CANCER EDUCATION AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

Release Date:  May 4, 1999 (see replacement PAR-00-064)

PA NUMBER:  PAR-99-095

P.T.

National Cancer Institute

Application Receipt Date:  June 1, 1999, October 1, 1999; February 1, 2000

PURPOSE

The purpose of this specialized Cancer Education Program (R25) is to support the
development and implementation of curriculum-dependent programs to train
predoctoral and postdoctoral candidates in cancer research settings that are
highly inter-disciplinary and collaborative.  This Cancer Education and Career
Development (R25) Program is particularly applicable to cancer prevention and
control, epidemiology, nutrition, and the behavioral and population sciences; but
should also be considered by other highly interdisciplinary areas of research
such as imaging and molecular diagnosis that will require sustained leadership,
dedicated faculty time, SPECIALIZED CURRICULUM, INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH
environments, and MORE THAN ONE MENTOR per program participant to achieve their
education and research career development objectives.  Applicants whose programs
cannot meet the Special Requirements stated in these guidelines should refer to
the traditional National Research Service Award (NRSA) Institutional Training
Grant (T32) as an alternative source of support.

HEALTHY PEOPLE 2000

The Public Health Service (PHS) is committed to achieving the health promotion
and disease prevention objectives of "Healthy People 2000," a PHS-led national
activity for setting priority areas.  This PA, NCI Transition Career Development
Award, is related to the priority area of human resource development.  Potential
applicants may obtain a copy of "Healthy People 2000" (Full Report:  Stock No.
017-001-00474-0 or Summary Report:  Stock No. 017-001-00473-1) through the
Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC
20402-9325 (telephone 202/512-1800) or electronically
(http://www.crisny.org/health/us/health7.html).

ELIGIBILITY

Institution:  Applications may be submitted on behalf of the principal
investigator by domestic, non-Federal organizations, public or private, such as
medical, dental, or nursing schools or other institutions of higher education.
Applications may include more than one institution to create a Program through
consortium agreements (refer to the following URL for guidelines on these
agreements: http://www.nih.gov/grants/policy/nihgps/part_iii_5.htm#Consortium)
that
includes all of the disciplines, research environments and mentors needed to
accomplish the proposed educational and training objectives.  However, only one
of the participating institutions can be the recipient of an award.  More than
one application may be submitted by an institution to support programs in
different areas of research. Racial/ethnic minority individuals, women, and
persons with disabilities are encouraged to apply as principal investigators.

Predoctoral and postdoctoral candidates:  These individuals must be citizens or
noncitizen nationals of the United States, or must have been lawfully admitted
to the United States for permanent residence (i.e., in possession of a currently
valid Alien Registration Receipt Card I-551, or other legal verification of such
status).  Noncitizen nationals are generally persons born in outlying possessions
of the United States (i.e., American Samoa and Swains Island).  Individuals on
temporary visas are not eligible.

Postdoctoral appointees to the R25 program may apply for an NCI Transition Career
Award (K22) after the second year of their appointment.

Candidates cannot receive concurrent salary support from any other PHS award
while being supported by the R25 program.

Individuals NOT eligible for appointment to the R25 program include former
principal investigators on NIH research project (R01), FIRST Awards (R29),
sub-projects of program project (P01) or center grants (P50), and the equivalent. 
Former principal investigators of NIH Small Grants (R03) or
Exploratory/Developmental Grants (R21) remain eligible.

MECHANISM OF SUPPORT

This PA will use the National Institutes of Health (NIH) R25 mechanism.  The
total project period for an application submitted in response to this PA may not
exceed five years.  Awards are renewable.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

A.  Background:  In many developing and emerging fields of cancer research today,
scientists must function within interdisciplinary teams rather than as isolated
investigators or in simple collaborative settings.  Preparing junior and more
experienced basic research scientists and clinicians for this new type of
research environment will require education and career development experiences
in highly inter-disciplinary and collaborative cancer research settings that are
integrated with a specialized curriculum.  These education and career development
experiences will have to provide wide access to multiple scientific disciplines
and methodologies, involve mentors from more than one discipline, and will have
to be tailored to the individual education and training needs of the
investigator.  Due to the likely breadth of the science involved, these
experiences will frequently have to be facilitated and coordinated across
departments, schools, centers and institutions.  Management of programs with this
kind of complexity and diversity will require concerted leadership and dedicated
time of interdisciplinary faculty in order to sustain effective interactions
within and coordination of the program.  Furthermore, for clinicians lacking any
prior research training, these experiences may have to include the completion of
requirements for an additional degree, viz. M.P.H., and a number of years of
research experience beyond the degree to prepare for conducting highly
interdisciplinary collaborative research as an independent investigator.  Prior
NCI experience with other NIH training and career development funding mechanisms
has shown that it takes a least 5 years of didactic and research training for
clinicians to become competitive independent investigators, particularly in the
highly interdisciplinary disciplines that are the focus of this grant mechanism.

