COMMUNITY-BASED INTERVENTIONS TO PREVENT CHILDHOOD AGRICULTURAL INJURY 
AND DISEASE

Release Date:  December 20, 2000

RFA:  OH-01-007

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
 
Letter of Intent Date:     February 2, 2001
Application Receipt Date:  March 14, 2001

THIS RFA USES THE DETAILED BUDGET FORMAT, RATHER THAN MODULAR GRANT 
BUDGET FORMAT.

PURPOSE

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the 
availability of fiscal year (FY) 2001 funds for grant applications for 
research on evaluation of the effectiveness of currently used community-based 
interventions in reducing childhood agricultural injury and disease.  
Findings from these projects are intended to advance the scientific base of 
knowledge needed to maximize the safety and health of children exposed to 
agricultural production hazards.

The research needs identified in this announcement are consistent with the 
National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) developed by NIOSH and partners 
in the public and private sectors to provide a framework to guide 
occupational safety and health research in the new millennium towards topics 
which are most pressing and most likely to yield gains to the worker and the 
nation.  The agenda identifies 21 research priorities.  NORA priorities with 
specific relevance to this announcement are: traumatic injuries; special 
populations at risk; control technology and personal protective equipment; 
and intervention effectiveness research.  Information about NORA is available 
through the NIOSH Home Page; http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/norhmpg.html.

HEALTHY PEOPLE 2010

NIOSH is committed to achieving the health promotion and disease prevention 
objectives of Healthy People 2010, a national activity to reduce morbidity 
and mortality and improve the quality of life.  This program announcement is 
related to the focus area of Occupational Safety and Health and Injury and 
Violence Prevention.  Potential applicants may obtain a copy of Healthy
People 2010 at http://www.health.gov/healthypeople/.

ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS

Applications may be submitted by domestic, public and private nonprofit and 
for-profit organizations and by governments and their agencies; that is, 
universities, colleges, research institutions, hospitals, other public and 
private nonprofit and for-profit organizations, State and local governments 
or their bona fide agents, federally recognized Indian tribal governments, 
Indian tribes, or Indian tribal organizations, and small, minority, and 
women-owned businesses that meet the above criteria.  Racial/ethnic minority 
individuals, women, and persons with disabilities are encouraged to apply as 
Principal Investigators.

Applications are sought from organizations which work directly with 
implementing community-based interventions or which have the expertise to 
evaluate scientifically the effectiveness of their community-based childhood 
agricultural injury and disease prevention interventions.  If such 
organizations do not have all of the needed expertise, they can partner with 
an entity such as an academic unit in a college or university to obtain the 
necessary expertise to conduct an intervention effectiveness evaluation.  
Applications lacking an existing or proposed link to an organization 
involving community-based activities will be considered nonresponsive to this 
RFA and will be returned to the applicant.

Note:  Public Law 104-65 states that an organization described in section 
501(c)(4) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 which engages in lobbying 
activities is not eligible to receive Federal funds constituting an award, 
grant (cooperative agreement), contract, loan, or any other form.

MECHANISM OF SUPPORT

The mechanism of support will be the individual research project grant (R01).  
Responsibility for the planning, direction, and execution of the proposed 
project will be solely that of the applicant.  The total requested project 
period for an application submitted in response to this RFA may not exceed 
three years. 

This RFA is a one-time solicitation.  Future unsolicited competing 
continuation applications will compete with all investigator-initiated 
applications and be reviewed according to the customary peer review 
procedures.

FUNDS AVAILABLE

Approximately $600,000 is available in FY 2001 to fund three to four awards 
under this RFA.  The maximum amount that may be requested is $200,000 total 
cost (direct plus facilities and administration) per year.  Awards are 
expected to begin September 1, 2001.

Awards will be made for a 12-month budget period within a project period up 
to three years.  Continuation awards within the project period will be made 
on the basis of satisfactory progress and availability of funds in future 
years.

Use of Funds

Applicants should include in their budgets funds for one trip per year for an 
annual meeting of grantees to be held in Morgantown, West Virginia.

