PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL-RELATED PROBLEMS AMONG ADOLESCENTS

Release Date:  October 12, 2000

RFA:  AA-01-001

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
 (http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/)

Letter of Intent Receipt Date:  February 9, 2001
Application Receipt Date:       April 10, 2001

PURPOSE

The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) seeks grant 
applications to conduct research on comprehensive interventions to prevent 
and reduce alcohol use and misuse among adolescents in racially, ethnically 
and economically diverse urban communities.  

Alcohol continues to be the number one substance of abuse used by American 
adolescents.   Both theory and practice indicate that comprehensive 
interventions, compared to single component interventions, are more likely to 
be effective in delaying drinking onset, reducing age-related increases in 
drinking, and preventing and reducing high risk drinking and other alcohol-
related problems among adolescents.  Comprehensive interventions are those 
that address the community (including regulatory policies), school 
environment, parental norms and practices regarding alcohol use by their 
children, and individual adolescent’s knowledge, cognitions, intentions, and 
skills. 

The purpose of this Request for Applications (RFA) is to encourage research 
that develops and/or tests comprehensive interventions to prevent adolescent 
alcohol use and misuse in racially/ethnically and economically diverse urban 
communities.  These prevention strategies should seek to change or strengthen 
community norms, school environments, and parental norms and practices 
regarding alcohol use by youth, improve adolescent knowledge, attitudes, 
cognitions, intentions, and refusal skills regarding alcohol use and its 
consequences, and reduce the availability of alcohol to youth.  Additional 
intervention strategies, such as modifications of after-school environments, 
are not precluded.  Applicants are encouraged to develop and/or test 
interventions for young adolescents in later grades of elementary school and 
middle or junior high school, the majority of whom have not yet begun to use 
alcohol or other substances.

HEALTHY PEOPLE 2010

The Public Health Service (PHS) is committed to achieving the health 
promotion and disease prevention objectives of "Healthy People 2010," a PHS-
led national activity for setting priority areas. This Request for 
Applications (RFA), Prevention of Alcohol-Related Problems Among Adolescents, 
is related to one or more of the priority areas. Potential applicants may 
obtain a copy of "Healthy People 2010" at 
http://www.health.gov/healthypeople/.

ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS

Applications may be submitted by domestic for-profit and non-profit 
organizations, public and private, such as universities, colleges, hospitals, 
laboratories, units of State and local governments, and eligible agencies of 
the Federal Government.  Foreign institutions are not eligible for these 
grants.  Racial/ethnic minority individuals, women, and persons with 
disabilities are encouraged to apply as Principal Investigators.

MECHANISM OF SUPPORT

This RFA will use the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Research Project 
Grant (R01) award mechanism. Responsibility for the planning, direction, and 
execution of the proposed project will be solely that of the applicant.  The 
total project period for an application submitted in response to this RFA may 
not exceed 5 years.  This RFA is a one-time solicitation. Future unsolicited 
competing continuation applications will compete with all investigator-
initiated applications and be reviewed according to the customary peer review 
procedures. The anticipated award date is September 28, 2001.

Since applications are requesting more than $250,000, the modular grant 
mechanism will not be used. 

Applicants also may submit Investigator-Initiated Interactive Research 
Project Grants (IRPG) under this RFA.  Interactive Research Project Grants 
require the coordinated submission of related regular research project grant 
applications (R01s) from investigators who wish to collaborate on research 
but do not require extensive shared physical resources.  These applications 
must share a common theme and describe the objectives and scientific 
importance of the interchange of, for example, ideas, data, and materials 
among the collaborating investigators.  A minimum of two independent 
investigators with related research objectives may submit concurrent, 
collaborative, cross-referenced individual R01 applications.  Applications 
may be from one or several institutions.  Further information on the IRPG 
mechanism is available in program announcement PA-96-001, NIH Guide for 
Grants and Contracts, Vol. 24, No. 35, October 6, 1995, and from the NIAAA 
program staff listed under INQUIRIES.

