MECHANISMS OF MINERALIZATION IN BONE
 
RELEASE DATE:  September 4, 2003
 
RFA Number:  RFA-AR-04-001

Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)
 
PARTICIPATING ORGANIZATIONS: 

National Institutes of Health (NIH)  
 (http://www.nih.gov)

COMPONENTS OF PARTICIPATING ORGANIZATIONS:  

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) 
 (http://www.niams.nih.gov/)

CATALOG OF FEDERAL DOMESTIC ASSISTANCE NUMBER(S) 93.846
 
LETTER OF INTENT RECEIPT DATE:  October 21, 2003

APPLICATION RECEIPT DATE:  November 18, 2003
 
THIS RFA CONTAINS THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION

o Purpose of this RFA
o Research Objectives
o Mechanism of Support 
o Funds Available
o Eligible Institutions
o Individuals Eligible to Become Principal Investigators
o Where to Send Inquiries
o Letter of Intent
o Submitting an Application
o Peer Review Process
o Review Criteria
o Receipt and Review Schedule
o Award Criteria
o Required Federal Citations

PURPOSE OF THIS RFA
 
This RFA is intended to stimulate and support investigation of the 
mechanisms that mediate and regulate the incorporation of mineral into 
bone.  Recent observations have underscored the critical contribution 
of bone mineral to the mechanical properties of bone, including its 
resistance to fracture.  Thus, an improved understanding of the 
mineralization process could lead to new therapeutic and preventive 
interventions for reducing the risk of fracture in groups at risk 
because of bone loss.
 
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

Background and Rationale

Bone is composed of a protein matrix, which contains embedded crystals 
of hydroxyapatite, a form of calcium phosphate.  The incorporation of 
the mineral into the matrix is essential for the hardness and rigidity 
that enable the skeleton to resist gravitational and mechanical 
loading.  Although chemical and physical analyses have revealed many 
details of the structure and organization of mineral in bone, much 
remains unclear about the process by which calcium and phosphate ions 
are sequestered from the soluble phase to form crystals in association 
with the bone matrix.  

In bone formation, osteoblasts first secrete the proteins of the bone 
matrix, or osteoid, which acquires mineral after forming as a 
histologically distinct layer.  Several proteins have been identified 
with the property of inhibiting matrix mineralization, suggesting that 
the potential for precipitation of mineral is inherent in the 
physiological milieu, and that a counterbalancing inhibition is 
required to prevent inappropriate formation of insoluble crystals.  
Indeed, several common pathologies, such as vascular calcification and 
crystal deposition arthopathies, provide evidence of the importance of 
appropriate control of mineralization in tissues.  Yet it remains 
unclear whether mineralization of bone principally reflects passive 
chemical processes, requiring only the presence of appropriate local 
concentrations of the precipitating ions, or instead, involves active 
biological processes, requiring higher-order functions of cells and 
their macromolecular components.  

Recent observations indicate that variation in the degree and nature of 
bone matrix mineralization may be an important determinant of 
resistance to fracture.  Importantly, there are suggestions that some 
pharmacological agents, widely used to reduce fracture risk, may have 
their effects in part by altering the quantity or quality of bone 
mineral.  Other work has begun to identify the gene products and 
molecular pathways that control the formation and maintenance of bone 
mineral.  An improved understanding of these pathways could furnish new 
principles for the development of preventive and therapeutic measures 
to improve bone quality and prevent fractures.

Objectives and Scope

The overall objective of this RFA is to illuminate chemical, 
macromolecular, and cellular mechanisms that mediate or influence the 
incorporation of mineral into bone.  Specifically, the focus of the 
initiative is on the osteoblast and its secreted matrix, including 
intrinsic functions of the osteoblast, its interactions with other 
cells, and its immediate environment in bone.  Excluded from this focus 
are the consequences of dietary mineral deficiency and mechanisms of 
systemic mineral regulation.  Although adequate dietary intake and 
normal systemic levels of calcium and phosphate are important for bone 
mineralization, a large literature already exists on the physiology and 
endocrinology of these factors.