PREAPPLICATION CONFERENCE CALL

Applicants are invited by NIOSH to participate in a preapplication technical 
assistance telephone conference call on January 31, 2001 at 2:00 PM (Eastern 
time) to discuss:  programmatic issues regarding this program,  how to apply, 
and questions regarding the content of the RFA.  The conference call name is 
Childhood Agriculture Intervention Program.  The telephone bridge number is 
404/639-3277.  Interested parties will need the conference code (492151) to 
participate.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

Background

Agricultural production, which is most commonly identified with the 
occupation of farming, consistently ranks among the U.S. industries with the 
highest rates of work-related injuries and deaths, and is unique with respect 
to children and adolescents.   Agriculture is the only major industry in 
which the workplace often encompasses the home.  Exposures to agricultural 
production hazards are not confined to working adults.  Children and 
adolescents may be exposed to agricultural production hazards not only 
through work activities, but by virtue of living on a farm or ranch, 
accompanying their parents to work, or visiting farms or ranches.  Farm 
tractors, farm machinery, stored grain, power lines, manure pits, ponds, 
livestock, noise, agricultural chemicals, organic dusts, volatile organic 
compounds, and solvents are among the many injury and disease hazards to 
which youth are potentially exposed in agricultural production.

Analysis of death certificates suggest that approximately 100 injury deaths 
occur on farms each year to youth 19 years of age and younger.  These include 
deaths of youth who lived on the farm, visited the farm and or worked on the 
farm, but exclude transport-related and intentional fatalities.  In 1998, as 
part of the Childhood Agricultural Injury Prevention Initiative, NIOSH, 
through the United States Department of Agriculture, conducted a childhood 
agricultural injury survey of 50,000 farm households.  An injury was defined 
as any condition which occurred on the farm which resulted in at least four 
hours of restricted activity.  An estimated 32,800 agriculture-related 
injuries occurred nationally to children or adolescents under the age of 20 
who lived on, worked directly for, or visited a farm in 1998. 

For several years, community-based interventions have been utilized to 
prevent childhood agricultural injury and disease.  These interventions have 
typically consisted of the distribution of educational safety materials and 
information throughout a community, farm safety day camps, peer safety 
education and child care cooperatives.  The following examples illustrate how 
increased interest and public/private funding in the area of childhood 
agricultural injury and disease prevention have resulted in community-based 
intervention activities:  1) Farm Safety 4 Just Kids, a non-profit 
organization which works with community-based groups, whose mission is to 
promote a safe farm environment to prevent health hazards, injuries, and 
fatalities to children and youth, and 2) the Progressive Farmer Foundation, a 
non-profit foundation whose mission is to reduce the incidence of 
agriculture-related injuries, illness and deaths by increasing the awareness 
of the potential dangers associated with specific farm and ranch practices, 
works to implement community-based interventions.  Thus, many community-based 
interventions are in existence and continue to be utilized by communities 
which have agriculture production as a major economic base.  With the family-
based nature of farming, community-based efforts are often viewed as being 
the most appropriate interventions to implement.  This is impacted by the 
fact that agriculture production often falls outside the regulatory framework 
and enforcement of federal and state agencies.

However, rigorous research is needed to assess the effectiveness of 
community- based interventions which are currently being utilized for 
childhood agricultural injury and disease prevention.   Though well-
intentioned, educational programs are not always effective.  Paradoxically, 
sometimes education programs can have an adverse impact by increasing 
exposure and/or creating a false sense of security among participants.  Also, 
effectiveness evaluation should provide the ability to identify aspects of 
programs which are most effective that could be used for improving programs, 
and identifying the most effective programs for which to channel limited 
resources. 
Research Goals

Community-based research seeks to enhance the capacity of communities to 
participate in the processes that shape research approaches and intervention 
strategies.  Involvement of organizations within the community(ies) that is 
(are) the focus of the study are essential components of the research.  Thus, 
projects should be community-driven and community-responsive.  Research 
efforts should reinforce collaborations between communities and scientists.  
Results generated by the research should be disseminated to community members 
in useful terms.  This will mandate that all facets of the project design be 
culturally appropriate.

