SPECIALIZED NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH PROGRAMS ON HEALTH DISPARITY:  
HIV AND THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

Release Date:  November 16, 2000

RFA:  NS-01-009

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke 
Office of AIDS Research 

Letter of Intent Receipt Date:  February 1, 2001 
Application Receipt Date:  April 13, 2001 

The present RFA is a Re-Issuance of RFA-NS-99-007 (Same Title) Issued on 
August 26, 1999
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/rfa-files/RFA-NS-99-007.html

PURPOSE

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the 
Office of AIDS Research (OAR) invite applications for Specialized Neuroscience 
Research Programs (SNRP) on Health Disparity: HIV and the Nervous System.  The 
purpose of this Request for Applications (RFA) is to augment and strengthen the 
research capabilities of faculty, students, and fellows at minority institutions 
by supporting the development of new, and/or the enhancement of ongoing basic 
and clinical neuro-AIDS related research projects and programs.  These awards 
will be made to support individuals at minority institutions who collaborate 
with one or more established NIH supported investigators at research intensive 
organizations.  Applications submitted in response to this RFA should be focused 
on research related to the neurological complications of HIV infection.

The NIH recognizes that minority institutions are an integral component of our 
national biomedical research agenda.  Therefore, the NIH is offering 
programmatic assistance for the development of the technology and resources that 
are necessary to conduct state-of-the-art neuroscience research.  The SNRPs will 
help awardee institutions to prepare the next generation of neuroscience 
investigators.  Beyond this, SNRPs will become regional resources which 
contribute to the NIH mission to find new knowledge that will improve the health 
of the American public.  To this end, the long term goals are (1) to develop 
effective prevention and/or intervention strategies to reduce the burden and the 
neurological consequences of HIV/AIDS in socio-economically disadvantaged 
populations; (2) to ameliorate problems associated with AIDS-related dementia, 
peripheral neuropathy, and other neurological complications of HIV infection; 
and (3) to strengthen existing research, evaluation and prevention programs 
among research institutions, community-based organizations, and minority medical 
and graduate schools.  

In summary, the goals of this program are to establish new, or strengthen 
existing research collaborations with NIH-supported neuro-AIDS investigators, 
investigators at minority institutions, and health care providers to better 
deliver the benefits of research to Americans at increased risk for AIDS and the 
neurological complications associated with HIV infection.  While awards under 
this program are exploratory and intended to enhance and/or extend pilot neuro-
AIDS research projects among collaborating research institutions and scientists, 
it is expected that the projects supported will be mutually beneficial to 
advancing national efforts to disseminate medical information and technologies 
to better serve the health needs of the public in this major disease.  
Successful programs will be further supported to serve as the foundation for the 
development of more intensive and larger research studies to reduce the national 
burden of this disease.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

Background

The NINDS and the OAR want to foster an improved health status of and eliminate 
the health disparity experienced by Americans at increased risk for HIV/AIDS.  
Focused research and research career development programs such as the SNRPs are 
used to achieve these objectives.  Secondly, the NIH recognizes the unique and 
essential contributions that minority institutions can make to fulfill the 
promise of the NIH research agenda.  Therefore, the NIH plans to assist minority 
and other ‘non-research-intensive’ institutions in developing the technology and 
other resources needed to conduct meritorious neuroscience research.  Thirdly, 
the NIH can foster, by means of the SNRP and other programs, the collaborative 
research affiliations needed to address neuroscience research problems of 
importance to the communities and regions served by awardee institutions.

The SNRPs will: (1) help minority institutions develop state-of-the-art 
neuroscience research programs; (2) create more opportunities for researchers 
employed by minority institutions to establish research collaborations and 
professional networks with NIH and/or NSF grantees employed by research 
intensive institutions; (3) increase the role of ongoing research in maintaining 
a vigorous, stimulating academic and intellectual milieu that will inspire and 
prepare students and fellows to pursue research careers in neuroscience; and (4) 
provide support for pilot research.  This research is needed to bolster the 
skills and abilities of investigators, to obtain preliminary data, and to 
publish in peer reviewed journals which can help ensure successful competition 
for traditional research grants and awards. 