FUNDS AVAILABLE

The NIAAA intends to commit approximately $2 million in FY 2001 to fund one 
to three new and/or competitive continuation grants in response to this RFA.  
Because the nature and scope of the research proposed might vary, it is 
anticipated that the size of awards will also vary.  Although the financial 
plans of the NIAAA provide support for this program, awards pursuant to this 
RFA are contingent upon the availability of funds and the receipt of a 
sufficient number of meritorious applications.  At this time, it is not known 
if this RFA will be reissued.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

Background

Alcohol continues to be the number one substance of abuse used by American 
adolescents.  This is true for subgroups defined by race and ethnicity, 
socio-economic status, or urban-rural residence, as well as within the 
general population.  Although the 1980’s were characterized by decreases in 
adolescent drinking, as well as in the use of tobacco and illicit drugs, that 
trend leveled off abruptly in the early 1990’s; and alcohol use may be 
increasing, especially among younger adolescents.  Two major national surveys 
of adolescents indicate less alcohol use among African Americans, Asians, and 
some Hispanic subgroups.  Yet, the leveling of a downward trend and the 
possible increase in drinking have been observed among ethnic and racial 
minority youth as well as youth as a whole (Wallace et al.,1999; Johnston et 
al., 1999).  Research suggests that social-psychological risk (or causal) 
processes leading to alcohol use and abuse among youth do not necessarily 
differ across ethnic groups (Catalano et al., 1992; Barnes,1995), but that 
the prevalence of factors affecting the development of risk does differ.  

The use and abuse of alcohol by adolescents is associated with high-risk 
behaviors that can have profound health, economic, and social consequences.  
These include drinking and driving, participation in deviant peer groups, 
abuse of other drugs, unprotected sexual intercourse, interpersonal violence, 
destruction of private property, and poor school performance.  Approximately 
one half to two thirds of adolescents who drink at least monthly engage in 
high-risk drinking practices, consuming large quantities and drinking to 
intoxication.  In 1999, 31 percent of 12th grade students, 26 percent of 10th 
graders, and 15 percent of 8th graders reported high risk alcohol use, as 
indicated by consuming five or more drinks on a single occasion in the 
previous two weeks (Johnston et al., 2000).   Immediate alcohol-related 
problems experienced by youth include missing school or work, feeling 
regretful about drinking, getting sick, passing out, getting into fights, 
having accidents, and getting into trouble at home, at school or with the 
police.  (Ellickson et al., 1996; Johnston et al., 2000).  

Youth who initiate drinking at an early age are more likely to increase their 
drinking and to experience alcohol-related problems during adolescence.  
Moreover, they are at greater risk for life-time alcohol abuse or alcoholism.  
(Grant & Dawson, 1997; Hawkins et al., 1997)  Although causality has not been 
conclusively demonstrated between early initiation and these deleterious 
effects, it is reasonable to expect some lasting preventive benefits from 
delaying the initiation of drinking by adolescents.   

Use of school-based curricula is the most commonly used preventive 
intervention approach and has the longest history of research and evaluation.  
Since the passage of the Drug Free Schools and Communities Act of 1986, 
virtually all elementary and secondary schools provide some classroom 
programming on alcohol, tobacco and other substances of abuse.   Although 
early didactic programs were generally found to be ineffective, some of the 
more recent approaches based on research and theory have shown beneficial 
effects (Hansen, 1992; Dielman, 1995).  School-based interventions that 
incorporate social influence approaches and skills training have also been 
successful or shown promising results in minority populations and in 
economically disadvantaged communities (Sussman et al., 1998; Harrington & 
Donohew, 1997).  However, effect sizes for school-based programs are not 
large, and it is generally conceded that school curricula, in the absence of 
broader environmental changes, are not sufficient to make sizeable and 
lasting changes in alcohol use by adolescents.  (Gorman 95, 96; Ellickson, 
1995; Moscowitz, 1989; Johnson et al., 1990)

Both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies of risk and protective factors 
consistently find that parenting practices, especially setting clear no-use 
rules, monitoring children’s behavior, and making alcohol unavailable, can 
have strong deterrent influences on adolescent drinking.  Importantly, many 
of these relationships are independent of race or ethnicity, and some ethnic 
differences in the prevalence of alcohol use among youth can be attributed in 
part to differences in parenting practices. (Barnes, Catalano et al).   
Furthermore, findings from survey and intervention research indicate that 
interventions directed toward parents to increase and reinforce positive 
parenting practices can have a protective effect on their children. 
(Loveland-Cherry et al., 1999, Spoth et al., 1999).