Benefits of community-based research include:

o  The formation of bridges between scientists and communities that allow 
both
to gain in knowledge and experience.
o  Better definition of a particular safety or health concern.
o  Assistance in development of culturally appropriate measurement
instruments, thus making projects more effective and efficient.
o  Establishment of a level of trust that will enhance both the quantity as
well as the quality of data collected.
o The community gains more knowledge about safety and health problems; and
has a role in addressing those problems.
o  Relationships are built that can have a longer term impact or influence on
those problems.

Research applications should include both process and outcome measures.  
Process measures should be detailed enough to allow for replication of the 
community-based intervention by other groups.  Outcome measures of interest 
include, but are not limited to: exposure to injury hazards, knowledge of 
safety and health hazards, documentation of safety and health behavior 
change, and the incidence of childhood agricultural injuries.  Research 
applications need to include a study plan that is designed to detect 
intervention effects relevant to the changes in outcomes of interest.  
Confounding variables, such as natural change, should be addressed, as well 
as the known limitations of the study plan.

Applications should identify the types and geographical distribution of 
agricultural production which will be addressed, and the size and 
characteristics of child and adolescent populations which can potentially be 
impacted by the research findings.  Each application should develop a 
comprehensive, strategic plan with time schedules and milestones to address 
all key aspects.  This plan should include:

o  Identification of target community.  Population(s) should be clearly
identified, community boundaries described, and known injury hazards 
delineated.

o  Community collaboration.  How will communication and regular exchange of 
information and ideas between community members and institutional researchers 
be initiated and enhanced?  How are productive relationships with local 
representatives established and maintained?  How are local organizations and 
leaders recruited?  What are the mechanisms for communities to identify their 
environmental health needs?  How will activities be designed to meet these 
needs? How will findings be disseminated within the community?

o  Research program definition and implementation.  A variety of research 
designs may be proposed.  Primary, secondary, or tertiary prevention 
strategies may be included.  Interventions should be based on appropriate 
behavioral and scientific theories.  They should also be built on the results 
of previous methods shown to be efficacious in changing risk factors related 
to knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors.  Interventions should use multiple, 
culturally sensitive, community-based approaches and be adapted to the 
special needs of underserved populations.

o  Evaluation.  Both outcome and process evaluations should take place.  Only 
projects having well developed, comprehensive evaluation plans will be 
supported.  The application must include detailed descriptions of process and 
outcome evaluation, specify the measures and instruments for data collection, 
and indicate a time frame for conducting all evaluation activities.

USEFUL REFERENCES

National Committee for Childhood Agricultural Injury Prevention. Children and 
Agriculture: Opportunities for Safety and Health. Marshfield, WI: Marshfield 
Clinic, 1996. (http://research.marshfieldclinic.org/children/action/title.htm)

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.  A Model for Research 
on Training Effectiveness.  Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and 
Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and 
Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS 
(NIOSH) Publication No.96-115 (http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/99-142.html).

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. National Occupational 
Research Agenda. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human 
Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) 
Publication No.96-115 (http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nora.html). 

Thompson NJ, McClintock HO.  Demonstrating Your Program's Worth - A Primer on 
Evaluation for Programs to Prevent Unintentional Injury.  Atlanta: GA: 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury 
Prevention and Control, 1998. (http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/demonstr.htm)

HUMAN SUBJECTS REQUIREMENTS

If a project involves research on human subjects, assurance (in accordance 
with Department of Health and Human Services Regulations, 45 CFR Part 46) of 
the protection of human subjects is required.  In addition to other 
applicable committees, Indian Health Service (IHS) institutional review 
committees also must review the project if any component of IHS will be 
involved with or will support the research.  If any American Indian community 
is involved, its tribal government must also approve that portion of the 
project applicable to it.  Unless the grantee holds a Multiple Project 
Assurance, a Single Project Assurance is required, as well as an assurance 
for each subcontractor or cooperating institution that has immediate 
responsibility for human subjects.  The Office of Human Research Protections 
(OHRP) negotiates assurances for all activities involving human subjects that 
are supported by the Department of Health and Human Services (Additional 
information is available at http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/).

