Release Date:  July 14, 2000 (Revision of June 10, 1999 version
                              See NOT-NS-00-009 for revisions.)

PA NUMBER:  PAS-99-080 (Inactive, see NOT-NS-03-010)

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
National Institute of Mental Health



The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), the
National Institute of Child Health Human Development (NICHD) and the National
Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) invite exploratory/developmental research
grant applications (R21) to facilitate the translation of fundamental
neurobiology to pediatric brain disorders of anomalous development,
neurodegeneration, and injury.  Emphasis is placed on cross-discipline
collaborations, novel hypotheses, and unique approaches in applying
fundamental neurobiological concepts to pediatric brain disorders.  Special
consideration will be given to proposals that enhance the application of our
scientific knowledge to understanding the pathobiology and treatment of these
clinical disorders.


The Public Health Service (PHS) is committed to achieving the health promotion 
and disease prevention objectives of "Healthy People 2000", a PHS-led national 
activity for setting priority areas. This Program Announcement (PA), Exploratory 
Grants in Pediatric Brain Disorders: Integrating the Science, is related to the 
priority area chronic disabling conditions. Potential applicants may obtain a 
copy of Healthy People 2000 at http://www.crisny.org/health/us/health7.html.


Applications can be submitted by foreign or domestic, for-profit and nonprofit 
organizations, public and private, such as universities, colleges, hospitals, 
laboratories, of State or local governments, and eligible agencies of the 
Federal government. Racial/ethnic minority individuals, women, and persons with 
disabilities are encouraged to apply as principal investigators.


The Exploratory/Developmental (R21) research mechanism is used for support of
creative, novel, and/or high risk/high payoff approaches that could produce
innovative advances in this field. This includes feasibility studies, protocol 
planning, and the incorporation of new disciplines and technologies. This 
mechanism provides the means to acquire the necessary pilot information, to 
attract talented new investigators from related disciplines, and to foster the 
development of interdisciplinary, inter-institutional collaborative efforts 
among investigators with diverse training and expertise.  All applications will 
be reviewed according to the customary NIH peer-review procedures. 
Responsibility for the planning, direction, and execution of the proposed 
project will be solely that of the applicant. Applicants may request up to three 
years of support.  Applications for research at a single institution may request 
up to a maximum of $125,000 direct costs per year.  Applications that include a 
consortium/contractual arrangement may request up to a maximum of $150,000 
direct costs, including the facilities and administrative costs (indirect costs) 
of the consortium institution.  R21 grants are non-renewable, and may not be 
used to supplement an ongoing project.  Relevant applications and amended 
applications are welcome throughout the duration of this PA (3 years).

Specific application instructions have been modified to reflect "MODULAR
GRANT" and "JUST-IN-TIME" streamlining efforts.  The modular grant concept
establishes specific modules in which direct costs may be requested as well as a 
maximum level for requested budgets.  Only limited budgetary information is 
required under this approach.  The just-in-time concept allows applicants to 
submit certain information only when there is a possibility for an award. 
Complete and detailed instructions and information on Modular Grants can be
found at http://www.nih.gov/grants/funding/modular/modular.htm.

Applications will request direct costs in $25,000 modules, up to a total direct 
cost of $125,000 per year for up to three years for applications proposing 
research at a single institution and up to a total direct cost of $150,000 per 
year for up to three years for applications that include a 
subcontract/consortium arrangement.  The cost of equipment is included in the 
budget limitation.  Application budgets will be simplified. Detailed 
categorical budget information will not be submitted with the application; 
budget form pages of the application kits will not be used. Instead, total 
direct costs requested for each year will be presented.  Information, in 
narrative form, will be provided only for Personnel and, when applicable, for 
Consortium/Contractual Costs.  See section on APPLICATION PROCEDURES below.

There will be no routine escalation for future years.  In determining the
total for each budget year, applicants should first consider the direct cost
of the entire project period. Well-justified modular increments or decrements
in the total direct costs for any year of the project that reflect substantial 
changes in expected future activities may be requested. For example, purchase of 
major equipment in the first year may justify a higher overall budget in the 
first, but not in succeeding years.

Other Support pages of the PHS 398 will not be submitted with the application.

