SMALL GRANTS FOR GEOGRAPHIC-BASED RESEARCH IN CANCER CONTROL AND EPIDEMIOLOGY

Release Date:  July 11, 2000

PA NUMBER:  PAS-00-121

National Cancer Institute

Letter of Intent Date:     October 9, 2000 and June 14, 2001
Application Receipt Date:  November 13, 2000 and July 19, 2001

THIS PA USES THE "MODULAR GRANT" AND "JUST-IN-TIME" CONCEPTS. IT INCLUDES 
DETAILED MODIFICATIONS TO STANDARD APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS THAT MUST BE USED 
WHEN PREPARING APPLICATIONS IN RESPONSE TO THIS PA.	

PURPOSE
 
The recently published Atlas of Cancer Mortality in the United States, 1950-
1994(*1) displays  the geographic patterns for various forms of cancer (see 
http://www.nci.nih.gov/atlas). This PA encourages applicants to use this 
exciting new resource as a catalyst for research in cancer etiology and 
control.  Further epidemiologic research is needed to identify the reasons 
for the geographic variation of specific cancers including the clustering of 
areas with high or low incidence and/or mortality rates.  In addition, 
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provide new tools for the exploration of 
such geographic patterns. GIS can be used for assessment of environmental 
risk factors,  identification of places and/or subpopulations where cancer 
surveillance and control programs are needed, statistical analysis of spatial 
patterns and presentation, and dissemination of information to the public. 
The NCI wishes to stimulate research in three areas in order to encourage 
researchers to use the Atlas to speed the process of scientific discovery and 
application.  The areas include: (1) epidemiologic research to study the 
determinants of the geographic patterns uncovered by the Atlas; (2) use of 
GIS for cancer research in response to the Atlas; and (3) methodologic GIS 
research needed to accomplish such research.

This PA is for investigator-initiated R03 applications.  A PA for larger R01 
applications is being advertised in parallel to this announcement 
(http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PAS-00-120.html).  This PA will 
expire on July 20, 2001.
 
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

This PA will facilitate interdisciplinary collaborations among researchers to 
foster appropriate use of the recently published Atlas of Cancer Mortality in 
the United States, 1950-1994 to examine geographic variations in cancer and 
to study the factors that may contribute to the variations.  It also will 
facilitate integration of new GIS tools for epidemiologic and behavioral 
research, cancer surveillance and control research, promote development of 
GIS methodology, and encourage researchers to integrate different types and 
geographic levels of data in epidemiologic research and in planning, 
implementation and evaluation of cancer-related programs.

The proposed mechanism is a Program Announcement, with a set-aside, to 
encourage NIH grant-funded research in these three areas.  It is a response 
to the recently released Atlas, to technological advances in science and to 
advisory group recommendations.  Specifically, this PA responds to a 
recommendation of the Surveillance Implementation Group (SIG) Report (March 
1999) that the DCCPS Surveillance Research Program “explore the feasibility 
and utility of employing GISs for geocoding surveillance data and reporting 
geographic relationships among screening measures, risk factors (including 
environmental exposures), and improved cancer outcomes”, as well as 
increasing general interest in the use of GIS by public health researchers.

1.  Background 

The new Atlas of Cancer Mortality in the United States shows the geographic 
patterns of cancer death rates in over 3,000 counties across the country for 
more than four decades.  The Atlas uses 1950-94 mortality data from the 
National Center for Health Statistics and population estimates from the 
Census Bureau.  Rates per 100,000 person-years, directly standardized using 
the 1970 U.S. population, are calculated by race (whites, blacks) and sex for 
40 forms of cancer.  The Atlas includes more than 250 computerized color-
coded maps showing variations in cancer rates during 1970-94 and compares 
them with corresponding maps for 1950-69.  Summary tables and figures are 
also presented.  Maps, tables, and the underlying data from the new Atlas are 
also available on the Web at http://www.nci.nih.gov/atlas.  Another feature 
of the atlas Web site is that the user can create customized maps to look at 
cancer rates in any county. 