Other

The NINDS and the OAR strongly supports scientific investigations into the 
causes, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of neurological diseases and 
stroke.  Applications for  SNRPs in response to this RFA can include proposals 
for basic and/or clinical research.  Examples of relevant research include, but 
are not limited to the following:

o Development of strategies to promote the dissemination and/or transfer of 
information on the neurological complications of HIV infection from research to 
service providers;

o Development of strategies to prevent the spread of HIV infections in the CNS 
and PNS;

o Establishment of population-based studies to evaluate promising new therapies 
that could impact the progression of AIDS-associated dementia;

o Studies on mechanisms underlying the neurological and neurobehavioral aspects 
of HIV infection;

o Identification of surrogate markers which will allow  rapid measurement of 
neuropathogenic damage and treatment success;

o Refinement of brain imaging techniques (CT, MRI, MR spectroscopy, functional 
MR, SPECT, and PET) in the diagnosis and treatment of HIV-associated 
neurological disease;

o Elucidation of the role of the immune system, intracellular signaling 
pathways, receptors, and cytokines in HIV neuro-tropism and pathogenicity in 
HIV-associated dementia;

o Investigations of signal transduction which may induce recruitment and 
proliferation of inflammatory cells and further cytokine/chemokine dysfunction;

o Studies of drugs of abuse that result in neuro-AIDS complications;

o Investigation of possible common links among neurodegenerative diseases such 
as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and HIV-dementia, where microglial 
activation is a common pathway for neural destruction.

The research plan of an application for a SNRP award must contain the 
description of up to three multidisciplinary, collaborative, research projects 
that will be mutually beneficial to participating investigators through 
coordinated, cooperative interactions.  Each of the proposed projects should 
effectively use the scientific and technical strengths of collaborating 
investigators to define a research plan appropriate to the requested duration 
that will advance scientific knowledge in the research areas identified above.

Description of Key Elements in an Application for a Specialized Neuroscience 
Research Program Award:
 
o Selection and appointment of an SNRP Director who has had experience with 
neuroscience research funding and research training;

o Selection of one or more highly qualified applicant investigators at the 
minority institution to propose and direct meritorious research projects suited 
to their expertise.  These investigators are required to devote a minimum of 50 
percent time and effort to these projects;

o Documentation of the nature and scope of the collaborative research projects 
with NIH and/or NSF grantees from research intensive institutions.  
Collaborators at the intensive research organizations must devote no less than 
20 percent time and effort to the collaborative projects;

o Evidence that the senior leadership at the applicant institution has addressed 
issues related to  tenure, promotion, research release time, and other personnel 
matters pertaining to the scientific success of the SNRP Director and applicant 
investigators.  In addition, evidence is required of institutional commitment 
and availability of technical and logistical resources for the long-term support 
of the SNRP.  Features of the institutional environment that are relevant to 
effective accomplishment of the overall neuroscience program must be briefly 
described.  As appropriate, available resources (e.g., clinical and laboratory 
facilities, patient populations, geographic distributions of space and 
personnel) and collaborative resources should be described.  A letter of support 
from a senior institutional official (e.g., President or Dean) should outline 
the commitment of resources to sustain and support the neuroscience program 
throughout the period of funding and beyond the performance period of this 
award;

o The applicant must identify and outline plans for support staff (e.g., grants 
management, administrative, and technical) to ensure the timely ordering of 
research supplies, equipment, and other resources essential to the scientific 
productivity of the research award;

o Eligible institutions must show evidence of an existing research 
infrastructure that can support the neuroscience research program.  Previous 
(past five years) and current research support used for neuroscience research 
could be described.  The existing research infrastructure and needed 
enhancements must be delineated;

o Brief description of how the proposed activities will enhance the scientific 
capabilities of faculty, students and fellows in neuroscience, and strengthen 
the neuroscience curriculum; and

o Description of the chain of responsibility for decision making and 
administration, beginning at the level of the institution’s President and 
including all key staff (e.g., Sponsored Programs Administrator, Department 
Chair, and Dean), plans for day-to-day administration of the SNRP, program 
coordination, planning, and evaluation.  The proposed relationship of SNRP to 
existing programs and how the SNRP initiative will augment and strengthen the 
research infrastructure need to be described in detail.