Information on research projects ongoing or completed during the last three
years of the principal investigator and key personnel will be provided as part 
of the "Biographical Sketch." This information will include the specific aims, 
overall goals and responsibilities, and should include Federal and non-Federal 
support. This information will be used by reviewers in the assessment of each 
individual's qualifications for a specific role in the proposed project.  
Following peer review, information about Other Research Support will be 
requested by NIH from the applicant for applications being considered for award.  
Additional budget information will be requested only under special circumstances.


NINDS has set aside 2.5 million total costs, NICHD has set aside $500,000
total costs, NIMH has set aside $500,000 total costs to support research
grants responsive to this PA, depending on the overall scientific merit of the 
applications and the availability of funds throughout the duration of this 
solicitation (3 years).


The purpose of this initiative is to: 1) focus the attention of the
neuroscientist on the detrimental processes that affect the developing brain,
2)promote the interaction of developmental neurobiologists and clinical
scientists, and 3) provide preliminary information necessary to unravel the
complexities of developmental pathogenesis.  The ultimate goal is to effect
meaningful advances in understanding the pathogenesis of neurological
dysfunction and develop interventions and effective treatments that improve
the quality of life for children and young adults.  Effective research
strategies will have untold ramifications as affected children have a reduced
lifetime potential, families have physical, emotional and financial burdens,
and society makes a staggering commitment of resources.


The areas of emphasis covered in this program announcement- disorders of
anomalous development, neurodegeneration during development, and injury to the 
developing brain have not received the same degree of focused attention as the 
more common adult disorders of neurodegenerative, ischemic, hemorrhagic, and 
traumatic brain injury.  There are a number of reasons for this: 1) many of 
these pediatric disorders, taken in isolation, are rare autosomal recessive 
disorders and have been perceived as obscure genetic entities; 2) there has been 
a lag in acquiring the basic knowledge and tools for understanding both normal 
neurodevelopment and abnormal developmental processes; and 3) research involving 
children as subjects has not been as aggressively pursued.  However, recent 
advances in molecular biology, genetics, neuroimaging, and clinical detection 
(diagnostic capabilities) have now opened the door to fruitful investigations of 
pediatric brain disorders. Similarly, these advances have also demonstrated that 
anomalies of brain development may be implicated in the etiology of major mental 
disorders such as schizophrenia. In parallel, there is increased awareness and 
support for research addressing childhood disorders/diseases.  A brief 
description of the areas of emphasis follows:

Disorders of Anomalous Development - Normal development of the central nervous 
system is a closely coordinated process of neuronal and non neuronal cell 
development (e.g., neurogenesis, cell growth and differentiation, migration, 
synaptogenesis, regressive events-cell death, axonal pruning, synaptic 
elimination, neuron-glia interactions, etc.).  Aberrations in one or more of 
these processes have been shown to lead to a number of disorders of
neurological development.  Some recent cases of newly discovered genes, such
as those involved in the lissencephalies, holoprosencephaly, Fragile X, and 
X-linked mental retardation, are examples of new contributions of fundamental
neurobiology to our understanding clinical disorders.  It is hoped that these
examples will encourage investigations into the genetic basis of other
developmental disorders, such as, cerebral, cerebellar, and brainstem
hypoplasias/dysplasias (e.g., agenesis of the Corpus Callosum, developmental
heterotopias, Joubert Syndrome, Moebius Syndrome)and more complex disorders
involving anomalous developmental processes, (e.g., mental retardation,
autism, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and childhood onset movement disorders
(dystonia, Tourette syndrome, motor stereopathies)).

Neurodegeneration During Development - Recently identified genes of childhood
neurodegenerative disorders - Friedreich Ataxia (FA), Ataxia-Telangiectasia
(A-T), neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL or Batten Disease), childhood
neuromuscular disorders-the dystrophies and spinal-muscular atrophies (SMAs),
and a number of childhood metabolic disorders - are providing new information
and insights into molecular and cellular biology (complex DNA
conformations/triplet repeat disorders, cell cycle signaling/repair,
mitochondrial respiratory functions, and altered ion channel biology).  These
fascinating discoveries are bringing scientists from multiple disciplines
together to elucidate disease pathogenesis.  New insights resulting from these 
gene identifications regarding protein functions and cellular events are 
changing the appreciation of disease pathogenesis in a number of inherited and 
sporadic childhood and adult disorders for which we have previously had little 
understanding.  The information gained through understanding these genetic 
disorders is also rapidly advancing our knowledge of how the normal brain 
functions and processes information on a number of levels.  It has also made 
possible the development of relevant animal models that mimic the neurogenetic 
defect known to occur in children.  Studies on model systems from yeast to flies 
to mammals, are now being employed to understand the pathology and 
neurodegenerative progression in these disorders. Exploratory studies will speed 
the pace of progress for developing meaningful insights for clinical and 
laboratory research of fundamental mechanisms of childhood neurodegeneration, 
will provide opportunities for effective scientific exchange of rapidly evolving 
molecular, biochemical, biological, and behavioral research results, and will 
allow for development of rational candidates for eventual utilization in 
therapeutic trials.