The updated maps show that previously observed patterns of selected cancers 
have persisted.  For some tumors, the geographic clustering of areas with 
elevated rates has become more pronounced in the recent time period.  Follow-
up studies of geographic relations among cancer mortality rates demonstrated 
in the first published cancer atlas have led to such notable findings as the 
association of snuff dipping and oral cancer(*2) and the association of 
shipyard asbestos exposure and lung cancer(*3). The updated geographic 
patterns will provide direction in formulating etiologic and other 
hypotheses, and in targeting high-risk populations for further epidemiologic 
research and cancer control interventions.  

One new method which allows the evaluation of the spatial distribution of 
disease and disease risk is Geographic Information System (GIS).  A GIS is a 
computer system which carries out various data management and analytic tasks 
on spatially referenced data.  The basic elements of a GIS are geographic 
data and a computer system for input, storage, processing, linkage, analysis, 
modeling, and display (for more information, see 
http://www.esri.com/gisforeveryone). A GIS produces a series of “stacked 
maps” or data layers of georeferenced data linked to descriptive attribute 
information.  By processing multidimensional data at different geographic 
levels and maintaining the spatial relationships among them, a GIS provides a 
powerful tool for the analysis and presentation of spatial data.  In 
addition, a GIS is capable of integrating both spatial and temporal data. 
This is important when studying diseases such as cancer for which the 
relevant time period of exposure may have occurred many years prior to 
diagnosis.  The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has supported a variety of 
modest efforts in this area through intramural research and extramural 
contracts and has recently funded a large GIS project for breast cancer 
research on Long Island. 

A GIS is a unique tool for the analysis of the spatial structure of data, 
because it has the capability to analyze associations among data collected at 
virtually any geographic resolution.  Ecologic analyses can be conducted at a 
finer geographic resolution than previously possible.  Therefore, researchers 
may use GIS to develop hypotheses about cancer etiology and control.  In the 
past, important links between cancer mortality and risk factors have been 
identified by astute observers who brought personal knowledge of local areas 
to bear on cancer mortality maps.  Now, a GIS can present layers of risk 
factor data, providing a more systematic and efficient way to explore these 
associations.  The layering of information, such as water source, land use, 
location of pollution sources and cancer screening facilities, and various 
other environmental, demographic and lifestyle information, also offers 
advantages in exposure assessment for both ecologic and analytic 
epidemiologic studies.  For individual-based exposure assessment, researchers 
can analyze spatial and spatio-temporal relationships (e.g., proximity of a 
study participant to a pollution source).  More importantly, researchers can 
incorporate information about the geophysical environment into the GIS, e.g., 
to ascertain the transport of a pollution source or to identify physical 
barriers, such as distance, to screening facility utilization.

Applications of GIS in cancer research include both exploratory and 
confirmatory spatial analysis of cancer incidence, mortality, survival, 
and/or prevalence in local populations.  Investigators can use a GIS to 
monitor cancer patterns and their changes over both time and space, thus 
serving as a tool for surveillance, planning and evaluation of cancer control 
strategies as well as for implementation of culturally relevant cancer 
prevention and intervention efforts in economically disadvantaged and 
underserved communities.  Investigators can develop hypotheses about the 
relationships between cancer rates and community characteristics for the 
purpose of focusing future etiologic studies and determining community 
barriers to cancer screening and prevention programs.  The latter type of 
study will help target further research to analyze social factors, such as 
socioeconomic status (SES), education, coping resources and support systems, 
residential factors, cultural variables, institutional and political forces 
such as racism and classism, familial factors, health access and health 
outcomes and media influences.  In etiologic studies, a GIS can aid in 
evaluating patterns of community and individual characteristics such as 
occupation, ethnicity and lifestyle factors that may be related to the cancer 
rates in the area.  A GIS is also a valuable tool for the evaluation of 
environmental exposures which cannot be obtained by questionnaires or direct 
measurements. GIS-based environmental exposure assessment will be useful in 
understanding cancers with shorter latencies, e.g., childhood leukemias, 
however, cancers with longer latencies can be studied when data are 
available. A GIS has proven to be a valuable tool for the modeling of the 
fate and transport of environmental contaminants. Examples of models that 
lend themselves well to GIS-based technology include models of air 
pollutants, ground water quality, and pesticide transport.

