ORTHOPOXVIRUS GENOMICS AND BIOINFORMATICS RESOURCE CENTER

Release Date:  October 20, 1999

RFA: AI-00-003


National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Letter of Intent Receipt Date:  December 15, 1999
Application Receipt Date:  January 19, 2000

PURPOSE

As part of DHHS-wide efforts directed towards improving the 
defense of civilians from the threat of possible 
bioterrorism, the Division of Microbiology and Infectious 
Diseases (DMID), National Institute of Allergy and 
Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health 
(NIH), invites research proposals directed toward the design 
and implementation of an ORTHOPOXVIRUS GENOMICS AND 
BIOINFORMATICS RESOURCE CENTER.  Genomic analyses will 
include sequence and functional comparisons of conserved and 
variable genes to provide insights for the selection of 
targets for the design of antiviral and vaccine strategies. 

Areas of research which should be addressed by applicants 
include (but are not limited to): 1) The collection and/or 
determination of orthopoxvirus genomic sequences including 
variola and human and vertebrate (including human) 
poxviruses that might serve as surrogates for variola; 2) 
The design and maintenance of relational databases to store, 
display, annotate and query genome sequence, structural 
information, phenotypic data (e.g. drug susceptibility, 
virulence, host specificity) and bibliographic information; 
3) The application of innovative methods for global 
functional analysis of the viral genomes; and 4)Service as a 
repository of well-documented viral strains (including 
clinical isolates and mutants, if relevant) and genomic 
clones that are used in the genomic sequence analysis; and 
5) Develop and maintain  a website. NIAID will establish an 
external steering committee to provide advice to the 
Principal Investigator and the NIAID Scientific Coordinator 
on research directions. Of the areas described above, items 
1 and 2 are the main priorities for NIAID.  However, 
applications which propose only to sequence orthopoxviruses 
are NOT responsive to this RFA.

HEALTHY PEOPLE 2000

The Public Health Service (PHS) is committed to achieving 
the health promotion and disease prevention objectives of 
"Healthy People 2000," a PHS-led national activity for 
setting priority areas.  This Request for Applications 
(RFA), ORTHOPOXVIRUS GENOMICS AND BIOINFORMATICS, is related 
to the priority area(s) of immunization and infectious 
diseases. Potential applicants may obtain a copy of "Healthy 
People 2000" at http://odphp.osophs.dhhs.gov/pubs/hp2000.

ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS

Applications may be submitted by domestic for-profit and 
non-profit organizations; public and private institutions, 
such as universities, colleges, hospitals, laboratories, 
units of State and local governments; and eligible agencies 
of the Federal government.  Foreign institutions are not 
eligible to apply.  Racial/ethnic minority individuals, 
women, and persons with disabilities are encouraged to apply 
as Principal Investigators.

MECHANISM OF SUPPORT

The administrative and funding mechanism to be used to 
undertake this program will be the Cooperative Agreement 
(U01), an "assistance" mechanism, rather than an 
"acquisition" mechanism, in which substantial NIH scientific 
and/or programmatic involvement with the awardee is 
anticipated during the performance of the activity.  Under 
the cooperative agreement, the NIH purpose is to support 
and/or stimulate the recipient's activity by involvement in 
and otherwise working jointly with the award recipient in a 
partner role, but it is not to assume direction, prime 
responsibility, or a dominant role in the activity.  Details 
of the responsibilities, relationships, and governance of a 
study funded under cooperative agreement(s) are discussed 
later in this document under the section Terms and 
Conditions of Award.

The total project period for applications submitted in 
response to this RFA may not exceed five years. At present, 
the NIAID is administratively limiting the duration of U01 
cooperative agreements to four years; this administrative 
limitation may change in the future.  At this time, the 
NIAID has not determined whether and how this solicitation 
will be continued beyond the present RFA.