Injury To The Developing Brain - Injury to the pre and postnatal brain is a
leading cause of death and disability in children.  This includes 1) injury
induced by adverse fetal/perinatal environments, 2) traumatic brain injury,
and 3) injuries due to infectious, vascular, and ischemic causes. Childhood
cerebral vascular disease is generally secondary or related to vascular
abnormalities such as Sturge-Weber Syndrome, Moya-moya, disease, fibromuscular 
hyperplasia/dysplasia (FMH)), metabolic disorders (such as mitochondrial 
encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes
(MELAS),homocystinuria, auto-immune disorders), conditions resulting from
blood dyscrasias (such as sickle cell disease, hypercoagulable states), and
congenital heart disease (resulting in emboli to the cerebral vascular
system).  We currently do not have therapeutic regimens that are successful
for the treatment of brain injury in children.  The general belief that the
immature brain recovers more fully by virtue of its greater "neural
plasticity" has been challenged by more recent studies that suggest that brain 
injury in young children (less than 4 year olds) may result in higher
mortality and more severe motor, communicative, and cognitive deficits than
the same injury in older children and adults.  In traumatic brain injury,
there may be biomechanical issues that are peculiar to the infant brain and
skull and types of injuries sustained at developmental ages that are not
comparable to the adult.  In addition, limited animal research suggests
differential vulnerability of the immature brain response to injury. To
address these issues, research must be focused on developing appropriate
animal models (reflecting neuronal and glial disruptions), on characterizing
the etiological factors, degree, type, and extent of injury, both acutely and
later brain processes.  In addition, epidemiological studies support the need
to consider the roles of neuroendocrine/neuroimmune/environmental factors to
the immediate state and long term outcomes of age-dependent brain injury.
Exploratory research studies in this important area will hopefully provide the 
necessary information for preventative strategies and rational 
therapeutic designs.


Applications submitted in response to this PA may address any of the above
areas of emphasis. Examples of approaches responsive (but not restrictive) to
this PA include:

Adaptation of recently produced models of adult nervous system injury or
degeneration to disorders of the developing nervous system; the creation of
new models of anomalous brain development, of injury to the developing brain,
and of degeneration of the developing brain.

Collaborations resulting in the development of novel strategies, hypotheses to 
enhance understanding of the mechanisms of pathogenesis in disorders of
anomalous brain development, injury or degeneration in development.  For
clinical studies that require the consideration of processes in brain
development that occur in utero but may not be recognized till the neonatal
period or later; collaborations which foster obstetrical, neonatal,
neurological, neuroimaging, expertise.

Studies which seek to identify pre- and/or post-natal brain developmental
mechanisms which may be linked to the pathophysiology of mental disorders.

Proposals to identify genes involved in anomalous development, degeneration or 
injury processes by exploiting growing knowledge of neurogenetics in
development, cell cycle regulation, and the cascades evoked by injury.

Exploratory studies of maturational/organizational brain development having
sound rationale and related to one of the areas of emphasis in this

Very preliminary studies, new collaborations, to acquire knowledge for the
purposes of eventually developing therapeutic regimens.  This could include
identification of appropriate clinical markers (neuroimaging, neurophysiologic, 
neurochemical), or preliminary information for developing
clinical protocols, methodologies, and/or pharmacological agents.

Development of new technologies relevant to studies in the areas of emphasis
in this initiative.

Given that the purpose of this R21 initiative is to broaden the base of
inquiry in underserved areas of pediatric brain research, the focus of review
will be on innovation in the development of novel concepts, new methodologies, 
and/or new, cross-disciplinary collaborations.  Bearing in mind that the 
developmental research projects proposed under this program announcement may 
well contain preliminary tests of feasibility, substantial risks, and challenges 
to current concepts, and may lack the amount of preliminary data and background 
experience normally found in an R01 application, reviewers will weigh the 
following standard review criteria accordingly.