In contrast, the focus of this initiative is the mineralization process 
itself, as it occurs when osteoblasts produce bone, for example, during 
the remodeling of the mature skeleton, or in the formation of certain 
flat bones.  The distinct mineralization process that occurs in the 
cartilage of the growth plate regions of long bones is outside the 
scope of this RFA.  Similarly, the mineralization of teeth and the 
various pathological conditions that arise from inappropriate 
mineralization of soft tissues are not to be addressed in this 
initiative.  It is recognized that some of the same molecules and 
similar mechanisms may be important in both bone and other tissues.  
However, the measure of responsiveness to this RFA will be the 
potential of proposed studies to illuminate the processes by which bone 
acquires its mineral component, and with it, its critical physical and 
mechanical attributes.  Of particular interest are approaches that may 
lead to new diagnostic tools for predicting fracture risk, or to 
therapeutic or preventive interventions that can reduce fracture risk.  

Appropriate research areas may include, but are not limited to, the 
following (subject to the exclusions noted above):

o Characterization and analysis of animal models, whether naturally 
occurring, mutant, or genetically modified, in which variations and/or 
aberrations of bone mineral properties are observed.

o Detection and analysis of genetic or environmental factors that 
influence the mineralization of bone in animals or humans.  

o Investigations of the role in mineralization of specific gene 
products, such as ion transporters and enzymes, which have the 
potential to alter local concentrations of extracellular mineral ions.

o Studies of molecular and cellular mechanisms of mineralization in 
cell culture models in which the mineralization process can be 
demonstrated to have strong parallels with that occurring in bone.

o Studies of the interactions between mineral and components of the 
bone matrix (collagenous and non-collagenous), and of the possible 
roles of matrix components in either promoting or inhibiting the 
mineralization of bone.

o Analysis of the biological basis for differences in quantity or 
quality of incorporated mineral that result in differences in the 
physical and mechanical properties of bone.

MECHANISM OF SUPPORT

This RFA will use the NIH traditional research project (R01) grant 
award mechanism.  As an applicant you will be solely responsible for 
planning, directing, and executing the proposed project.  This RFA is a 
one-time solicitation.  Future unsolicited, competing-continuation 
applications based on this project will compete with all investigator-
initiated applications and will be reviewed according to the customary 
peer review procedures.  The anticipated award date is July 2004. 
Applications that are not funded in the competition described in this 
RFA may be resubmitted as NEW investigator-initiated applications using 
the standard receipt dates for NEW applications described in the 
instructions to the PHS 398 application.  

This RFA uses just-in-time concepts.  It also uses the modular 
budgeting format. (see 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/modular/modular.htm).   
Specifically, if you are submitting an application with direct costs in 
each year of $250,000 or less, use the modular budget format.  This 
program does not require cost sharing as defined in the current NIH 
Grants Policy Statement at 
http://grants.nih.gov/archive/grants/policy/nihgps_2001/part_i_1.htm. 

FUNDS AVAILABLE 

The NIAMS intends to commit approximately $1 million in FY 2004 to fund 
three to four new and/or competitive continuation grants in response to 
this RFA. An applicant may request a project period of up to four years 
and a budget for direct costs of up to $250,000 per year.  Because the 
nature and scope of the proposed research will vary from application to 
application, it is anticipated that the size and duration of each award 
will also vary. Although the financial plans of the NIAMS provide 
support for this program, awards pursuant to this RFA are contingent 
upon the availability of funds and the receipt of a sufficient number 
of meritorious applications. 
 
ELIGIBLE INSTITUTIONS
 
You may submit an application if your institution has any of the 
following characteristics:
   
o For-profit or non-profit organizations 
o Public or private institutions, such as universities, colleges, 
hospitals, and laboratories 
o Units of State and local governments
o Eligible agencies of the Federal government  
o Domestic or foreign institutions/organizations
o Faith-based or community-based organizations 
 
INDIVIDUALS ELIGIBLE TO BECOME PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS   

Any individual with the skills, knowledge, and resources necessary to 
carry out the proposed research is invited to work with their 
institution to develop an application for support.  Individuals from 
underrepresented racial and ethnic groups as well as individuals with 
disabilities are always encouraged to apply for NIH programs.   
 