Integrated models of the etiology of underage drinking emphasize the 
importance of environmental factors that have both direct and indirect 
influences on drinking behavior through effects on alcohol availability, 
formal and informal social controls, social norms, and other aspects of the 
social and physical context within which drinking takes place. (Wagenaar and 
Perry, 1995; Holder & Giesbrecht, 1990).  These durable environmental 
influences can, over time, overwhelm effects of interventions (such as 
motivational enhancement and skills training) that are directed toward more 
proximal, individual-based factors.  Theory and research suggest that the 
most effective intervention approaches are comprehensive and address 
environmental factors in addition to family practices and individual 
knowledge, attitudes, motivations, and skills.

To date only one comprehensive alcohol preventive intervention for youth has 
been fully tested (Perry et al., 1996). It included innovative social-
behavioral school curricula, peer leadership, parent education and 
involvement, and community-wide task force activities to address broad 
environmental issues such as alcohol availability. This program was 
successful in delaying drinking onset among young adolescents in small, 
rural, predominantly white Midwestern communities.  After three years the 
prevalence of drinking was lower in intervention communities than comparison 
sites. It is not clear whether similar, multi-component comprehensive 
interventions would be practical and effective in diverse urban communities.   

Interventions

Research is encouraged that will test multi-component, comprehensive 
interventions, to prevent alcohol use by young adolescents in racially and 
economically diverse urban neighborhoods or communities. These interventions 
should include at a minimum school-based curricula; parental education and 
involvement; and environmental change to reduce alcohol availability to 
underage drinkers and reduce adult acceptance of drinking by youth.  These 
comprehensive interventions should be modeled on similar interventions, such 
as Project Northland, that have been tested in other populations.

School-based components should include:
o Curricula with demonstrated effectiveness in delaying and reducing alcohol 
use and alcohol-related problems among young adolescents;
o Theoretical justification for applicability of the underlying approach to 
the study population;
o Plans for developing or adapting materials and program content for the 
study population; and 
o Involvement of students in planning alcohol-free educational and 
recreational events and activities as well as community activities to reduce 
pressures to drink.

Parent-directed components should include:
o Demonstrated efficacy, or a strong theoretical justification with evidence 
of intervention feasibility and acceptability;
o Plans for adaptation to the study population if needed;
o Content that encourages parental behaviors known to reduce the likelihood 
of early drinking, such as parental monitoring and establishing clear no-use 
expectations;
o Information on the importance of reducing alcohol availability to young 
persons; and 
o Encouragement for parent participation in environmental change at the 
community level.

o Environmental interventions should seek to: 
o Reduce alcohol availability to all underage drinkers;
o Reduce adult acceptance of underage drinking; and
o Involve the community and students in efforts to reduce alcohol 
availability and pressures to drink.

Intervention components in addition to those described above are also 
encouraged.  They should be justified by a strong theoretical basis, 
feasibility, appropriateness of the intervention for the target population, 
and/or demonstrated efficacy or effectiveness.

Interventions should be directed toward early adolescents, generally grades 6 
through 8, when most children have not yet begun to drink. 

Study Population and Research Design

The study sites should consist of multiple urban “communities” that can be 
distinguished by distinct school districts or sets of schools with distinct 
and recognizable associated neighborhoods.  These communities may exist in 
different cities or may fall within only one or two metropolitan areas. In 
the latter case, it must be demonstrated that community-level environmental 
interventions can be implemented with minimal contamination across study 
sites.  Study sites should be characterized by sizable ethnic/racial minority 
populations (at least 50 percent) and economic diversity as indicated by 
census figures for poverty and/or percent of families receiving financial 
assistance (at least 25 percent).  

Study sites should be randomly assigned to intervention or comparison 
conditions.  The outcome measures should include, but need not be limited to: 

o Student drinking behavior, including initiation, quantity and frequency, 
high-risk or episodic heavy (“binge”) drinking, and alcohol-related problems 
experienced by students;
o Measures of change in alcohol availability at the community level; and 
o Measures of change in community and parent norms regarding alcohol use.