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS

The awardee will work to establish research priorities within the approved 
research scope of each SNRP award through discussions with the NINDS Office of 
Special Programs in Neuroscience.  The OAR will provide advice as needed.  The 
NINDS and the OAR reserve the right to include outside consultants/experts in 
these discussions.  After the awardee and the NIH have set the priorities, the 
awardee will be responsible for conducting the research activities.  The awardee 
and the NINDS will interact in a cooperative manner throughout the duration of 
the award to facilitate progress and resolve any problems that may arise.  The 
OAR will provide advice as needed.

Terms and Conditions

The following Terms of Award are in addition to otherwise applicable OMB 
administrative guidelines, HHS Grant Administration Regulations at 45 CFR Part 
74 and 92, and other HHS, PHS, and NIH grant administration policies.  
Cooperative Agreements are subject to the administrative requirements outlined 
in pertinent OMB, HHS, PHS, and NIH guidelines, with particular emphasis on HHS 
regulations at 42 CFR Part 52 and 45 CFR Part 74.  Facilities and Administrative 
Costs are calculated and awarded for cooperative agreement the same way as for 
grants.

1.  The Awardee Rights and Responsibilities:

o The awardee has primary authority and responsibility to define the scientific 
objectives and approaches, to plan, conduct, analyze, and publish results, 
interpretations, and conclusions of the studies;

o The awardee has the primary responsibility for establishing effective and 
substantial research collaborations with NIH and/or NSF grantees from research 
intensive organizations.  The scope and nature of the research on common 
protocols must be adequately documented and must ensure participation, 
collaboration, and sharing of methods and data among collaborating 
organizations;

o The awardee has the primary responsibility for establishing an internal 
advisory committee of the collaborating neuroscientists.  The committee will 
have the responsibility for directing and monitoring the progress of the 
research projects.  Also, the committee must develop opportunities for 
information exchange, seminar presentations, and research training for students 
and fellows;

o The awardee has the primary responsibility for establishing an external 
advisory committee of distinguished senior neuroscientists.  Annually, the 
committee will assess the productivity of the SNRP, make recommendations for the 
future direction of the SNRP initiative, and provide advice and guidance about 
personnel matters and the allocation of resources to individual projects and 
investigators.

The awardee will retain custody of, and primary rights to the data and 
intellectual property developed under the award, subject to current government 
policies regarding rights of access as consistent with current HHS, PHS, and NIH 
policies.  The NINDS and the OAR reserve the right to negotiate additional 
awardee terms and conditions based on recommendations from the Initial Review 
Group, and the National Advisory Councils for the National Institute of 
Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and the Office of AIDS Research.

2.  NIH Staff Responsibilities:

The NINDS will have substantial scientific/programmatic involvement during the 
award performance period by contributing to the planning and assessment 
activities and by providing technical assistance, advice and coordination beyond 
normal program stewardship for grants. (see INQUIRIES below).  OAR will 
contribute as needed. 

o The NINDS Scientific Collaborator (See INQUIRIES) will help shape a 
comprehensive framework for the development of the SNRP and provide technical 
advice and expertise regarding scientific direction and program management;

o The NINDS Scientific Collaborator will help the applicant institution and SNRP 
Director establish reasonable time lines to achieve the developmental goals of 
the SNRP.  The NINDS will facilitate interactions between the awardee and 
collaborating investigators;

o The NINDS Scientific Collaborator reserves the authority to recommend 
reductions in budget, withhold support, suspend and/or terminate the award if 
technical performance falls below acceptable standards for quality and 
timeliness;