FUNDS AVAILABLE

The estimated total funds (direct and facilities and 
administrative(F&A)costs) available for the first year of 
support for all awards made under this RFA will be $500,000.  
Depending on Fiscal Year 2000 budget appropriations, this 
amount may increase. In Fiscal Year 2000 the NIAID plans to 
fund approximately one award.  The usual NIH policies 
governing grants administration and management will apply.  
Although this program is provided for in the financial plans 
of the NIAID, awards pursuant to this RFA are contingent 
upon the availability of funds for this purpose and the 
receipt of a sufficient number of applications of high 
scientific merit.  Funding beyond the first and subsequent 
years of the grant will be contingent upon satisfactory 
progress during the preceding years and availability of 
funds.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

Background

In recent years, there has been a significant change in both 
the nature and degree of the threat posed by the use of 
weapons of biological warfare. The risk of using such 
weapons once appeared to be restricted to international 
conflicts involving small numbers of industrialized nations. 
However, an increasing number of developing countries, as 
well as terrorist groups, and rogue individuals now view the 
use of biological weapons as agents of terror, rather than 
as instruments of warfare. Recent events, such as 
disclosures of international biological weapons programs, 
the bacterial contamination of restaurant food by cultists, 
and the delivery of a putative anthrax bacterial culture to 
a DC office, have dramatized both the possibility of 
bioterrorist attack and the vulnerability of the U.S. 
population to such an event.  Although the DOD has developed 
defenses for biological warfare, there are additional 
concerns that need to be addressed to provide an adequate 
civilian defense from this threat.  One is that the 
populations to be protected are different as civilians 
include people of all ages and physical conditions.  Thus, 
the important research goals for defense against biological 
agents delivered by a potential terrorist include: 1) rapid, 
accurate diagnosis; 2) effective therapy for those infected; 
3) protective vaccination for those at risk of exposure; and 
4) basic research, which provides the essential underpinning 
of the other areas.

Of the potential organisms that might be used in 
bioterrorism, smallpox would likely have the most horrific 
impact on the health of the U.S.  Smallpox is highly 
contagious and mortality is in the range of 30%.  There is 
no available antiviral therapy.  Furthermore, the U.S. 
population is essentially entirely susceptible because 
routine immunization was terminated in the early 1960’s.  
Even older vaccinees are vulnerable as vaccine protection 
wanes significantly after ten years. As a result of the 
eradication of the disease, and with the exception of the 
development of fowlpox vaccine vectors, the amount of 
research on smallpox and related poxviruses has decreased 
significantly.
 
This Request for Applications (RFA) will support the 
acquisition and analysis of orthopoxvirus genomic 
information to facilitate its application to the development 
of therapies and improved vaccines for smallpox and related 
viruses.

Research Objectives and Scope

Relevant research includes, but is not limited to, the 
following:

1) The collection and/or determination of orthopoxvirus 
genomic sequences including variola and human and vertebrate 
(including human) poxviruses that might serve as surrogates 
for variola; 2) The design and maintenance of relational 
databases to store, display, annotate and query genome 
sequence, structural information, phenotypic data (e.g. drug 
susceptibility, virulence, host specificity) and 
bibliographic information; 3) The application of innovative 
methods for global functional analysis of the viral genomes; 
and 4) Service as a repository of well-documented viral 
strains (including clinical isolates and mutants, if 
relevant)and genomic clones that are used in the genomic 
sequence analysis; and 5) Develop and maintain a website. 
NIAID will establish an external advisory committee to 
provide advice to the Principal Investigator and the NIAID 
Scientific Coordinator on research directions. Of the areas 
described above, items 1 and 2 are the main programmatic 
priorities for NIAID.  However, applications that propose 
only to sequence orthopoxviruses, are NOT responsive to this 
RFA.
 
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS

NIAID will establish an external steering committee to 
provide advice to the Principal Investigator and the NIAID 
Scientific Coordinator on research directions.  Funds to 
support the travel of five committee members, as well as the 
Principal Investigator, to attend an annual one day meeting 
in Bethesda should be included in the budget.  Other 
meetings will be scheduled as conference calls.

TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF AWARD

The administrative and funding instrument used for this 
program is the cooperative agreement (U01), an “assistance” 
mechanism (rather than an “acquisition” mechanism), in which 
substantial NIH scientific and/or programmatic involvement 
with the awardee is anticipated during the performance of 
the activity.  Under the cooperative agreement, the NIH 
purpose is to support and/or stimulate the recipient’s 
activity by involvement in and otherwise working jointly 
with the award recipient in a partner role, but it is not to 
assume direction, prime responsibility, or a dominant role 
in the activity. 

Consistent with this concept, the dominant role and prime 
responsibility for the activity resides with the awardees 
for the project as a whole, although specific tasks and 
activities in carrying out the research will be shared among 
the awardees and the NIAID Scientific Coordinator.