WHERE TO SEND INQUIRIES

We encourage inquiries concerning this RFA and welcome the opportunity 
to answer questions from potential applicants.  Inquiries may fall into 
three areas:  scientific/research, peer review, and financial or grants 
management issues:

o Direct your questions about scientific/research issues to:

William J. Sharrock, Ph.D.
Musculoskeletal Diseases Branch
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
NIH, DHHS 
One Democracy Plaza
6701 Democracy Blvd., Suite 800
Bethesda, MD  20892-4872
Telephone:  (301) 594-5055
FAX:  (301) 480-4543
Email: ws19h@nih.gov

o Direct your questions about peer review issues to:

Teresa Nesbitt, D.V.M., Ph.D.
Chief, Review Branch
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
NIH, DHHS
One Democracy Plaza
6701 Democracy Blvd., Suite 800
Bethesda, MD  20892-4872
Telephone: 301-594-4953
Email: nesbittT@mail.nih.gov

o Direct your questions about financial or grants management matters 
to:

Michael G. Morse
Deputy Chief, Grants Management Branch
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
NIH/DHHS
One Democracy Plaza
6701 Democracy Blvd., Suite 800
Bethesda, MD  20892-4872
Phone:  (301)594-3506
E-mail:  morsem@mail.nih.gov
 
LETTER OF INTENT
 
Prospective applicants are asked to submit a letter of intent that 
includes the following information:

o Descriptive title of the proposed research
o Name, address, and telephone number of the Principal Investigator
o Names of other key personnel 
o Participating institutions
o Number and title of this RFA 

Although a letter of intent is not required, is not binding, and does 
not enter into the review of a subsequent application, the information 
that it contains allows IC staff to estimate the potential review 
workload and plan the review.
 
The letter of intent is to be sent by the date listed at the beginning 
of this document.  The letter of intent should be sent to:

Teresa Nesbitt, D.V.M., Ph.D.
Chief, Review Branch
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
NIH, DHHS
One Democracy Plaza
6701 Democracy Blvd., Suite 800
Bethesda, MD  20892-4872
Telephone: 301-594-4953
Email: nesbittT@mail.nih.gov

SUBMITTING AN APPLICATION

Applications must be prepared using the PHS 398 research grant 
application instructions and forms (rev. 5/2001). Applications must 
have a DUN and Bradstreet (D&B) Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) 
number as the Universal Identifier when applying for Federal grants or 
cooperative agreements. The DUNS number can be obtained by calling 
(866) 705-5711 or through the web site at http://www.dunandbradstreet.com . 
The DUNS number should be entered on line 11 of the face page of the 
PHS 398 form. The PHS 398 document is available at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/phs398/phs398.html in an 
interactive format.  For further assistance contact GrantsInfo, 
Telephone (301) 435-0714, Email: GrantsInfo@nih.gov.
 
SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS FOR MODULAR GRANT APPLICATIONS: Applications 
requesting up to $250,000 per year in direct costs must be submitted in 
a modular grant format.  The modular grant format simplifies the 
preparation of the budget in these applications by limiting the level 
of budgetary detail.  Applicants request direct costs in $25,000 
modules.  Section C of the research grant application instructions for 
the PHS 398 (rev. 5/2001) at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/phs398/phs398.html includes step-
by-step guidance for preparing modular grants.  Additional information 
on modular grants is available at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/modular/modular.htm.

USING THE RFA LABEL: The RFA label available in the PHS 398 (rev. 
5/2001) application form must be affixed to the bottom of the face page 
of the application.  Type the RFA number on the label.  Failure to use 
this label could result in delayed processing of the application such 
that it may not reach the review committee in time for review.  In 
addition, the RFA title and number must be typed on line 2 of the face 
page of the application form and the YES box must be marked. The RFA 
label is also available at: 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/phs398/labels.pdf.
 