It is not necessary to test and measure the separate effects of intervention 
components on alcohol use, but process measures should indicate the ease of 
implementation, fidelity to protocol, and acceptability of the different 
components.  Moreover, If applicants wish to propose designs that permit 
conclusions about the impact of the separate components, they may do so, 
keeping in mind possible cost considerations involved. 

The multi-component comprehensive prevention approach encouraged by this RFA 
was found to be effective with early adolescents in small rural 
demographically homogeneous communities.  In order to extend the approach to 
diverse urban communities, adaptations of intervention components and 
materials or the development of new materials may be necessary.  Researchers 
must demonstrate access to both schools and communities that will be needed 
for intervention development, implementation, and data collection.

SPECIAL REQUIREMENT

Grant recipients will be expected to attend periodic meetings with NIAAA 
staff and other NIAAA-supported researchers. Two-day meetings will be held in 
the Washington, D.C., area during the first, second, third, and fourth 
project years.  Applicants should include travel expenses in their budgets 
for three representatives from their project to attend these meetings.

INCLUSION OF WOMEN AND MINORITIES IN RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN SUBJECTS

It is the policy of the NIH that women and members of minority groups and 
their subpopulations must be included in all NIH supported biomedical and 
behavioral research projects involving human subjects, unless a clear and 
compelling rationale and justification is provided that inclusion is 
inappropriate with respect to the health of the subjects or the purpose of 
the research.  This policy results from the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993 
(Section 492B of Public Law 103-43).

All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should read the 
UPDATED "NIH Guidelines for Inclusion of Women and Minorities as Subjects in 
Clinical Research," published in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts on 
August 2, 2000 
(http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-00-048.html); 
a complete copy of the updated Guidelines are available at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/women_min/guidelines_update.htm: The 
revisions relate to NIH defined Phase III clinical trials and require: a) all 
applications or proposals and/or protocols to provide a description of plans 
to conduct analyses, as appropriate, to address differences by sex/gender 
and/or racial/ethnic groups, including subgroups if applicable; and b) all 
investigators to report accrual, and to conduct and report analyses, as 
appropriate, by sex/gender and/or racial/ethnic group differences.

INCLUSION OF CHILDREN AS PARTICIPANTS IN RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN SUBJECTS

It is the policy of NIH that children (i.e., individuals under the age of 21) 
must be included in all human subjects research, conducted or supported by 
the NIH, unless there are scientific and ethical reasons not to include them.  
This policy applies to all initial (Type 1) applications submitted for 
receipt dates after October 1, 1998.

All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should read the 
"NIH Policy and Guidelines on the Inclusion of Children as Participants in 
Research Involving Human Subjects" that was published in the NIH Guide for 
Grants and Contracts, March 6, 1998, and is available at the following URL 
address:  http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/not98-024.html.

Investigators also may obtain copies of these policies from the program staff 
listed under INQUIRIES. Program staff may also provide additional relevant 
information concerning the policy.

URLS IN NIH GRANT APPLICATIONS OR APPENDICES

All applications and proposals for NIH funding must be self-contained within 
specified page limitations. Unless otherwise specified in an NIH 
solicitation, internet addresses (URLs) should not be used to provide 
information necessary to the review because reviewers are under no obligation 
to view the Internet sites. Reviewers are cautioned that their anonymity may 
be compromised when they directly access an Internet site.

LETTER OF INTENT

Prospective applicants are asked to submit a letter of intent that includes a 
descriptive title of the proposed research, the name, address, and telephone 
number of the Principal Investigator, the identities of other key personnel 
and participating institutions, and the number and title of the RFA in 
response to which the application may be submitted. Although a letter of 
intent is not required, is not binding, and does not enter into the review of 
a subsequent application, the information that it contains allows IC staff to 
estimate the potential review workload and plan the review.

The letter of intent is to be sent to:

RFA-AA-01-001
Extramural Project Review Branch
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
6000 Executive Boulevard, Room 409, MSC 7003
Bethesda, MD  20892-7003
Telephone:  (301) 443-8766
FAX:  (301) 443-6077
 
by the receipt date listed. 