Cooperative agreements are subject to the administrative 
requirements outlined in OMB circulars A-102 and A-110.  All 
pertinent HHS, PHS, and NIH grant regulations, policies and 
procedures, with particular emphasis on PHS regulations at 
42 CFR part 52 and HHS regulations at CFR 45 Part74, are 
applicable. These special terms and conditions pertaining to 
the scope and nature of the interaction between the NIAID 
and the investigators will be incorporated in the Notice of 
Grant Award.  However, these terms will be in addition to,  
not in lieu of, the customary programmatic and financial 
negotiations that occur in the administration of cooperative 
agreements. 

1. AWARDEE RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES

Awardees will have primary responsibility for defining the 
research objectives, approaches and details of the projects 
within the guidelines of the RFA and for performing the 
scientific activity. Specifically, awardees have primary 
responsibility as described below.

a. The Principal Investigator defines the details of the 
project within the guidelines of the RFA, retains primary 
responsibility for the performance of the scientific 
activity, and agrees to accept close assistance of NIAID 
staff in aspects of scientific and technical management of 
the project in accordance with the terms mutually agreed 
upon prior to the award.

b. The awardee is to plan and conduct the research 
stipulated in the application and to ensure that the results 
obtained are analyzed and published in a timely manner. The 
awardee should adhere to NIAID policy on release of genome 
sequence data (March 19, 1999 issue of the NIH Guide). 
Awardees will retain custody of and have primary rights to 
the data developed under these awards, subject to Government 
rights of access consistent with current HHS, PHS, and NIH 
policies.

c. The awardee is to participate in an annual meeting of 
investigators funded under this and related RFAs to discuss 
progress and strategies for future research.

d. The awardee, as described above, is to participate in 
meetings of the steering committee.  

2. NIAID STAFF RESPONSIBILITIES

Assistance via Cooperative Agreement differs from the 
traditional research grant in that, in addition to the 
normal programmatic and administrative stewardship 
responsibilities, the component awarding the Cooperative 
Agreement anticipates substantial programmatic involvement 
during performance of the project.  NIAID staff will 
participate in, but not direct, the research to ensure that 
important disease targets are addressed.  The Chief, 
Virology Branch, DMID will serve as Scientific Coordinator 
and will participate as a member of the research team.  The 
Scientific Coordinator will interact with the Principal 
Investigators and Co-investigators in the overall research 
planning and in data analysis.  During performance of the 
award, the NIAID Scientific Coordinator may provide 
appropriate assistance by participating in the design of 
research group activities; advising in the selection of 
sources or resources; coordinating or participating in 
collection and/or analysis of data; and, advising in 
management and technical performance.  The Scientific 
Coordinator may assist with arrangements for the further 
evaluation, both in vitro and in animal models, of agents 
resulting from this research.  However, the role of NIAID 
will be to facilitate and not to direct the activities. 
Specifically, it is presently envisioned that the NIAID will 
be actively engaged in the facilitation of components 
including assisting the awardees in:

a. Collaborative participation in overall research planning  
and data analysis. Specifically, the NIAID Scientific 
Coordinator may suggest studies within the scope of the 
award's objectives and research activities; may present to 
the investigators experimental findings from published 
sources or from contract projects in support of these 
suggestions; may participate in the design of experiments; 
and may participate in the analysis of results.

b. Provision of needed resources and information that may 
not be otherwise available to the investigator.  This will 
include the facilitation of collaborations between awardee 
and awardees funded under other components of the 
Bioterrorism program to expedite application of genetic 
information to the development of drugs, diagnostics and 
vaccines.

c. In the event that an awardee's research results in a 
procedure or a product that requires testing of a nature 
beyond the awardee's capabilities, the NIAID Scientific 
Coordinator may provide resources available to the Institute 
for comprehensive preclinical efficacy evaluations.

d. Coordination of consultations with the Steering Committee 
and implementation of their recommendations which the 
Principal Investigator and NIAID Scientific Coordinator 
agree warrant action.

e. Coordination of communications and collaborations, when 
appropriate, with other genomics and or bioterrorist 
research activities supported by NIAID, DoD (DARPA, 
USAMRIID), CDC and DoE.

f. The NIAID Scientific Coordinator will organize an annual 
symposium in Bethesda, Maryland at which the Principal 
Investigators will discuss their progress.  This will 
facilitate overall program planning and development, the 
evaluation of the feasibility of the attempted approaches, 
and will promote productive interactions among the 
successful applicants.  The NIAID Scientific Coordinator 
will also ensure the participation in this symposium of 
investigators from other NIAID preclinical and clinical 
programs to provide the most relevant antiviral expertise 
possible to facilitate planning for future research and 
expedite the design and development of novel antiviral 
agents.