SENDING AN APPLICATION TO THE NIH: Submit a signed, typewritten 
original of the application, including the Checklist, and three signed 
photocopies, in one package to:
 
Center For Scientific Review
National Institutes Of Health
6701 Rockledge Drive, Room 1040, MSC 7710
Bethesda, MD  20892-7710
Bethesda, MD  20817 (for express/courier service)
 
At the time of submission, two additional copies of the application and 
all copies of the appendix material must be sent to:

Teresa Nesbitt, D.V.M., Ph.D.
Chief, Review Branch
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
NIH, DHHS
One Democracy Plaza
6701 Democracy Blvd., Suite 800
Bethesda, MD  20892-4872
 
APPLICATION PROCESSING: Applications must be received on or before the 
application receipt date listed in the heading of this RFA.  If an 
application is received after that date, it will be returned to the 
applicant without review. 

Although there is no immediate acknowledgement of the receipt of an 
application, applicants are generally notified of the review and 
funding assignment within 8 weeks.
 
The Center for Scientific Review (CSR) will not accept any application 
in response to this RFA that is essentially the same as one currently 
pending initial review, unless the applicant withdraws the pending 
application.  However, when a previously unfunded application, 
originally submitted as an investigator-initiated application, is to be 
submitted in response to an RFA, it is to be prepared as a NEW 
application.  That is, the application for the RFA must not include an 
Introduction describing the changes and improvements made, and the text 
must not be marked to indicate the changes from the previous unfunded 
version of the application.  

PEER REVIEW PROCESS  
 
Upon receipt, applications will be reviewed for completeness by the CSR 
and responsiveness by NIAMS. Incomplete applications will not be 
reviewed.

Applications that are complete and responsive to the RFA will be 
evaluated for scientific and technical merit by an appropriate peer 
review group convened by NIAMS in accordance with the review criteria 
stated below.  As part of the initial merit review, all applications 
will:

o Undergo a process in which only those applications deemed to have the 
highest scientific merit, generally the top half of the applications 
under review, will be discussed and assigned a priority score
o Receive a written critique
o Receive a second level review by the National Arthritis and 
Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Advisory Council. 
 
REVIEW CRITERIA

The goals of NIH-supported research are to advance our understanding of 
biological systems, improve the control of disease, and enhance health.  
In the written comments, reviewers will be asked to evaluate the 
application in order to judge the likelihood that the proposed research 
will have a substantial impact on the pursuit of these goals. The 
scientific review group will address and consider each of the following 
criteria in assigning the application's overall score, weighting them 
as appropriate for each application. 

o Significance 
o Approach 
o Innovation
o Investigator
o Environment

The application does not need to be strong in all categories to be 
judged likely to have major scientific impact and thus deserve a high 
priority score.  For example, an investigator may propose to carry out 
important work that by its nature is not innovative but is essential to 
move a field forward.

SIGNIFICANCE: Does this study address an important problem? If the aims 
of the application are achieved, how will scientific knowledge be 
advanced? What will be the effect of these studies on the concepts or 
methods that drive this field?

APPROACH: Are the conceptual framework, design, methods, and analyses 
adequately developed, well-integrated, and appropriate to the aims of 
the project? Does the applicant acknowledge potential problem areas and 
consider alternative tactics?

INNOVATION: Does the project employ novel concepts, approaches or 
methods? Are the aims original and innovative? Does the project 
challenge existing paradigms or develop new methodologies or 
technologies?

INVESTIGATOR: Is the investigator appropriately trained and well suited 
to carry out this work? Is the work proposed appropriate to the 
experience level of the principal investigator and other researchers 
(if any)?

ENVIRONMENT: Does the scientific environment in which the work will be 
done contribute to the probability of success? Do the proposed 
experiments take advantage of unique features of the scientific 
environment or employ useful collaborative arrangements? Is there 
evidence of institutional support?  

ADDITIONAL REVIEW CRITERIA: In addition to the above criteria, the 
following items will be considered in the determination of scientific 
merit and the priority score:

PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS FROM RESEARCH RISK: The involvement of 
human subjects and protections from research risk relating to their 
participation in the proposed research will be assessed. (See criteria 
included in the section on Federal Citations, below).
 