Substantial methodologic advances are needed before GIS can reach its full 
potential in cancer research.  For example, once a GIS database is compiled, 
how may these data be used by researchers to identify areas with unusually 
high rates and to examine the links between potential causal factors and 
these geographic patterns.  Issues of data availability, quality, and 
confidentiality must be addressed, analytic methods must be enhanced, and 
presentation methods improved. Risk factor, confounding factor and disease 
data must be collected, measured and georeferenced in a standardized way for 
all small areas and, where possible, for all minority and underserved groups 
in the study region.

Once researchers identify suitable georeferenced data, they need analytic 
methods to evaluate the spatial and spatio-temporal patterns of cancer 
incidence, survival and death and the associations of these patterns with 
those of relevant exposures.  Current methods for exploratory data analysis 
are limited to smoothing techniques with often untenable assumptions, e.g., 
kriging, or pairwise comparisons of disease and exposure maps.  We must also 
encourage the formal development of formal methods for evaluating the 
magnitude of effects and mechanisms through which health may be influenced by 
sociocultural factors.  More advanced methods of visualizing multivariable 
associations among geo-referenced data are needed.  For confirmatory 
analysis, statistical methods for the assessment of spatial or 
spatio-temporal patterns of cancer and their association with potential risk 
factors need to be expanded beyond current methods.  Automated identification 
of statistically meaningful cancer clusters is needed to objectively evaluate 
apparent "hot spots" on cancer maps so as to better focus etiologic and 
intervention studies and to allay fears of cancer in communities where 
occasionally high cancer rates are likely due to chance variation over time.  

Summary
 
The recently published Atlas of Cancer Mortality in the United States, 1950-
1994 displays  the geographic patterns for various forms of cancer. This PA 
encourages applicants to use this exciting new resource as a catalyst for 
research in cancer etiology and control.  Further epidemiologic research is 
needed to identify the reasons for the geographic variation of specific 
cancers including the clustering of areas with high or low incidence and/or 
mortality rates.  In addition, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provide 
new tools for the exploration of such geographic patterns. GIS can be used 
for assessment of environmental risk factors,  identification of places 
and/or subpopulations where cancer surveillance and control programs are 
needed, statistical analysis of spatial patterns and presentation, and 
dissemination of information to the public. The NCI wishes to stimulate 
research in three areas in order to encourage researchers to use the Atlas to 
speed the process of scientific discovery and application.  The areas 
include: (1) epidemiologic research to study the determinants of the 
geographic patterns uncovered by the Atlas; (2) use of GIS for cancer 
research in response to the Atlas; and (3) methodologic GIS research needed 
to accomplish such research. 

Examples of Studies Sought

Applications in Epidemiologic Research

o Analytic epidemiologic studies, (e.g., case-control or cohort studies) to 
identify risk factors such as occupation, lifestyle factors, environmental 
contaminants for cancers showing interesting geographic and/or temporal 
patterns and cancers, including but not limited to those for which GIS-based 
analyses might be particularly useful.  Small studies may complement ongoing 
or existing studies.
o Ecologic studies of cancer patterns: generate hypotheses about etiologic 
and prognostic factors responsible for geographic patterns of cancer and/or 
changing patterns over time.
o Development of a GIS for specific ecologic or analytic epidemiologic 
studies
o Development of a GIS for exposure assessment to use in future, ongoing, or 
existing epidemiologic studies.

Applications in Cancer Control

o Cancer and cancer control surveillance: monitor emerging trends in cancer-
related health behaviors, incidence, mortality, or treatment in a particular 
area.
o Sociocultural studies:  Identify under-served or high-risk sub-populations 
by examining the inter-relation of ethnicity, access to and use of health 
services, SES, health behaviors and other cancer risk factors through the use 
of GIS and/or the Cancer Atlas.
o Sociocultural studies:  Improve methodologies for examining the 
juxtaposition of culture and behavior in spatial terms by assessing the 
influence of spatial relationships with cancer-related behaviors, e.g., 
examine spatial relationship of neighborhood crime,  physical activity, 
intake of fruits and vegetables and travel distance to purchase produce;  
examine issues regarding barriers to health care by exploring the concept of 
distance, e.g., “what do people consider a long way to go to the doctor?  too 
many buses? travel through unknown or dangerous neighborhoods?, etc.; explore 
the disproportionate placement of hazardous waste sites in low-income and 
minority communities.
o Neighborhood and community research:  Combine GIS analyses with 
quantitative epidemiological analyses and survey methods to examine the 
relationship of neighborhood conditions (e.g., poverty, environmental 
pollution) to cancer-related behaviors and practices and/or indicators of 
disparities in health outcomes. Measure relationship between cancer-related 
behaviors of families/communities and neighborhood structural factors such as 
impoverishment, geographic isolation, residential instability, economic 
resources.  
o Communication of cancer risk and/or rate information to the public using 
the Atlas and/or GIS.