The Research Plan must be soundly developed in the context of the current
knowledge/research base, with well-defined and clear objectives. The Approach
should utilize appropriate concepts and current methodology. Applicants should 
elaborate on innovative aspects of the proposed research, novel
collaborations, and special attributes of the resources and environment. In
addition, applicants must identify how the exploratory studies could result in 
new insights or capabilities for research into anomalous neurodevelopment,
neurodegeneration, or injury in development.


It is the policy of the NIH that women and members of minority groups and
their subpopulations must be included in all NIH supported biomedical and
behavioral research projects involving human subjects, unless a clear and
compelling rationale and justification is provided that inclusion is
inappropriate with respect to the health of the subjects or the purpose of the 
research. This policy results from the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993 (Section 
492B of Public Law 103-43).

All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should read the
"NIH Guidelines for Inclusion of Women and Minorities as Subjects in Clinical
Research", which have been published in the Federal Register of March 28, 1994 
(FR 59 14508-14513) and in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts, Volume 23, 
Number 11, March 18, 1994, and are available on the web at the following URL 
address: http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/not94-100.html


It is the policy of the NIH that children (i.e., individuals under the age of
21)must be included in all human subjects' research, conducted or supported by 
the NIH, unless there are scientific and ethical reasons not to include them.  
This policy applies to all initial (Type 1) applications submitted for receipt 
dates after October 1, 1998.

All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should read the
"NIH Policy and Guidelines on Inclusion of Children as Participants in
Research Involving Human Subjects" that was published in the NIH Guide for
Grants and Contracts, March 6, 1998 and is available at the following URL
address: http://www.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/not98-024.html

Investigators also may obtain copies of these policies from the program staff
listed under INQUIRIES.  Program staff may also provide additional relevant
information concerning these policies.


Applications are to be submitted on the grant application form PHS 398 (rev.
4/98) and will be accepted at the standard application deadlines as indicated
in the application kit.  Application kits are available at most institutional
offices of sponsored research and from the Division of Extramural Outreach and 
Information Resources, National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, MSC 
7910, Bethesda, MD 20892-7910, telephone 301/435-0714, email:
GrantsInfo@nih.gov. They may also be downloaded from the Internet at

In preparing Modular Grant Applications, standard instructions for specific
award mechanisms should be followed: (PHS 398 and R21), with these specific
modifications reflecting modular budget and just-in-time concepts:

Face Page - Items 7a and 7b should be completed, indicating Direct Costs (in 
$25,000 increments up to a maximum of $125,000 for research at a single 
institution, or up to a maximum of $150,000 for research involving a 
consortium/contractual arrangement) and Total costs (Modular Total Direct plus 
Facilities and Administrative (F&A) Costs) for the initial budget period.  Items 
8a and 8b should be completed indicating the Direct and 
Total Costs for the entire proposed period of support, which is not to exceed 
3 years.

Detailed Budget for the Initial Budget Period - Do not complete Form Page 4 of 
the PHS 398. It is not required and will not be accepted with the application.

Budget for the Entire Proposed Period of Support - Do not complete the
categorical budget table on Form Page 5 of the PHS 398. It is not required and 
will not be accepted with the application.

Narrative Budget Justification - Use a Modular Grant Budget Narrative page.
(See http://www.nih.gov/grants/funding/modular/modular.htm for sample pages.)
At the top of the page, enter the total direct costs requested for each year.

Under Personnel, list key project personnel, including their names, percent of
effort, and roles on the project. No individual salary information should be
provided, however, the applicant must be mindful of the DHHS appropriation
language regarding the salary cap and the NIH policy applicable to graduate
student compensation. 

For Consortium/Contractual costs, provide an estimate of total costs (direct
plus facilities and administrative) for each year, each rounded to the nearest 
$1,000.  List the individuals/organizations with whom consortium or
contractual arrangements have been made, the percent effort of key personnel,
and the role on the project. Indicate whether the collaborating institution is 
foreign or domestic. The total cost for a consortium/contractual arrangement is 
included in the overall requested modular direct cost amount. Provide an 
additional narrative budget justification for any variation in the number of 
modules requested.

