the application in order to judge the likelihood that the proposed 
research will have a substantial impact on the pursuit of these goals.  Each 
of these criteria will be addressed and considered in assigning the overall 
score, weighting them as appropriate for each application.  Note that the 
application does not need to be strong in all categories to be judged likely 
to have major scientific impact and thus deserve a high priority score.  For 
example, an investigator may propose to carry out important work that by its 
nature is not innovative, but is essential to move a field forward.

1.  Significance:  Does this study address an important problem?  If the aims 
of the application are achieved, how will scientific knowledge be advanced?  
What will be the effect of these studies on the concepts or methods that 
drive this field?

2.  Approach:  Are the conceptual framework, design, methods, and analyses 
adequately developed, well-integrated, and appropriate to the aims of the 
project?  Does the applicant acknowledge potential problem areas and consider 
alternative tactics?

3.  Innovation:  Does the project employ novel concepts, approaches or 
methods?  Are the aims original and innovative?  Does the project challenge 
existing paradigms or develop new methodologies or technologies?

4.  Investigator:  Is the investigator appropriately trained and well suited 
to carry out this work?  Is the work proposed appropriate to the experience 
level of the Principal Investigator and other researchers (if any)?

5.  Environment:  Does the scientific environment in which the work will be 
done contribute to the probability of success?  Do the proposed experiments 
take advantage of unique features of the scientific environment or employ 
useful collaborative arrangements?  Is there evidence of institutional 

In addition to the above criteria, in accordance with NIH policy, all 
applications will also be reviewed with respect to the following:

o  The adequacy of plans to include both genders, minorities and their 
subgroups, and children as appropriate for the scientific goals of the 
research.  Plans for the recruitment and retention of subjects will also be 

o  The reasonableness of the proposed budget and duration in relation to the 
proposed research.

o  The adequacy of the proposed protection for humans, animals or the 
environment, to the extent they may be adversely affected by the project 
proposed in the application.

Applications will compete for available funds with all other scored 
applications.  The following will be considered in making funding decisions:

o  Quality of the proposed project as determined by peer review;
o  Availability of funds;
o  Program priority.

Inquiries concerning this PA are encouraged.  The opportunity to clarify any 
issues or questions from potential applicants is welcome.
Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to:

Christine A. Bachrach, Ph.D.
Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch
Center for Population Research
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
6100 Executive Boulevard, Suite 8B07, MSC 7510
Bethesda, MD 20892-7510
Telephone:  (301) 496-9485
FAX:  (301) 496-0962
E-mail: Cbachrach@nih.gov (e-mail correspondence is preferred)

Rose Maria Li, M.B.A., Ph.D.
Demography and Population Epidemiology
Behavioral and Social Research Program
National Institute on Aging
7201 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 533, MSC 9205
Bethesda, MD  20892-9205
Telephone:  (301) 496-3138
FAX:  (301) 402-0051
E-mail: Rose_Li@nih.gov (e-mail correspondence is preferred)
Direct inquiries regarding fiscal matters to:
Michael J. Loewe
Grants Management Branch
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
6100 Executive Boulevard, Suite 8A17, MSC 7510
Bethesda, MD 20892-7510
Telephone:  (301) 435-7008
FAX:  (301) 402-0915 
Email:  ml70m@nih.gov

David Reiter
Grants and Contracts Management Office
National Institute on Aging
7201 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 2N212, MSC 9205
Bethesda, MD  20892-9205
Telephone:  (301) 496-1472
FAX:  (301) 402-3672
Email: David_Reiter@nih.gov (e-mail correspondence is preferred)

This program is described in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Nos. 
93.866 and 93.864.  Awards are made under authorization of the Public Health 
Service Act, Title IV, Part A (Public Law 78-410, as amended by Public Law 
99-158, 42 USC 241 and 285) and administered under NIH grants policies and 
Federal Regulations 42 CFR 52 and 45 CFR Parts 74 and 92.  This program is 
not subject to the intergovernmental review requirements of Executive Order 
12372 or Health Systems Agency review.
The PHS strongly encourages all grant and contract recipients to provide a 
smoke-free workplace and promote the non-use of all tobacco products.  In 
addition, Public Law 103-227, the Pro-Children Act of 1994, prohibits smoking 
in certain facilities (or in some cases, any portion of a facility) in which 
regular or routine education, library, day care, health care or early 
childhood development services are provided to children.  This is consistent 
with the PHS mission to protect and advance the physical and mental health of 
the American people.

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