APPLICATION PROCEDURES

The research grant application form PHS 398 (rev. 4/98) is to be used in 
applying for these grants. These forms are available at most institutional  
offices of sponsored research and from the Division of Extramural Outreach 
and Information Resources, National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge 
Drive, MSC 7910, Bethesda, MD 20892-7910, telephone 301/435-0714, E-mail:  
GrantsInfo@nih.gov.

The RFA label available in the PHS 398 (rev. 4/98) application form must be 
affixed to the bottom of the face page of the application. Type the RFA 
number on the label. Failure to use this label could result in delayed 
processing of the application such that it may not reach the review committee 
in time for review. In addition, the RFA title and number must be typed on 
line 2 of the face page of the application form and the YES box must be 
marked.

The sample RFA label available at: 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/phs398/label-bk.pdf has been modified to 
allow for this change. Please note this is in pdf format.

Submit a signed, typewritten original of the application, including the 
Checklist, and three signed photocopies in one package to:

CENTER FOR SCIENTIFIC REVIEW
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
6701 ROCKLEDGE DRIVE, ROOM 1040, MSC 7710
BETHESDA, MD 20892-7710
BETHESDA, MD 20817 (for express/courier service)

At the time of submission, two additional copies of the application must be 
sent to:

RFA:  AA-01-001
Extramural Project Review Branch
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
6000 Executive Boulevard, Suite 409, MSC 7003
Bethesda, MD  20892-7003
Rockville, MD 20852 (for express/courier service)

Applications must be received by the application receipt date listed in the  
heading of this RFA. If an application is received after that date, it will 
be  returned to the applicant without review.

The Center for Scientific Review (CSR) will not accept any application in  
response to this RFA that is essentially the same as one currently pending  
initial review, unless the applicant withdraws the pending application. The 
CSR will not accept any application that is essentially the same as one  
already reviewed. This does not preclude the submission of substantial 
revisions of applications already reviewed, but such applications must 
include an introduction addressing the previous critique.

REVIEW CONSIDERATIONS

Upon receipt, applications will be reviewed for completeness by the Center 
for Scientific Review (CSR) and for responsiveness by the NIAAA.  Incomplete 
applications will be returned to the applicant without further consideration.  
If the application is not responsive to the RFA, CSR staff may contact the 
applicant to determine whether to return the application to the applicant or 
submit it for review in competition with unsolicited applications at the next 
review cycle.

Applications that are complete and responsive to the RFA will be evaluated 
for scientific and technical merit by an appropriate peer review group 
convened by the NIAAA in accordance with the review criteria stated below.  
As part of the initial merit review, all applications receive a written 
critique and undergo a process in which only those applications deemed to 
have the highest scientific merit, generally the top half of the applications 
under review, will be discussed, assigned a priority score, and receive a 
second level review by the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and 
Alcoholism.

Review Criteria

The goals of NIH-supported research are to advance our understanding of 
biological systems, improve the control of disease, and enhance health.  In 
the written comments, reviewers will be asked to discuss the following 
aspects of the application in order to judge the likelihood that the proposed 
research will have a substantial impact on the pursuit of these goals.  Each 
of these criteria will be addressed and considered in assigning the overall 
score, weighting them as appropriate for each application.  Note that the 
application does not need to be strong in all categories to be judged likely 
to have major scientific impact and thus deserve a high priority score.  For 
example, an investigator may propose to carry out important work that by its 
nature is not innovative but is essential to move a field forward.

1) Significance: Does this study address an important problem relevant to the 
prevention and reduction of alcohol use and misuse among adolescents in 
racially, ethnically and economically diverse urban communities? If the aims 
of the application are achieved, how will scientific knowledge be advanced? 
What will be the effect of these studies on the concepts or methods that 
drive this field?

(2) Approach: Are the conceptual framework, design, methods, and analyses 
adequately developed, well-integrated, and appropriate to the aims of the 
project? Does the applicant acknowledge potential problem areas and consider 
alternative tactics?

(3) Innovation: Does the project employ novel concepts, approaches or method? 
Are the aims original and innovative? Does the project challenge existing 
paradigms or develop new methodologies or technologies?