INCLUSION OF WOMEN, MINORITIES AND CHILDREN IN RESEARCH: The adequacy 
of plans to include subjects from both genders, all racial and ethnic 
groups (and subgroups), and children as appropriate for the scientific 
goals of the research.  Plans for the recruitment and retention of 
subjects will also be evaluated. (See Inclusion Criteria in the 
sections on Federal Citations, below).

CARE AND USE OF VERTEBRATE ANIMALS IN RESEARCH: If vertebrate animals 
are to be used in the project, the five items described under Section f 
of the PHS 398 research grant application instructions (rev. 5/2001) 
will be assessed. 
 
ADDITIONAL REVIEW CONSIDERATIONS

BUDGET:  The reasonableness of the proposed budget and the requested 
period of support in relation to the proposed research.

RECEIPT AND REVIEW SCHEDULE

Letter of Intent Receipt Date:  October 21, 2003
Application Receipt Date:  November 18, 2003
Peer Review Date:  February/March 2004
Council Review:  June 2004
Earliest Anticipated Start Date:  July 2004

AWARD CRITERIA

Award criteria that will be used to make award decisions include:

o Scientific merit (as determined by peer review)
o Availability of funds
o Programmatic priorities.
 
REQUIRED FEDERAL CITATIONS 

HUMAN SUBJECTS PROTECTION: Federal regulations (45CFR46) require that 
applications and proposals involving human subjects must be evaluated 
with reference to the risks to the subjects, the adequacy of protection 
against these risks, the potential benefits of the research to the 
subjects and others, and the importance of the knowledge gained or to 
be gained.
http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/45cfr46.htm 

INCLUSION OF WOMEN AND MINORITIES IN CLINICAL RESEARCH: It is the policy 
of the NIH that women and members of minority groups and their sub-
populations must be included in all NIH-supported clinical research 
projects unless a clear and compelling justification is provided 
indicating that inclusion is inappropriate with respect to the health of 
the subjects or the purpose of the research. This policy results from 
the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993 (Section 492B of Public Law 103-43).

All investigators proposing clinical research should read the "NIH 
Guidelines for Inclusion of Women and Minorities as Subjects in 
Clinical Research - Amended, October, 2001," published in the NIH Guide 
for Grants and Contracts on October 9, 2001 
(http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-02-001.html); 
a complete copy of the updated Guidelines are available at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/women_min/guidelines_amended_10_2001.htm.   
The amended policy incorporates: the use of an NIH definition 
of clinical research; updated racial and ethnic categories in 
compliance with the new OMB standards; clarification of language 
governing NIH-defined Phase III clinical trials consistent with the new 
PHS Form 398; and updated roles and responsibilities of NIH staff and 
the extramural community.  The policy continues to require for all NIH-
defined Phase III clinical trials that: a) all applications or 
proposals and/or protocols must provide a description of plans to 
conduct analyses, as appropriate, to address differences by sex/gender 
and/or racial/ethnic groups, including subgroups if applicable; and b) 
investigators must report annual accrual and progress in conducting 
analyses, as appropriate, by sex/gender and/or racial/ethnic group 
differences.

INCLUSION OF CHILDREN AS PARTICIPANTS IN RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN 
SUBJECTS:  The NIH maintains a policy that children (i.e., individuals 
under the age of 21) must be included in all human subjects research, 
conducted or supported by the NIH, unless there are scientific and 
ethical reasons not to include them. This policy applies to all initial 
(Type 1) applications submitted for receipt dates after October 1, 
1998.

All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should 
read the "NIH Policy and Guidelines" on the inclusion of children as 
participants in research involving human subjects that is available at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/children/children.htm

REQUIRED EDUCATION ON THE PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECT PARTICIPANTS: NIH 
policy requires education on the protection of human subject 
participants for all investigators submitting NIH proposals for 
research involving human subjects.  You will find this policy 
announcement in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts Announcement, 
dated June 5, 2000, at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-00-039.html.

HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS (hESC):  Criteria for federal funding of 
research on hESCs can be found at http://stemcells.nih.gov/index.asp and 
at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-02-005.html.  
Only research using hESC lines that are registered in the NIH Human 
Embryonic Stem Cell Registry will be eligible for Federal funding (see 
http://escr.nih.gov).   It is the responsibility of the applicant to 
provide, in the project description and elsewhere in the application as 
appropriate, the official NIH identifier(s) for the hESC line(s)to be 
used in the proposed research.  Applications that do not provide this 
information will be returned without review. 