Methods development

o Improve and/or develop methods related to geographic-based data, e.g., 
protecting data confidentiality, identifying specific locations of cancer 
cases and exposure sources, geocoding, standardized methods for collecting 
detailed data, i.e., occurrence, timing and sequencing of life events or 
demographic processes.
o Develop and validate GIS-based databases relevant to studies of cancer 
epidemiology and control, e.g., environmental databases for exposure 
assessment, model-based exposure estimates.
o Refine analytical methods for geographic and/or GIS-based cancer research, 
e.g., statistical assessment of spatial or spatio-temporal cancer patterns or 
a change in these trends, analysis of multivariate cancer and risk factor 
data, automated identification of cancer clusters, small-area estimation of 
cancer-related factors from larger-area survey data, methods for integrating 
environmental models into epidemiologic studies.
o Examine issues related to the visualization and presentation of GIS data, 
e.g., how to use-new technologies to improve the design of GIS maps and 
usability of computer-user-interfaces, studies of GIS design and usability, 
appropriate methods of conveying cancer risk information to the public 
through a GIS.
o Develop extensions or software links to existing GIS software to add 
analytic tools such as described above.

MECHANISM OF SUPPORT

This PA will use the National Institute of Health (NIH) small grants award 
mechanism (R03).  The total budget may not exceed $100,000 in direct costs 
for the entire project.  The direct costs in any one year must not exceed 
$50,000.  The total project period for an application submitted in response 
to this PA may not exceed two years.  The small grant is not renewable.   
Responsibility for the planning, direction, and execution of the proposed 
project will be solely that of the applicant. NIH Grants policies apply to 
these awards.

Specific application instructions have been modified to reflect "MODULAR 
GRANT" and
"JUST-IN-TIME" streamlining efforts being examined by the NIH. Complete and 
detailed instructions and information on Modular Grant applications can be 
found at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/modular/modular.htm

FUNDS AVAILABLE

The NCI has budgeted $3 million total costs (direct plus Facilities and 
Administrative costs) for the first year of funding for each round of 
applications received, subject to the availability of funds. This amount 
includes those grants selected for funding for this PA as well as the 
parallel PA for R01 submissions 
(http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PAS-00-120.html).  It is expected 
that NCI will make a total of 8-12 R03 awards.  R03 awards are limited to two 
years.  The number of awards and individual level of support are dependent on 
the receipt of a sufficient number and diversity of applications with high 
scientific merit.  Program balance and diversity of topics will be factors in 
selecting applications for award.

ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS
 
Applications may be submitted by foreign and domestic, for-profit and not-
for-profit organizations, public and private, such as universities, colleges, 
hospitals, laboratories, units of State and local governments, and eligible 
agencies of the Federal government. Foreign applications will receive no 
support for Facilities and Administrative (F&A) costs.  Domestic applications  
may include international components but these components will receive no 
support for F&A costs.  Racial/ethnic minority individuals, women, and 
persons with disabilities are encouraged to apply as principal investigators. 

INQUIRIES
 
Inquiries are encouraged.  The opportunity to clarify any issues or questions 
from potential applicants is welcome.
 
Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to:
 
Burdette (Bud) W. Erickson, Jr., M.Sc.
Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences
National Cancer Institute
6130 Executive Blvd., Rm. 240H
Bethesda, MD  20892
Telephone:  (301) 435-4913
FAX: (301) 402-4279
Email: be13u@nih.gov
 
Direct inquiries regarding fiscal matters to:
 
Ms. Sara Stone 
Grants Administration Branch                 
National Cancer Institute
6120 Executive Blvd., Rm. 243
Bethesda, MD  20892
Telephone:  (301) 496-9927
FAX:  (301) 496-8601
Email: stones@gab.nci.nih.gov

LETTER OF INTENT 

Prospective applicants are asked to submit, by the date listed at the 
beginning of this PA, a letter of intent that includes a descriptive title of 
the proposed research, the name, address, and telephone number of the 
Principal Investigator, the identities of other key personnel and 
participating institutions, and the number and title of the PA in response to 
which the application may be submitted.  Although a letter of intent is not 
required, is not binding, and does not enter into the review of a subsequent 
application, the information that it contains allows IC staff to estimate the 
potential review workload and to plan the review.
 
The letter of intent is to be sent to Mr. Burdette W. Erickson, Jr., listed 
under INQUIRIES by the letter of intent receipt date listed in the heading of 
this PA.

APPLICATION PROCEDURES
 
Applications are to be submitted on the grant application form PHS 398 (rev. 
4/98) and will be accepted on or before the receipt dates indicated on the 
first page of this announcement.  Application kits are available at most 
institutional offices of sponsored research and may be obtained from the 
Division of Extramural Outreach and Information Resources,  National 
Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, MSC 7910, Bethesda, MD 20892-
7910, telephone 301/435-0714, E-mail: grantsinfo@nih.gov. The title and 
number of the program announcement must be typed on line 2 of the face page 
of the application form and the YES box must be marked.

For those applicants with internet access, the 398 kit may be found at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/forms.htm. 
Note that the research plan is limited to 10 pages for small grants.

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS FOR MODULAR GRANT APPLICATIONS 

The title and number of the program announcement must be typed on line 2 of 
the face page of the application form and the YES box must be marked.

BUDGET INSTRUCTIONS

Modular Grant applications will request direct costs in $25,000 modules, up 
to a total direct cost request of $100,000 per year. The total direct costs 
must be requested in accordance with the program guidelines and the 
modifications made to the standard PHS 398 application instructions described 
below:

o  FACE PAGE:  Items 7a and 7b should be completed, indicating Direct Costs 
(in $25,000 increments) and Total Costs [Modular Total Direct plus Facilities 
and Administrative (F&A) costs] for the initial budget period.  Items 8a and 
8b should be completed indicating the Direct and Total Costs for the entire 
proposed period of support.

o  DETAILED BUDGET FOR THE INITIAL BUDGET PERIOD - Do not complete Form Page 
4 of the PHS 398.  It is not required and will not be accepted with the 
application.

o  BUDGET FOR THE ENTIRE PROPOSED PERIOD OF SUPPORT - Do not complete the
categorical budget table on Form Page 5 of the PHS 398.  It is not required 
and will not be accepted with the application.

o  NARRATIVE BUDGET JUSTIFICATION -  Prepare a Modular Grant Budget Narrative 
page (see http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/modular/modular.htm for sample 
pages). At the top of the page, enter the total direct costs requested for 
each year.  This is not a form page.

o  Under Personnel, list key project personnel, including their names, 
percent of effort, and roles on the project. No individual salary information 
should be provided. However, the applicant should use the NIH appropriation 
language salary cap and the NIH policy for graduate student compensation in 
developing the budget request.

For Consortium/Contractual costs, provide an estimate of total costs (direct 
plus facilities and administrative) for each year, each rounded to the 
nearest $1,000. List the individuals/organizations with whom consortium or 
contractual arrangements have been made, the percent effort of key personnel, 
and the role on the project. Indicate whether the collaborating institution 
is domestic or foreign.  The total cost for a consortium/contractual 
arrangement is included in the overall requested modular direct cost amount. 
Include the Letter of Intent to establish a consortium.

Provide an additional narrative budget justification for any variation in the 
number of modules requested.

o  BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH - The Biographical Sketch provides information used by 
reviewers in the assessment of each individual's qualifications for a 
specific role in the proposed project, as well as to evaluate the overall 
qualifications of the research team.  A biographical sketch is required for 
all key personnel, following the instructions below.  No more than three 
pages may be used for each person.  A sample biographical sketch may be 
viewed at:
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/modular/modular.htm.