o The NINDS Scientific Collaborator will actively participate as a non-voting 
member in all meetings of the external advisory committee during the performance 
period of the award;

o The NINDS Scientific Collaborator reserves the authority to recommend 
additional research endeavors within the approved research and negotiated 
budgets; and

o The NINDS Scientific Collaborator reserves the right to include selected 
extramural and intramural staff as consultants/experts on scientific issues 
during the performance period of the award;

o The Director, Office of Special Programs in Neuroscience (OSPN), NINDS will 
have primary responsibility for stewardship of the award and overall 
responsibility for monitoring the conduct, progress, and fiscal management of 
the research program.

3.  Arbitration

Disagreements between award recipients and the NINDS with regard to 
scientific/programmatic matters (within the scope of the award) or 
implementation of proposed operating policies may be brought to arbitration. An 
arbitration panel will be formed consisting of one member selected by the 
External Advisory Committee, one member selected by the NINDS, and a third 
member chosen by the other two members of the arbitration panel. The NINDS 
arbitration process in no way affects the rights of awardees to appeal selected 
post-award administrative decisions in accordance with PHS regulations at 42 CFR 
part 50, subpart D and HHS regulations at 45 CFR part 16.

MECHANISM OF SUPPORT

The Cooperative Agreement (U-series) award is the administrative mechanism for 
supporting activities in which the NIH collaborates substantially in scientific 
and/or programmatic matters with the awarded institution(s).  The Specialized 
Center-Cooperative Agreement (U54) mechanism will be used to support the SNRP 
award.  It is anticipated that collaborating neuroscientists will benefit from a 
broader range of research resources and interdisciplinary research approaches 
than are available at any one institution.  A SNRP award will support research 
and research development activities within the scope of the program priorities 
identified by the NINDS.

The NIH will support and stimulate the activities of the awardee(s) by working 
as a partner.  The NIH will not assume direction, take primary responsibility, 
or in any other way dominate the activity.  The section TERMS AND CONDITIONS 
contains detailed descriptions of the responsibilities, relationships, and 
governance of the activities supported by the cooperative agreements for the 
SNRPs on Health Disparity.

FUNDS AVAILABLE

The NINDS and the OAR plan to make up to two SNRP awards in Fiscal Year 2001.  
An applicant may request a project period of up to five years, and a budget for 
direct costs of up to $1 million per year, excluding Facilities and 
Administrative Costs on consortium arrangements.  Because the nature and scope 
of the research proposed may vary, it is anticipated that the size of each award 
will also vary. Although the financial plans of the NINDS and OAR provide 
support for this program, awards pursuant to this RFA are contingent upon the 
availability of funds and the receipt of applications of outstanding scientific 
and technical merit.  

ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS

Applications will only be accepted from domestic, public or private, non-profit, 
academic institutions that offer Ph.D., M.D., and/or equivalent health 
professional degrees, at which more than 50 percent of the students enrolled are 
from ethnic or racial minority groups.  Each applicant institution must identify 
a collaborating institution that can be a domestic Federal or non-Federal, 
public or private, non-profit organization.  Because the awardee will need 
continuous and substantial research collaborations to achieve the objectives of 
this RFA, the collaborating organization must be in the U.S., its possessions, 
or its territories.
The principal investigator, who serves as SNRP Director, must be a senior 
scientists with an established record of administrative accomplishments and 
independent research funding. (see REVIEW CONSIDERATIONS).

Participating applicant investigators from the minority organizations should 
have completed two or more years of postdoctoral neuroscience and/or HIV-AIDS 
research, and must be full-time employees of the applicant institution.  
Participating collaborating investigators from the research intensive 
institutions must be current NIH and/or NSF grantees (see RESEARCH OBJECTIVES).

INQUIRIES

Inquiries concerning this RFA are encouraged.  The opportunity to clarify any 
issues or questions from potential applicants is welcome. 