ANIMAL SUBJECTS REQUIREMENTS

If the proposed project involves research on animal subjects, compliance with 
the PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals by Awardee 
Institutions is required.  An applicant (as well as each subcontractor or 
cooperating institution that has immediate responsibility for animal 
subjects) proposing to use vertebrate animals in CDC-supported activities 
must file (or have on file) the Animal Welfare Assurance with the Office of 
Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) at the National Institutes of Health. The 
applicant must provide in the application the assurance of compliance number 
and evidence of review and approval (including the date of the most recent 
approval) by the Institutional Care and Use Committee (IACUC).

INCLUSION OF WOMEN AND MINORITIES IN RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN SUBJECTS

It is the policy of the CDC to ensure that individuals of both sexes and the 
various racial and ethnic groups will be included in supported research 
projects involving human subjects, whenever feasible and appropriate.  Racial 
and ethnic groups are those defined in OMB Directive No. 15 and include 
American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Hispanic 
or Latino, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander.  Applicants shall 
ensure
that women, racial and ethnic minority populations are appropriately 
represented in applications for research involving human subjects.  Where 
clear and compelling rationale exist that inclusion is inappropriate or not 
feasible, this situation must be explained as part of the application.  This
policy does not apply to research studies when the investigator cannot 
control the race, ethnicity, and/or sex of subjects.  Further guidance to 
this policy is contained in the Federal Register, Vol. 60, No. 179, pages 
47947-47951, and dated Friday, September 15, 1995.

All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should read the 
UPDATED NIH Guidelines For Inclusion of Women and Minorities as Subjects in 
Clinical Research, published in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts on 
August 2, 2000 
(http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-00-048.html); 
a complete copy of the updated Guidelines are available at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/women_min/guidelines_update.htm.
URLS IN NIOSH GRANT APPLICATIONS OR APPENDICES

All applications must be self-contained within specified page limitations.  
Unless otherwise specified, internet addresses (URLs) should not be used to 
provide information necessary to the review because reviewers are under no 
obligation to view the Internet sites.  Reviewers are cautioned that their 
anonymity may be comprised when they directly access an Internet site.

LETTER OF INTENT

Prospective applicants are asked to submit, by February 2, 2001, a letter of 
intent that includes the number and title of the RFA, a descriptive title of 
the proposed research, the name, address, and telephone number of the 
Principal Investigator, and the identities of other key personnel and 
participating institutions.  Although a letter of intent is not required, is 
not binding, and is not used in the review of an application, the information 
that it contains is used to estimate the potential review workload and avoid 
conflict of interest in the review.

The letter of intent is to be submitted to: 

Price Connor, Ph.D.
Office of Extramural Programs
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
1600 Clifton Road, N.E.
Building 1, Room 3070B, MS D-40
Atlanta, GA  30333
Telephone 404-639-2383; Fax 404-639-2196
Email: spc3@cdc.gov

APPLICATION PROCEDURES

Applicants must use Form PHS 398 (rev. 4/98).  Application kits are available 
at most institutional offices of sponsored research and may be obtained from 
the Division of Extramural Outreach and Information Resources, National 
Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, MSC 7910, Bethesda, MD 20892-
7910, telephone 301/435-0714,  Email: grantsinfo@nih.gov.  Application kits 
are also available at: www.nih.gov/grants/forms.htm.

The RFA label available in the PHS 398 (rev. 4/98) application form must be 
affixed to the bottom of the face page of the application.  Failure to use 
this label could result in delayed processing of the application such that it 
may not reach the review committee in time for review.  In addition, the RFA 
title and number must be typed on line 2 of the face page of the application 
form and the YES box must be marked.  Need to add sentence about pdf format.