Biographical Sketch - The Biographical Sketch provides information used by
reviewers in the assessment of each individual's qualifications for a specific 
role in the proposed project, as well as to evaluate the overall
qualifications of the research team. A biographical sketch is required for all 
key personnel, following the instructions below. No more than three pages may be 
used for each person.  A sample biographical sketch may be viewed at: 
http://www.nih.gov/grants/funding/modular/modular.htm - Complete the
educational block at the top of the form page; - List current position(s) and
then previous positions; - List selected peer-reviewed publications, with full 
citations; - Provide information, including overall goals and
responsibilities, on research projects ongoing or completed during the last
three years.

Other Support - Do not submit the 'other support' pages. Selected other
support relevant to the proposed research may be included in the Biographical
Sketch as indicated above. Complete other support information will be
requested by the staff of NINDS or collaborating Institutes if there is a
possibility for an award.

Checklist - This page should be completed and submitted with the application.

Page Limitation - In keeping with the pilot/feasibility nature of the
requested studies the application (aims, background and significance,
preliminary data and experimental design and methods) is limited to 20 pages.
Tables and figures are included in the 20-page limitation.

Appendix - An appendix or additional supporting materials will not be accepted 
with the exception of originals of photos used in the application.

The applicant should provide the name and phone number of the individual to
contact concerning fiscal and administrative issues if additional information
is necessary following the initial review.

Comments and inquiries concerning this notice are encouraged. Nevertheless,
the instructions and procedures described in this notice must be observed.

Additional information, including sample budget narratives and biographical
sketch, may be found at this site: 

The title and number of the program announcement must be typed on line 2 of
the face page of the application form and the YES box must be marked.

Submit a signed, typewritten original of the application, including the
Checklist, and five signed photocopies, in one package to:

BETHESDA, MD 20892-7710
BETHESDA, MD 20817 (for express/courier service)

The Center for Scientific Review (CSR) will not accept any application in
response to this PA that is essentially the same as one currently pending
initial review, unless the applicant withdraws the pending application. The
CSR will not accept any application that is essentially the same as one
already reviewed. This does not preclude the submission of substantial
revisions of an application already reviewed, but such applications must
include an introduction addressing the previous critique.


Applications will be assigned on the basis of established PHS referral
guidelines.  Applications will be evaluated for scientific and technical merit 
by an appropriate scientific review group in accordance with the standard NIH 
peer review procedures. As part of the initial merit review, all applications 
will receive a written critique and undergo a process in which only those 
applications deemed to have the highest scientific merit, generally the top half 
of applications under review, will be discussed, assigned a priority score, and 
receive a second level review by the appropriate national advisory council.

Review Criteria

The goals of NIH-supported research are to advance our understanding of
biological systems, improve the control of disease, and enhance health. In the 
written comments reviewers will be asked to discuss the following aspects of the 
application in order to judge the likelihood that the proposed research will 
have a substantial impact on the pursuit of these goals.  Each of these criteria 
will be addressed and considered in assigning the overall score, weighting them 
as appropriate for each application.  Note that the application does not need to 
be strong in all categories to be judged likely to have major scientific impact 
and thus deserve a high priority score.  For example, an investigator may 
propose to carry important work that by its nature is not innovative but is 
essential to move a field forward.

(1) Significance:  Does this study address an important problem?  If the aims
of the application are achieved, how will scientific knowledge be advanced? 
What will be the effect of these studies on the concepts or methods that drive 
this field?

(2) Approach:  Are the conceptual framework, design, methods, and analyses
adequately developed, well integrated, and appropriate to the aims of the
project? Does the applicant acknowledge potential problem areas and consider
alternative tactics?  In the context of the R21 mechanism, a strong rationale
and conceptual framework are normally sufficient for establishing the
feasibility of the project, in lieu of preliminary data.

(3) Innovation:  Does the project employ novel concepts, approaches or method?  
Are the aims original and innovative? Does the project challenge existing 
paradigms or develop new methodologies or technologies?  If the project is not 
innovative but is essential to move the field forward, the applicant should 
mention and discuss this aspect in the proposal.

(4) Investigator:  Is the investigator appropriately trained and well suited
to carry out this work? Is the work proposed appropriate to the experience
level of the principal investigator and other researchers (if any)?