Dr. Alfred W. Gordon 
Director, Office of Special Programs in Neuroscience	
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke 
The Neuroscience Center, Suite 2150 
6001 Executive Boulevard
Bethesda, MD 20892
Telephone:  301-496-3102
Fax:  301-594-5929
Email:  ag38x@nih.gov

For information on budget and fiscal matters, contact:

Ms. Joellen Harper 
Chief, Grants Management Branch 
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke 
The Neuroscience Center, Suite 3290
6001 Executive Boulevard
Bethesda, MD 20892
Telephone:  (301) 496-9231
Fax:  (301) 402-0219
Email:  jh41m@nih.gov

LETTER OF INTENT

Prospective applicants are asked to submit, by February 1, 2001, a letter of 
intent that includes a descriptive title of the proposed research, the name, 
address, and telephone number of the principal investigator, the identities of 
other key personnel and participating institutions, and the number and title of 
the RFA in response to which the application may be submitted. Although a letter 
of intent is not required, is not binding, and does not enter into the review of 
a subsequent application, the information that it contains allows IC staff to 
estimate the potential review workload and plan the review.

The letter of intent is to be sent to:

Dr. Alfred W. Gordon
Director, Office of Special Programs in Neuroscience
National Institute of Neurological Disorders & Stroke
Neuroscience Center, Suite 2149
6001 Executive Boulevard
Rockville, MD 20892-9535 
Telephone:  301-496-3102
Fax:  (301) 594-5929
Email:  ag38x@nih.gov

SCHEDULE SUMMARY

Letter of Intent Receipt Date:    February 1, 2001 
Application Receipt Date:         April 13, 2001
Council Review:                   September 14, 2001
Earliest Award Date:              September 28, 2001

Applications must be received by April 13, 2001.  If an application is received 
after that date, it will be returned to the applicant without review.  The 
Center for Scientific Review (CSR) will not accept an application in response to 
this RFA that is essentially the same as one currently pending initial review, 
unless the applicant withdraws the pending application.  Also, the CSR will not 
accept any application that is essentially the same as one already reviewed.  
This does not preclude the submission of substantial revisions of applications 
already reviewed, but such applications must include an introduction addressing 
the previous critique.

APPLICATION PROCEDURES

The research grant application form PHS 398 (rev. 4/98) is to be used in 
applying for these grants.  These forms are available at most institutional 
offices of sponsored research, and may be obtained from the Division of 
Extramural Outreach and Information Resources, National Institutes of Health, 
6701 Rockledge Drive, MSC 7910, Bethesda, MD 20892-7910; telephone (301) 435-
0714; Email: grantsinfo@nih.gov; and from the NIH program administrator listed 
under INQUIRIES. They may also be downloaded from the Internet at 
http://www.nih.gov/grants/forms.htm. 

An application for a SNRP award must include the following:

o A description of new and/or strengthened existing collaborative projects with 
NIH and/or NSF grantees from research intensive institutions.  Investigators 
must clearly define the nature and extent of the research collaboration, such 
that they fully explain the necessary administrative, fiscal, and scientific 
aspects in the application.

o A research plan for up to five years that includes the proposed organization 
and functioning of the SNRP.  The plan should demonstrate the applicant’s 
knowledge, ingenuity, practicality, and commitment to developing a significant, 
productive, research program.

o A description of, and justification for the proposed individual research 
projects and core service facilities.  Applicants are required to propose one to 
three research projects, and must describe the nature and scope of scientific 
research collaborations.

o A description of the research, training goals, and capabilities of the 
proposed SNRP.  The Program Director and NINDS must establish a time line for 
supported applicant investigators to prepare and submit proposals for 
traditional research grant review during the performance period of the SNRP 
award; and

o A description of the infrastructure for conducting studies aimed at developing 
a nationally competitive neuroscience research program.

The RFA label, available in the PHS 398 (rev. 4/98) application kit, must be 
affixed to the bottom of the face page of the application.  Failure to use this 
label could result in delayed processing of the application such that it may not 
reach the review committee in time for review.  In addition, the RFA number and 
title must be typed on line 2 of the face page of the application form and the 
“YES” box must be marked.