PUBLIC ACCESS TO RESEARCH DATA THROUGH THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT: 
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-110 has been 
revised to provide public access to research data through the Freedom of 
Information Act (FOIA) under some circumstances.  Data that are (1) 
first produced in a project that is supported in whole or in part with 
Federal funds and (2) cited publicly and officially by a Federal agency 
in support of an action that has the force and effect of law (i.e., a 
regulation) may be accessed through FOIA.  It is important for 
applicants to understand the basic scope of this amendment.  NIH has 
provided guidance at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/a110/a110_guidance_dec1999.htm.

Applicants may wish to place data collected under this PA in a public 
archive, which can provide protections for the data and manage the 
distribution for an indefinite period of time.  If so, the application 
should include a description of the archiving plan in the study design 
and include information about this in the budget justification section 
of the application. In addition, applicants should think about how to 
structure informed consent statements and other human subjects 
procedures given the potential for wider use of data collected under 
this award.

STANDARDS FOR PRIVACY OF INDIVIDUALLY IDENTIFIABLE HEALTH INFORMATION:  
The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) issued final 
modification to the "Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable 
Health Information", the "Privacy Rule," on August 14, 2002.  The 
Privacy Rule is a federal regulation under the Health Insurance 
Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 that governs the 
protection of individually identifiable health information, and is 
administered and enforced by the DHHS Office for Civil Rights (OCR). 
Those who must comply with the Privacy Rule (classified under the Rule 
as "covered entities") must do so by April 14, 2003 (with the exception 
of small health plans which have an extra year to comply).  

Decisions about applicability and implementation of the Privacy Rule 
reside with the researcher and his/her institution. The OCR website 
(http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/) provides information on the Privacy Rule, 
including a complete Regulation Text and a set of decision tools on "Am 
I a covered entity?"  Information on the impact of the HIPAA Privacy 
Rule on NIH processes involving the review, funding, and progress 
monitoring of grants, cooperative agreements, and research contracts 
can be found at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-03-025.html.

URLs IN NIH GRANT APPLICATIONS OR APPENDICES: All applications and 
proposals for NIH funding must be self-contained within specified page 
limitations. Unless otherwise specified in an NIH solicitation, Internet 
addresses (URLs) should not be used to provide information necessary to 
the review because reviewers are under no obligation to view the 
Internet sites.   Furthermore, we caution reviewers that their anonymity 
may be compromised when they directly access an Internet site.

HEALTHY PEOPLE 2010: The Public Health Service (PHS) is committed to 
achieving the health promotion and disease prevention objectives of 
"Healthy People 2010," a PHS-led national activity for setting priority 
areas. This RFA is related to one or more of the priority areas. 
Potential applicants may obtain a copy of "Healthy People 2010" at 
http://www.healthypeople.gov/.

AUTHORITY AND REGULATIONS: This program is described in the Catalog of 
Federal Domestic Assistance at http://www.cfda.gov/ and is not subject 
to the intergovernmental review requirements of Executive Order 12372 
or Health Systems Agency review.  Awards are made under the 
authorization of Sections 301 and 405 of the Public Health Service Act 
as amended (42 USC 241 and 284) and under Federal Regulations 42 CFR 52 
and 45 CFR Parts 74 and 92. All awards are subject to the terms and 
conditions, cost principles, and other considerations described in the 
NIH Grants Policy Statement.  The NIH Grants Policy Statement can be 
found at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/policy.htm 

The PHS strongly encourages all grant recipients to provide a smoke-
free workplace and discourage the use of all tobacco products.  In 
addition, Public Law 103-227, the Pro-Children Act of 1994, prohibits 
smoking in certain facilities (or in some cases, any portion of a 
facility) in which regular or routine education, library, day care, 
health care, or early childhood development services are provided to 
children.  This is consistent with the PHS mission to protect and 
advance the physical and mental health of the American people.


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