(4) Investigator: Is the investigator appropriately trained and well suited 
to carry out this work? Is the work proposed appropriate to the experience 
level of the principal investigator and other researchers (if any)?

(5) Environment: Does the scientific environment in which the work will be 
done contribute to the probability of success? Do the proposed experiments 
take advantage of unique features of the scientific environment or employ 
useful collaborative arrangements? Is there evidence of institutional 
support?

In addition to the above criteria, in accordance with NIH policy, all 
applications will also be reviewed with respect to the following:

o The adequacy of plans to include both genders, minorities and their 
subgroups, and children as appropriate for the scientific goals of the 
research. Plans for the recruitment and retention of subjects will also be 
evaluated.

o The reasonableness of the proposed budget and duration in relation to the 
proposed research.

o The adequacy of the proposed protection for humans, animals or the 
environment, to the extent they may be adversely affected by the project 
proposed in the application.

Schedule

Letter of Intent Receipt Date:    February 9, 2001 
Application Receipt Date:         April 10, 2001
Peer Review Date:                 July, 2001
Council Review:                   September 19, 2001
Earliest Anticipated Start Date:  September 28, 2001

AWARD CRITERIA

Award criteria that will be used to make award decisions include:

o scientific merit (as determined by peer review);
o availability of funds; and 
o programmatic priorities.

INQUIRIES

Inquiries concerning this RFA are encouraged.  The opportunity to clarify any 
issues or questions from potential applicants is welcome.

Direct inquiries regarding applications under this RFA to:

Gayle M. Boyd, Ph.D.
Division of Clinical and Prevention Research
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
6000 Executive Boulevard MSC 7003
Bethesda, MD  20892-7003
Telephone:  (301) 443-8766
FAX:  (301) 443-8774
Email:  gboyd@willco.niaaa.nih.gov

Direct inquiries regarding review issues to:

Mark Green, Ph.D.
Extramural Project Review Branch
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
6000 Executive Boulevard, Suite 409  MSC 7003
Bethesda, MD 20892
Telephone: (301) 443-2860
FAX: (301)443-6077
Email: mg109@nih.gov

Direct inquiries regarding fiscal matters to:

Linda Hilley
Grants Management Branch
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
6000 Executive Boulevard MSC 7003
Bethesda, MD  20892-7003
Telephone:  (301) 443-0915
FAX:  (301) 443-3891
Email:  lhilley@willco.niaaa.nih.gov

AUTHORITY AND REGULATIONS

This program is described in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. 
93.273.  Awards are made under authorization of Sections 301 and 405 of the 
Public Health Service Act as amended (42 USC 241 and 284) and administered 
under NIH grants policies and Federal Regulations 42 CFR 52 and 45 CFR Parts 
74 and 92. This program is not subject to the intergovernmental review 
requirements of Executive Order 12372 or Health Systems Agency review.

The PHS strongly encourages all grant recipients to provide a smoke-free 
workplace and promote the non-use of all tobacco products. In addition, 
Public Law 103-227, the Pro-Children Act of 1994, prohibits smoking in 
certain facilities (or in some cases, any portion of a facility) in which 
regular or routine education, library, day care, health care or early 
childhood development services are provided to children. This is consistent 
with the PHS mission to protect and advance the physical and mental health of 
the American people.

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Neighbors, H.W.  (1991)  Racial/ethnic differences in smoking, drinking, and 
illicit drug use among American high school seniors, 1976-89.  American 
Journal of Public Health, 81(3), 372-377.

Barnes, G.M., Farrell, M.P. and Banerjee, S.  (1995)  Family influences on 
alcohol abuse and other problem behaviors among black and white adolescents 
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Catalano, R.F., Morrison, D.M., Wells, E.A., Gillmore, M.R., Iritani, B. & 
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(4), 447-456.

Johnston, L.D., O’Malley, P.M. and Bachman, J.G. (1999)  National survey 
results on drug use from The Monitoring the Future Study, 1975-1998.  Vol. I, 
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Johnston, L.D., O’Malley, P.M. and Bachman, J.G. (2000) The Monitoring the 
Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use:  Overview of Key Findings, 
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Institute on Drug Abuse, USDHHS.

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