Submit a signed original of the application, including the Checklist, and 
three signed photocopies, in one package to:

Center for Scientific Review (CSR)
National Institutes of Health
6701 Rockledge Drive, Room 1040 - MSC 7710
Bethesda, MD  20892-7710
Bethesda, MD  20817 (for express/courier service)

At the time of submission, two additional copies of the application must also
be sent to:

Price Connor, Ph.D.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
1600 Clifton Road, N.E.
Building 1, Room 3062, MS D-40   
Atlanta, GA  30333

Applications must be received by March 14, 2001.  If an application is 
received after that date, it will be returned to the applicant without 
review.  CSR and NIOSH will not accept any application in response to this 
RFA that is essentially the same as one currently pending initial review, 
unless the applicant withdraws the pending application.  CSR and NIOSH will 
not accept any application that is essentially the same as one already 
reviewed.  This does not preclude the submission of a substantial revision of 
an application already reviewed, but such an application must follow the 
guidance in the PHS Form 398 application instructions for the preparation of 
revised applications, including an introduction addressing the previous 
critique.

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS

Since these projects are community-based and involve both research and 
dissemination, applicants are encouraged to create opportunities for 
information exchange between institutional researchers and community members.  
Therefore, applicants may generate a report that would describe community 
input, program implementation, and relevant findings that could be easily 
comprehended by the public.  Applicants may budget for production and 
dissemination of such reports.

REVIEW CONSIDERATIONS

Upon receipt, applications will be reviewed for completeness by CSR and 
responsiveness by NIOSH.  Applications determined to be incomplete or 
unresponsive to this RFA will be returned to the applicant without further 
consideration.  Applications that are complete and responsive to the RFA will 
be reviewed for technical merit by a scientific review group convened by 
NIOSH.

All applications will be judged on the basis of the scientific merit of the 
proposed project and the documented ability of the investigators to meet the 
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES of the RFA. 

Following the scientific review, competitive applications will be reviewed 
for programmatic importance by a NIOSH Secondary Review Committee.

Scientific Review Criteria

o  Significance - Does this study address an important problem related to the 
topical research issues outlined in this announcement?  If the aims of the 
application are achieved, how will scientific knowledge be advanced?  What 
will be the effect of these studies on the concepts or methods that drive 
this field?

o  Approach - Are the conceptual framework, design (including composition of 
study population), methods, and analyses adequately developed, well-
integrated and appropriate to the aims of the project?  Does the applicant 
acknowledge potential problem areas and consider alternative tactics?

o  Innovation - Does the project employ novel concepts, approaches or 
methods?  Are the aims original and innovative? Does the project challenge 
existing paradigms or develop new methodologies or technologies?

o  Investigator - Is the investigator appropriately trained and well-suited 
to carry out this work?  Is the work proposed appropriate to the experience 
level of the principal investigator and other researchers, if any?

o  Environment - Does the scientific environment in which the work will be 
done contribute to the probability of success?  Do the proposed experiments 
take advantage of unique features of the scientific environment or employ 
useful collaborative arrangements?  Is there documentation of cooperation 
from industry, unions, communities, or other participants in the project, 
where applicable?  Is there evidence of institutional support and 
availability of resources necessary to perform the project?

The scientific review group will also examine the appropriateness of proposed 
project budget and duration; the adequacy of plans to include both genders, 
minorities and their subgroups, and children as appropriate for the  
scientific goals of the research and plans for the recruitment and retention 
of subjects; the provisions for the protection of human and animal subjects; 
and the safety of the research environment.

The personnel category will be reviewed for appropriate staffing based on the 
requested percent effort.  The direct costs budget request will be reviewed 
for consistency with the proposed methods and specific aims.  The duration of 
support will be reviewed to determine if it is appropriate to ensure 
successful completion of the requested scope of the project.

Secondary Review Criteria:

o  Magnitude of the problem in terms of numbers of workers affected.

o  Severity of the disease or injury in the worker population.

o  Likelihood of developing applied technical knowledge for the prevention of 
occupational safety and health hazards on a national or regional basis.

AWARD CONSIDERATIONS

Applications will be considered for award based upon (a) scientific merit, 
(b) program importance, (c) program balance, and (d) availability of funds.  