3. Collaborative Responsibilities

NIAID will establish an external steering committee to 
provide advice to the Principal Investigator and the NIAID 
Scientific Coordinator on research directions.  In planning 
research programs, the awardee will consider recommendations 
from the steering committee.  In addition, the steering 
committee will make recommendations to NIAID and the awardee 
concerning policy for release and distribution of repository 
reagents.

4. Arbitration

Any disagreement that may arise on scientific or 
programmatic matters (within the scope of the award) between 
award recipients and the NIAID may be brought to 
arbitration.  An arbitration panel will be composed of three 
members -- one selected by the individual awardee in the 
event of an individual disagreement, a second member 
selected by the NIAID, and the third member with expertise 
in the relevant area and selected by the two prior members 
will be formed to review any scientific or programmatic 
issue that is significantly restricting progress.  While the 
decisions of the Arbitration Panel are binding, these 
special arbitration procedures will in no way affect the 
awardee's right to appeal an adverse action in accordance 
with PHS regulations at 42 CFR Part 50, subpart D, and HHS 
regulations at 45 CFR Part 16.

LETTER OF INTENT

Prospective applicants are asked to submit, by December 15, 
1999, a letter of intent that includes a descriptive title 
of the overall proposed research; the name, address and 
telephone number of the Principal Investigator; and the 
number and title of this RFA. In addition, the letter of 
intent should identify other “key personnel” who will be 
involved in the research and their institutions.  Although 
the letter of intent is not required, is not binding, does 
not commit the sender to submit an application, and does not 
enter into the review of subsequent applications, the 
information that it contains allows NIAID staff to estimate 
the potential review workload and to avoid conflict of 
interest in the review.  The letter of intent is to be sent 
to Dr. Anna Ramsey-Ewing at the address listed under 
INQUIRIES.

INCLUSION OF WOMEN AND MINORITIES IN RESEARCH INVOLVING 
HUMAN SUBJECTS

It is the policy of the NIH that women and members of 
minority groups and their sub-populations must be included 
in all NIH supported biomedical and behavioral research 
projects involving human subjects, unless a clear, 
compelling rationale, and justification are provided that 
inclusion is inappropriate with respect to the health of the 
subjects or the purpose of the research.  This policy 
results from the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993 (Section 
492B of Public Law 103-43).

All investigators proposing research involving human 
subjects should read the "NIH Guidelines for Inclusion of 
Women and Minorities as Subjects in Clinical Research", 
published in the Federal Register of March 28, 1994 (FR 59 
14508-14513) and the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts, 
Vol. 23, No. 11, March 18, 1994 which is available via the 
WWW. at: 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/not94-100.html

NIH POLICY AND GUIDELINES ON THE INCLUSION OF CHILDREN AS 
PARTICIPANTS IN RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN SUBJECTS:

It is the policy of NIH that children (i.e., individuals 
under the age of 21) must be included in all human subjects 
research, conducted or supported by the NIH, unless there 
are scientific and ethical reasons not to include them.  
This policy applies to all initial (Type 1) applications 
submitted for receipt dates after October 1, 1998.

All investigators proposing research involving human 
subjects should read the "NIH Policy and Guidelines on the 
Inclusion of Children as Participants in Research Involving 
Human Subjects" that was published in the NIH Guide for 
Grants and Contracts, March 6, 1998, and which is available 
at the following URL address: 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/not98-024.html

Investigators may obtain copies from these sources or from 
Dr. Catherine Laughlin (listed in INQUIRIES below) who may 
also provide additional relevant information concerning the 
policy.

APPLICATION PROCEDURES

Applicants are strongly encouraged to call NIAID program 
staff with any questions regarding the responsiveness of 
their proposed project to the goals of this RFA.  