- Complete the educational block at the top of the form page;
- List position(s) and any honors;
- Provide information, including overall goals and responsibilities, on 
research projects ongoing or completed during the last three years;
- List selected peer-reviewed publications, with full citations.

o  CHECKLIST -  This page should be completed and submitted with the 
application. If the F&A rate agreement has been established, indicate the 
type of agreement and the date. All appropriate exclusions must be applied in 
the calculation of the F&A costs for the initial budget period and all future 
budget years.

The applicant should provide the name and phone number of the individual to 
contact concerning fiscal and administrative issues if additional information 
is necessary following the initial review.

Applications not conforming to these guidelines will be considered 
unresponsive to this PA and will be returned without further review.

Submit a signed, typewritten original of the application, including the 
checklist, and five signed, exact, single-sided photocopies, in one package 
to:
 
Center for Scientific Review
National Institutes of Health
6701 Rockledge Drive
Room 1040 - MSC 7710
Bethesda, MD  20892-7710
(20817 for express service)

Applications must be received by the receipt dates indicated on the first 
page of this PA.  If an application is received after that date, it will be 
returned to the applicant without review.  The Center for Scientific Review 
(CSR) will not accept any application in response to this PA that is 
essentially the same as one currently pending initial review, unless the 
applicant withdraws the pending application.  The CSR will not accept any 
application that is essentially the same as one already reviewed.  This does 
not preclude the submission of substantial revisions of applications already 
reviewed, but such applications must include an introduction addressing the 
previous critique.

REVIEW CONSIDERATIONS
 
Upon receipt, applications will be reviewed for completeness by the Center 
for Scientific Review (CSR). Incomplete applications will be returned to the 
applicant without further consideration.

Applications that are complete will be evaluated for scientific and technical 
merit by a special peer review group convened by the CSR in accordance with 
the standard NIH peer review procedures.  As part of the initial merit 
review, all applications will receive a written critique and undergo a 
process in which only those applications deemed to have the highest 
scientific merit, generally the top half of applications under review, will 
be discussed, assigned a priority score, and receive a second level review by 
the National Cancer Advisory Board.

Review Criteria
 
The five criteria to be used in the evaluation of grant applications are 
listed below.
 
The goals of NIH-supported research are to advance our understanding of 
biological systems, improve the control of disease, and enhance health.  The 
reviewers will comment on the following aspects of the application in their 
written critiques in order to judge the likelihood that the proposed research 
will have a substantial impact on the pursuit of these goals.  Each of these 
criteria will be addressed and considered by the reviewers in assigning the 
overall score weighting them as appropriate for each application.  Note that 
the application does not need to be strong in all categories to be judged 
likely to have a major scientific impact and thus deserve a high priority 
score.  For example, an investigator may propose to carry out important work 
that by its nature is not innovative but is essential to move a field 
forward.
 
1.  Significance.  Does this study address an important problem? If the aims 
of the application are achieved, how will scientific knowledge be advanced?  
What will be the effect of these studies on the concepts or methods that 
drive this field?
 
2.  Approach.  Are the conceptual framework, design, methods, and analyses 
adequately developed, well-integrated, and appropriate to the aims of the 
project?  Does the applicant acknowledge potential problem areas and consider 
alternative tactics?
 
3.  Innovation.  Does the project employ novel concepts, approaches or 
method?  Are the aims original and innovative? Does the project challenge 
existing paradigms or develop new methodologies or technologies?
 
4.  Investigator.  Is the investigator appropriately trained and well suited 
to carry out this work?  Is the work proposed appropriate to the experience 
level of the principal investigator and other researchers (if any)?
 
5.  Environment.  Does the scientific environment in which the work will be 
done contribute to the probability of success?  Do the proposed experiments 
take advantage of unique features of the scientific environment or employ 
useful collaborative arrangements? Is there evidence of institutional 
support?

The initial review group will also examine: the appropriateness of proposed 
project budget and duration; the adequacy of plans to include both genders 
and minorities and their subgroups, and children as appropriate for the 
scientific goals of the research and plans for the recruitment and retention 
of subjects;  the provisions for the protection of human and animal subjects; 
and the safety of the research environment.

AWARD CRITERIA
 
Applications will compete for available funds with all other recommended 
applications.  The following will be considered in making funding decisions:  
Quality of the proposed project as determined by peer review, availability of 
funds, and program priority.