(5) Environment:  Does the scientific environment in which the work will be
done contribute to the probability of success? Do the proposed experiments
take advantage of unique features of the scientific environment or employ
useful collaborative arrangements? Is there evidence of institutional support?

In addition to the above criteria, in accordance with NIH policy, all
applications will also be reviewed with respect to the following:

The adequacy of plans to include both genders, minorities and their subgroups, 
and children as appropriate for the scientific goals of the research.  Plans for 
the recruitment and retention of subjects will also be evaluated.

The reasonableness of the proposed budget and duration in relation to the
proposed research.

The adequacy of the proposed protection for humans, animals or the
environment, to the extent they may be adversely affected by the project
proposed in the application.

The initial review group will also examine the provisions for the protection
of human subjects and the safety of the research environment.


Applications will compete for available funds with all other approved
applications.  The following will be considered in making funding decisions: 
Quality of the proposed project as determined by peer review, availability of
funds, and program priority.

The anticipated date of the first awards is February 2000.


Inquiries concerning this PA are encouraged. The opportunity to clarify any
issues or questions from the potential applicants is welcomed.

Direct inquiries regarding programmatic and scientific issues to:

Giovanna M. Spinella, M.D.
Division of Fundamental Neuroscience and Developmental Disorders
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
6001 Executive Boulevard, Room 2132
Bethesda, MD  20892
Telephone:  (301) 496-5821
FAX:  (301) 402-0887
Email:  gs41b@nih.gov

Felix F. De La Cruz, M.D., M.P.H.
Center for Research for Mothers and Children
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 4B-09
Bethesda, MD  20892
Telephone:  (301) 496-1383
FAX:  (301) 496-3791
Email:  fd14a@nih.gov

Inquiries about studies addressing developmental mechanisms involved in the
etiology of mental disorders should contact:

Douglas L. Meinecke, Ph.D.
Division of Neuroscience and Basic Behavioral Science
National Institute of Mental Health
Neuroscience Center, Room 7183
6001 Executive Boulevard
Telephone: (301) 443-5288
FAX: (301) 443-4822
Email: dmein@helix.nih.gov

Direct inquiries regarding fiscal matters to:

Karen D. Shields
Grants Management Branch
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
6001 Executive Boulevard, Room 3264
Bethesda, MD  20892
Telephone:  (301) 496-9231
FAX:  (301) 402-0219
Email:  ks26n@nih.gov

Mr. Edgar D. Shawver
Office of grants and contracts
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 8A-17
Bethesda, MD  20892
Telephone:  (301) 496-1303
FAX:  (301) 402-0915
Email:  es65o@nih.gov

Diana S. Trunnell
Grants Management Branch
National Institute of Mental Health
6001 Executive Boulevard, Room 6115
Bethesda, MD  20892-9605
Telephone:  (301) 443-2805
FAX: (301) 443-6885
Email:  Diana_Trunnell@nih.gov

Although NINDS, NICHD and NIMH are issuing this PA, the NIDCD has interest in
supporting research in the area of communication processes and disorders,
covered in this program announcement.

For further information, applicants may wish to contact:

Beth M. Ansel, Ph.D., CCC-SLP
Division of Human Communication
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
6120 Executive Boulevard, Room 400-C, MSC 7180
Bethesda, MD  20892-7180
Telephone:  (301) 402-3461
FAX:  (301) 402-6251
Email:  ba25e@nih.gov


This program is described in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No.
93.853 and 93.854 (NINDS), 93.855 and 93.856 (NICHD) and 93.242 (NIMH). Awards 
are made under the authority of the Public Health Service Act, Title IV, Part A 
(Public Law 78-410 as amended by Public Law 99-158, 42 USC 241 and 285) and 
administered under PHS grants policies and Federal Regulations 42 CFR 52 and 45 
CFR Part 74. This program is not subject to the intergovernmental review 
requirements of Executive Order 12372 or Health Systems Agency review.

The PHS strongly encourages all grant and contract recipients to provide a
smoke-free workplace and promote the non-use of all tobacco products. In
addition, Public Law 103-227, the Pro-Children Act of 1994, prohibits smoking
in certain facilities (or in some cases, any portion of a facility) in which
regular or routine education, library, day care, health care or early
childhood development services are provided to children.  This is consistent
with the PHS mission to protect and advance the physical and mental health of
the American people.

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