Applications are to be submitted on the grant application 
form PHS 398 (rev. 4/98).  These forms are available at most 
institutional offices of sponsored research; from the 
Division of Extramural Outreach and Information Resources, 
National Institutes of Health, 6700 Rockledge Drive, MSC 
7910, Bethesda, MD 20892-7910, telephone 301/435-0714, 
email: grantsinfo@nih.gov and on the internet at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/phs398/phs398.html

For purposes of identification and processing, item 2a on 
the face page of the application must be marked “YES” and 
the RFA number “(AI-99-015)” and the words “ORTHOPOXVIRUS 
GENOMICS AND BIOINFORMATICS” must be entered on the face 
page.

The RFA label and line 2 of the application should both 
indicate the RFA number.  The RFA label must be affixed to 
the bottom of the face page.  Failure to use this label 
could result in delayed processing of the application such 
that it may not reach the review committee in time for 
review.

The sample RFA label available at: 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/phs398/label-bk.pdf has 
been modified to allow for this change.  Please note this is 
in pdf format.

Applications must be received by January 19, 2000.  
Applications not received as a single package on the receipt 
date or not conforming to the instructions contained in PHS 
398 (rev. 4/98) Application Kit (as modified in, and 
superseded by, the special instructions below, for the 
purposes of this RFA), will be judged non-responsive and 
will be returned to the applicant. 

If the application submitted in response to this RFA is
substantially similar to a grant application already 
submitted to the NIH for review, but that has not yet been 
reviewed, the applicant will be asked to withdraw either the 
pending application or the new one.  Simultaneous submission 
of identical applications will not be allowed, nor will 
essentially identical applications be reviewed by different 
review committees.  Therefore, an application that is 
essentially identical to one that has already been reviewed 
cannot be submitted in response to this RFA.  This does not 
preclude the submission of substantial revisions of 
applications already reviewed, but such applications must 
include an introduction addressing the previous critique.

Submit a signed, typewritten original of the application, 
including the checklist, and three signed, exact, single-
sided photocopies, in one package to:

Center for Scientific Review
National Institutes of Health
6701 Rockledge Drive, Room 1040 – MSC 7710
Bethesda, MD  20892-7710
Bethesda, MD  20817 (for express mail or courier service)

At the time of submission, two additional exact copies of 
the grant application and all five sets of any appendix 
material must be sent to Dr. Anna Ramsey-Ewing at the 
address listed under INQUIRIES.

Applicants from institutions that have a General Clinical 
Research Center (GCRC) funded by the NIH National Center for 
Research Resources may wish to identify the GCRC as a 
resource for conducting the proposed research.  If so, a 
letter of agreement from either the GCRC Program Director or 
Principal Investigator should be included with the 
application.

REVIEW CONSIDERATIONS  

Review Considerations

Upon receipt, applications will be reviewed for completeness 
and adherence to the Special Instructions above by the NIH 
Center for Scientific Review and for responsiveness by NIAID 
staff; those judged to be incomplete will be returned to the 
applicant without review.  Those considered to be non-
responsive will be returned without review.

Applications that are complete and responsive to the RFA 
will be evaluated for scientific and technical merit by an 
appropriate peer review group convened by the NIAID.  As 
part of the initial merit review, a process will be used by 
the initial review group in which all applications receive a 
written critique and undergo a process in which only those 
applications deemed to have the highest scientific merit 
will be discussed, assigned a priority score, and receive a 
second level review by the National Advisory Allergy and 
Infectious Diseases Advisory Council.

Review Criteria

The criteria to be used in the evaluation of grant 
applications are listed below.  To put those criteria in 
context, the following information is contained in 
instructions to the peer reviewers.

The goals of NIH-supported research are to advance our 
understanding of biological systems, improve the control of 
disease, and enhance health.  The reviewers will comment on 
the following aspects of the application in their written 
critiques in order to judge the likelihood that the proposed 
research will have a substantial impact on the pursuit of 
these goals.  Each of these criteria will be addressed and 
considered by the reviewers in assigning the overall score 
weighting them as appropriate for each application.  Note 
that the application does not need to be strong in all 
categories to be judged likely to have a major scientific 
impact and thus deserve a high priority score.  For example, 
an investigator may propose to carry out important work that 
by its nature is not innovative but is essential to move a 
field forward.