The sample RFA label available at: 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/phs398/label-bk.pdf 
has been modified to allow for this change.

Submit a signed, typewritten original of the application, including the 
Checklist, and three signed photocopies, in one package to:

CENTER FOR SCIENTIFIC REVIEW
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
6701 ROCKLEDGE DRIVE, ROOM 1040 - MSC 7710
BETHESDA, MD 20892-7710 
BETHESDA, MD  20817 (FOR EXPRESS/COURIER SERVICE)

At the time of submission, two additional copies of the application must be sent 
to:

Dr. Lillian Pubols
Scientific Review Branch
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
6001 Executive Boulevard, Suite 3208
Bethesda, MD 20892-9529 
Rockville, MD 20852 (For Express/Courier Service)
Tel:  301-496-9223
Fax:  301-402-0182
e-mail:  LP28E@NIH.GOV

REVIEW CONSIDERATIONS

Upon receipt, applications will be reviewed for completeness by CSR, and 
responsiveness by NINDS staff.  Applications that are incomplete and/or non-
responsive to this RFA, or exceed the maximum first year direct cost limit of $1 
million, excluding Facilities and Administrative Costs for consortium budgets, 
will be returned to the applicant without further consideration. Applications 
that are complete and responsive to the RFA will be evaluated for scientific and 
technical merit by an appropriate peer review group convened by the NINDS in 
accordance with the review criteria stated below. As part of the initial merit 
review, all applications receive a written critique and undergo a process in 
which only those applications deemed to have the highest scientific merit, 
generally the top half of the applications under review, will be discussed, 
assigned a priority score, and receive a second level review by the National 
Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council.

Review Criteria

The review of the SNRP application is based not only on the traditional review 
criteria for research projects, but also considers the feasibility and potential 
for investigators to gain scientific independence.  The following criteria will 
be used to evaluate the potential for productive collaborative research, and the 
overall potential for enriching the academic and intellectual milieu for doing 
research that will increase what is known about healthy and disordered nervous 
systems.

o The significance, approach, and innovation of the proposed research projects 
and of the SNRP as a whole;

o The scientific and administrative qualifications of the principal investigator 
to direct the SNRP;

o The strengths of the applicant investigators and collaborating 
neuroscientists, particularly the academic qualifications, neuroscience research 
experience, expertise and research productivity;

o Appropriateness and adequacy of the experimental approach and methodology 
proposed to carry out the research, considering the applicant and collaborator 
research backgrounds and their respective contributions in the development of 
the research proposal.  The application must have scientific merit, but unlike a 
traditional research grant application, it must be evaluated in the context of 
the developmental goals and feasibility of the study;

o The nature, scope, and effectiveness of the plans for coordination and 
cooperation among research project investigators;

o Evaluate the facilities, resources, and environment of the applicant 
institution (including existing relevant equipment, animal, and/or computer 
resources, and departmental or interdepartmental cooperation);

o Evidence of a detailed plan for career development of students and fellows in 
neuroscience research and other neuroscience related health professions;

o The specific research goals to be accomplished, the hypotheses to be tested, 
and the likelihood that applicant investigators will produce the preliminary 
data and publications to be competitive for a traditional research grant during 
the performance period of the award;

o Appropriateness of the proposed budget and duration, including the 
justification for requested items in terms of the aims and methods of the 
proposed research studies;

o For research involving human subjects, adequacy of plans to include both 
genders and minorities and their subgroups as appropriate for the scientific 
goals of the research.  Plans for the recruitment and retention of subjects will 
also be evaluated.  Reviewers will assess the age-appropriate inclusion or 
exclusion of children in the research project and evaluate the plans for 
conducting the research in accord with the NIH guidelines on the inclusion of 
children as participants in research involving human subjects; and

o The adequacy of the proposed plan for animal welfare and biohazard safety in 
the research environment.