INCLUSION OF WOMEN AND MINORITIES IN RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN SUBJECTS
 
It is the policy of the NIH that women and members of minority groups and 
their subpopulations must be included  in all NIH supported biomedical and 
behavioral research projects involving human subjects, unless a clear and 
compelling rationale and justification is provided that inclusion is 
inappropriate with respect  to the health of the subjects or the purpose of 
the research.  This  policy results from the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993 
(Section 492B of Public Law 103-43).
 
All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should read the 
"NIH Guidelines For Inclusion of Women and Minorities as Subjects in Clinical 
Research," which have been published in the Federal Register of March 20, 
1994 (FR 59 14508-14513) and in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts, 
Volume 23, Number 11, March 18, 1994 available on the web at the following 
URL address: http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/not94-100.html.

INCLUSION OF CHILDREN AS PARTICIPANTS IN RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN SUBJECTS.

It is the policy of NIH that children (i.e., individuals under the age of 21) 
must be included in all human subjects research, conducted or supported by 
the NIH, unless there are clear and compelling scientific and ethical reasons 
not to include them. This policy applies to all initial (Type 1) applications 
submitted for receipt dates after October 1, 1998.

All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should read the 
“NIH Policy and Guidelines on the Inclusion of Children as Participants in 
Research Involving Human Subjects” that was published in the NIH Guide for 
Grants and Contracts, March 6, 1998, and is available at the following URL 
address: http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/not98-024.html.

Investigators also may obtain copies of  the policy from the program staff 
listed under INQUIRIES.  Program staff may also provide additional relevant 
information concerning the policy.

URLs IN NIH GRANT APPLICATIONS OR APPENDICES

All applications and proposals for NIH funding must be self-contained within 
specified page limitations.  Unless otherwise specified in an NIH 
solicitation, internet addresses (URLs) should not be used to provide 
information necessary to the review because reviewers are under no obligation 
to view the Internet sites.  Reviewers are cautioned that their anonymity may 
be compromised when they directly access an Internet site (see  
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-00-004.html).

HEALTHY PEOPLE 2010
 
The Public Health Service (PHS) is committed to achieving the health 
promotion and disease prevention objectives of "Healthy People 2010," a 
PHS-led national activity for setting priority areas.  This PA, “Small Grants 
for Geographic-based Research in Cancer Control And Epidemiology”, is related 
to the priority area of Cancer.  Potential applicants may obtain a copy of 
"Healthy People 2010" or at http://www.health.gov/healthypeople/. 
 
AUTHORITY AND REGULATIONS
 
This program is described in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. 
93.399, Cancer Control Research.  Awards are made under authorization of the 
Sections 301 and 405 of the Public Health Service Act as amended ( 42 USC 241 
and 284) and administered under NIH grants policies and Federal Regulations 
42 CFR 52 and 45 CFR Parts 74 and 92.  This program is not subject to the 
intergovernmental review requirements of Executive Order 12372 or Health 
Systems Agency review.							

The PHS strongly encourages all grant and contract recipients to provide a 
smoke-free workplace and promote the non-use of all tobacco products.  In 
addition, Public Law 103-227, the Pro- Children Act of 1994, prohibits 
smoking in certain facilities (or in some cases, any portion of a facility) 
in which regular or routine education, library, day care, health care or 
early childhood development services are provided to children.  This is 
consistent with the PHS mission to protect and advance the physical and 
mental health of the American people.

1.  Devesa SS, Grauman DJ, Blot WJ, Pennello GA, Hoover RN, Fraumeni JF Jr.  
Atlas of Cancer Mortality in the United States, 1950-94. NIH Publ. No. 99-
4564. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 1999.  See accompanying 
web site: http://www-dceg.ims.nci.nih.gov/atlas/index.html

2.Winn DM, Blot WJ, Shy CM, Pickle LW, Toledo A, Fraumeni JF Jr.  Snuff 
dipping and oral cancer among women in the southern United States. N Eng J 
Med 304:745-9, 1981.

3. Blot WJ, Morris LE, Stroube R, Tagnon I, Fraumeni JF Jr.  Lung and 
laryngeal cancers in relation to shipyard employment in coastal Virginia. J 
Natl Cancer Inst 65:571-5, 1980.


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