SCHEDULE

Letter of Intent Receipt Date:  February 2, 2001
Application Receipt Date:       March 14, 2001
Anticipated Award Date:         September 1, 2001

INQUIRIES

Inquiries concerning this RFA are encouraged.  The opportunity to clarify any 
issues or questions from potential applicants is welcome.  This RFA and other 
CDC Announcements can be found on the CDC HomePage (www.cdc.gov) under the 
Funding section (see Grants and Cooperative Agreements scroll down to 
Occupational Safety and Health).  This RFA can also be found on the NIOSH 
HomePage (www.cdc.gov/niosh) under Extramural Programs, Current Funding 
Opportunities.

Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to:

Roy M. Fleming, Sc.D.
Director, Research Grants Program
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
1600 Clifton Road, N.E.
Building 1, Room 3053, MS D-30
Atlanta, GA  30333
Telephone: 404/639-3343
FAX: 404/639-4616
Email:  rmf2@cdc.gov

Direct inquiries regarding grants management matters to:

Joanne Wojcik
Grants Management Branch
Procurement and Grants Office
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
2920 Brandywine Road, Suite 3000
Atlanta, GA 30341-4146
Telephone: 770/488-2717
Email: jcw6@cdc.gov

LOBBYING RESTRICTIONS

Applicants should be aware of restrictions on the use of HHS funds for 
lobbying of Federal or State legislative bodies.  Under the provisions of 31 
U.S.C. Section 1352, recipients (and their subtier contractors) are 
prohibited from using appropriated Federal funds (other than profits from a 
Federal contract) for lobbying congress or any Federal agency in connection 
with the award of a particular contract, grant, cooperative agreement, or 
loan.  This includes grants/cooperative agreements that, in whole or in part, 
involve conferences for which Federal funds cannot be used directly or 
indirectly to encourage participants to lobby or to instruct participants on 
how to lobby.

In addition, no part of PHS appropriated funds shall be used, other than for 
normal and recognized executive-legislative relationships, for publicity or 
propaganda purposes, for the preparation, distribution, or use of any kit, 
pamphlet, booklet, publication, radio, television, or video presentation 
designed to support or defeat legislation pending before the Congress or any 
State or local legislature, except in presentation to the Congress or any 
State or local legislature itself.  No part of the appropriated funds shall 
be used to pay the salary or expenses of any grant or contract recipient, or 
agent acting for such recipient, related to any activity designed to 
influence legislation or appropriations pending before the Congress or any 
State or local legislature.

AUTHORITY AND REGULATIONS

The Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance number is: 93.262 for the National 
Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).  This program is 
authorized under the Public Health Service Act, as amended, Section 301(a) 
[42 U.S.C. 241(a)], and the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, 
Section 20(a) [29 U.S.C. 669(a)].  The applicable program regulation is 42 
CFR Part 52.  This program is not subject to the intergovernmental review 
requirements of executive order 12372 or Health Systems Agency Review.

SMOKE-FREE WORKPLACE

CDC strongly encourages all grant recipients to provide a smoke-free 
workplace and promote the non-use of all tobacco products, and Public Law 
103-227, the Pro-Children Act of 1994, prohibits smoking in certain 
facilities that receive Federal funds in which education, library, day care, 
health care, and early childhood development services are provided to 
children.

SMALL, MINORITY, AND WOMEN-OWNED BUSINESS

It is a national policy to place a fair share of purchases with small, 
minority and women-owned business firms. The Department of Health and Human 
Services is strongly committed to the objective of this policy and encourages 
all recipients of its grants and cooperative agreements to take affirmative 
steps to ensure such fairness. In particular, recipients should:

1. Place small, minority, women-owned business firms on bidders mailing 
lists.

2. Solicit these firms whenever they are potential sources of supplies, 
equipment, construction, or services.

3. Where feasible, divide total requirements into smaller needs, and set 
delivery schedules that will encourage participation by these firms.
4. Use the assistance of the Minority Business Development Agency of the 
Department of Commerce, the Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business 
Utilization, DHHS, and similar state and local offices.


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