AWARD CRITERIA

Funding decisions will be based on the scientific and technical merit of the 
application as determined by the Initial Review Group, and the National Advisory 
Councils for the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and 
the Office of AIDS Research, program balance, and the availability of funds. 

INCLUSION OF WOMEN AND MINORITIES IN RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN SUBJECTS

It is the policy of the NIH that women and members of minority groups and their 
subpopulations must be included in all NIH supported biomedical and behavioral 
research projects involving human subjects, unless a clear and compelling 
rationale and justification is provided that inclusion is inappropriate with 
respect to the health of the subjects or the purpose of the research. This 
policy results from the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993 (Section 492B of Public 
Law 103-43). All investigators proposing research involving human subjects 
should read the UPDATED "NIH Guidelines for Inclusion of Women and Minorities as 
Subjects in Clinical Research," published in the NIH Guide for Grants and 
Contracts on August 2, 2000 (http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-
files/NOT-OD-00-048.html); a complete copy of the updated Guidelines are 
available at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/women_min/guidelines_update.htm: The 
revisions relate to NIH defined Phase III clinical trials and require: a) all 
applications or proposals and/or protocols to provide a description of plans to 
conduct analyses, as appropriate, to address differences by sex/gender and/or 
racial/ethnic groups, including subgroups if applicable; and b) all 
investigators to report accrual, and to conduct and report analyses, as 
appropriate, by sex/gender and/or racial/ethnic group differences.

INCLUSION OF CHILDREN AS PARTICIPANTS IN RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN SUBJECTS

It is the policy of NIH that children (i.e., individuals under the age of 21) 
must be included in all human subjects research, conducted or supported by the 
NIH, unless there are scientific and ethical reasons not to include them. This 
policy applies to all initial (Type 1) applications submitted for receipt dates 
after October 1, 1998. All investigators proposing research involving human 
subjects should read the "NIH Policy and Guidelines on the Inclusion of Children 
as Participants in Research Involving Human Subjects" that was published in the 
NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts, March 6, 1998, and is available at the 
following URL address: http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/not98-
024.html. Investigators also may obtain copies of these policies from the 
program staff listed under INQUIRIES. Program staff may also provide additional 
relevant information concerning the policy.

URLS IN NIH GRANT APPLICATIONS OR APPENDICES 

All applications and proposals for NIH funding must be self-contained within 
specified page limitations. Unless otherwise specified in an NIH solicitation, 
internet addresses (URLs) should not be used to provide information necessary to 
the review because reviewers are under no obligation to view the Internet sites. 
Reviewers are cautioned that their anonymity may be compromised when they 
directly access an Internet site.

HEALTHY PEOPLE 2010

The Public Health Service (PHS) is committed to achieving the health promotion 
and disease prevention objectives of “Healthy People 2010,” a PHS-led national 
activity for setting priority areas.  This RFA, the “Specialized Neuroscience 
Research Programs on Health Disparity: HIV and the Nervous System”, is related 
to the priority area of neurological complications of HIV infection.  Potential 
applicants may obtain a copy of “Healthy People 2000” at 
http://www.health.gov/healthypeople/.

AUTHORITY AND REGULATIONS

This program is described in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. 
93.853, Extramural Research Program in the Neurosciences and Neurological 
Disorders.  Awards are made under authorization of Sections 301 and 405 of the 
Public Health Service Act as amended (42 USC 241 and 284) and administered under 
NIH grants policies and Federal Regulations 42 CFR 52 and 45 CFR Parts 74 and 
92.  This program is not subject to the intergovernmental review requirements of 
Executive Order 12372 or Health Systems Agency review.

The PHS strongly encourages all grant and contract recipients to provide a 
smoke-free workplace, and to promote the non-use of all tobacco products.  In 
addition, Public Law 103-227, the Pro-Children Act of 1994, prohibits smoking in 
certain facilities (or in some cases, any portion of a facility) in which 
regular or routine education, library, day care, health care or early childhood 
development services are provided to children.  This is consistent with the PHS 
mission to protect and advance the physical and mental health of the American 
people.


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