1. Significance.  Does this study address the goal of the 
RFA? If the aims of the application are achieved, how will 
scientific knowledge be advanced?  What will be the effect 
of these studies on the concepts or methods that drive this 
field?

2. Approach.  Are the conceptual framework, design, methods, 
and analyses adequately developed, well-integrated, and 
appropriate to the aims of the project?  Does the applicant 
acknowledge potential problem areas and consider alternative 
tactics? 

3. Innovation.  Does the project employ novel concepts, 
approaches or method?  Are the aims original and innovative? 
Does the project challenge existing paradigms or develop new 
methodologies or technologies? 

4. Investigator.  Is the investigator appropriately trained 
and well suited to carry out this work?  Is the work 
proposed appropriate to the experience level of the 
Principal Investigator and other researchers (if any)?

5. Environment.  Does the scientific environment in which 
the work will be done contribute to the probability of 
success?  Do the proposed experiments take advantage of 
unique features of the scientific environment or employ 
useful collaborative arrangements?  Is there evidence of 
institutional support?

In addition to the above criteria, in accordance with NIH 
policy, all applications will also be reviewed with respect 
to the following:

o  The adequacy of plans to include both genders, minorities 
and their subgroups, and children as appropriate for the 
scientific goals of the research.  Plans for the recruitment 
and retention of subjects will also be evaluated.

o  The reasonableness of the proposed budget and duration in 
relation to the proposed research

o  The adequacy of the proposed protection for humans, 
animals or the environment, to the extent they may be 
adversely affected by the project  proposed in the 
application.

AWARD CRITERIA
  
Funding decisions will be made on the basis of scientific 
and technical merit as determined by peer review, program 
balance, and the availability of funds.  The earliest 
anticipated date of award is September 2000.

INQUIRIES  
  
Written and telephone inquiries concerning this RFA are 
encouraged.  The opportunity to clarify any issues or 
questions from potential applicants is welcome.

Direct inquiries regarding programmatic (research scope and 
eligibility) issues to:  

Dr. Catherine Laughlin 
Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases  
Rockledge-B Building, Room 3136
6700-B Rockledge Drive MSC 7630
Bethesda, MD  20892-7630
(zip for express mail is 20817)
Telephone:  (301) 496-7453
FAX:  (301) 496-8030
E-mail:  CL28R@NIH.GOV

Direct inquiries regarding review issues; address the letter 
of intent to; and mail two copies of the application and all 
five sets of appendices to:
 
Anna Ramsey-Ewing, Ph.D.  
Division of Extramural Activities  
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases  
6700-B Rockledge Drive MSC 7616, Room 2220
Bethesda, MD  20892-7616
(zip for express mail is 20817)
Telephone:  (301) 435-8536
FAX:  (301) 402-2638
E-mail: AR15O@NIH.GOV

Direct inquiries regarding fiscal matters to:  

Annette Hanopole  
Division of Extramural Activities  
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases  
6700-B Rockledge Drive MSC 7614, Room 2122
Bethesda, MD  20892-7614
(zip for express mail is 20817)
Telephone:  (301) 496-7075
Fax: (301) 480-3780
E-mail: ahanopole@niaid.nih.gov

Schedule

Letter of intent receipt date: December 15,1999  
Application receipt date:      January 19, 2000
Scientific review date:        June, 2000
Advisory Council date:         September, 2000
Earliest award date:           September, 2000

AUTHORITY AND REGULATIONS

This program is supported under authorization of the Public 
Health Service Act, Sec. 301 (c), Public Law 78-410, as 
amended.  The Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance 
Citations are Sec. 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious 
Diseases Research, and No. 93.855 - Immunology, Allergy, and 
Transplantation Research.  Awards will be administered under 
PHS grants policies and Federal Regulations 42 CFR Part 52 
and 45 CFR Part 74.  This program is not subject to the 
intergovernmental review requirements of Executive Order 
12372 or Health Systems review.

The Public Health Service strongly encourages all grant and 
contract recipients to provide a smoke-free workplace and 
promote the non-use of all tobacco products. In addition, 
Public Law 103-227, the Pro-Children Act of 1994, prohibits 
smoking in certain facilities (or, in some cases, any 
portion of a facility) in which regular or routine 
education, library, day care, health care or early childhood 
development services are provided to children.  This is 
consistent with the PHS mission to protect and advance the 
physical and mental health of the American people.


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