Recognizing these special issues and needs, in 1991 the NCI piloted its first
"Education Programs in Cancer Prevention and Control", supported by the NIH
Education Grant (R25) mechanism and based on the concept of interdisciplinary
education and career development.  These programs afforded institutions the
flexibility needed in both program design and cost structure to allow for the
development of complex, multidisciplinary education and career development
programs.  These pilot programs proved to be extremely successful: currently, the
NCI supports 13 R25 education grants and 82 positions.  In 1998, the NCI
completed major external reviews of its cancer prevention and cancer control
sciences.  The scientific experts conducting these reviews noted a national
shortage of cancer prevention and control researchers, and a pressing need for
researchers educated in the new scientific paradigms that require collaborations
with researchers in disparate disciplines (e.g., the quantitative sciences,
cancer biology, genetics, molecular biology, nutrition, the social and behavioral
sciences).  These groups identified the need for a new approach to the training
of prevention and control scientists requiring multidisciplinary experiences with
an interdisciplinary theme and including laboratory experiences. These groups
recommended increasing the availability of support mechanisms, such as the R25
mechanism, to the cancer prevention, control and population sciences to address
this need.  More recently, the NCI Tobacco Research Implementation Group
encouraged the increased development of training programs using interdisciplinary
groups of researchers as trainers; and involving a special linkage between
faculty leadership, curriculum development and training.

The NCI Review Groups made a number of specific training recommendations that
reflect the complexity of the cancer research tracks that will be needed in the
future.  For example, the NCI Cancer Control Review Group identified a need for
Cancer Control researchers to understand the "vocabulary and utility" of cancer
biology, quantitative methods, and social and behavioral science; and for basic
and clinical scientists to obtain training in the basic behavioral sciences,
epidemiology, health services and outcomes research, cost-effectiveness research,
survivorship and Quality of Life research, screening and treatment, and
adherence.  Additionally, behavioral scientists interested in cancer control
research should be trained in biomedical fields such as nutrition, pharmacology,
genetics, and health services research. The NCI Cancer Prevention Review Group
identified a need for cancer prevention researchers to acquire actual laboratory
experience and for training in areas such as cancer biology, cancer genetics,
molecular biology, carcinogenesis, pharmacologic interventions in prevention,
biostatistics, epidemiology, health behavior, health policy, and the behavioral
sciences.  This same group also recommended that behavioral scientists should be
trained to function in the new scientific paradigms including genetics,
chemoprevention, and diet/nutrition.

All of the above recommendations will facilitate the connectivity of and
communication among disparate disciplines, and facilitate the preparation of
investigators for effective participation in team research settings.

Recent reports from other external NCI advisory groups have made similar
recommendations regarding training needs.  Breast Cancer scientists identified
a need for new funding mechanisms for multidisciplinary training of individuals
so that "they can participate effectively in multidisciplinary collaborations"
in translational research.  In the area of imaging sciences, advisors identified
a need for postdoctoral training in molecular imaging; for interdisciplinary
cross-training of senior investigators in diverse disciplines such as molecular
genetics, molecular and cell biology, chemistry and clinical oncology; and for
the development of multidisciplinary centers " providing the means for bringing
researchers and teams with diverse backgrounds together".

Similar needs for interdisciplinary training have been identified in the
principal recommendations of a number of the latest national studies on science
education and training and for emerging fields in the biomedical sciences (1-4). 
One report (4) pertaining to the emerging field of Modeling Biological Function
notes the lack of programs for addressing training in the integration of
molecular data to predict biological behavior, and points to the absence of
training mechanisms and institutional environment for bringing together critical
masses of interdisciplinary researchers in disparate fields (viz., biology and
the computer sciences).  Finally, a report from the NCI Imaging Sciences Working
Group (5) notes that it is only at those few institutions where (imaging)
programs "are conceived with an interdisciplinary goal in mind" that the
communication gap between researchers in widely diverse areas of science can be
successfully bridged.

B.  Program:  The award provides support to institutions for up to 5 years for
the principal investigator to manage, coordinate and evaluate the program; for
faculty to design, develop, implement and continually refine the program
curriculum; for the salaries of predoctoral and postdoctoral appointments for up
to 5 years; and for other program-related costs.  These programs should provide
multi-disciplinary AND interdisciplinary didactic and cancer-related
collaborative research training experiences for predoctoral and postdoctoral
researchers.  They should also provide the trainees with the research and
communication skills to conduct cancer research in an inter-disciplinary and
highly collaborative team research setting.

C.  Environment:  The participating institution(s) must have well-established
research programs and faculty qualified in curriculum development, implementation
and program evaluation to serve as faculty for the program.  The research
environment should be team-oriented and highly collaborative with a strong
potential for a dynamic two-way exchange of information and ideas within and
across diverse and disparate disciplines such as the physical, biomedical,
behavioral, population and quantitative (mathematics, computer sciences, etc.)
sciences.  The research environment should also be capable of promoting rapid
translation of research outcomes into reductions in cancer incidence, morbidity
and mortality.  Finally, the institution must demonstrate a commitment to provide
sustained leadership and dedicated faculty time to the development and
implementation of the program; and commitment to the development of junior
investigators as productive, independent investigators.

D.  Allowable costs:

NO APPLICATION MAY EXCEED $500,000 IN DIRECT COSTS PER ANNUM WITHOUT WRITTEN
APPROVAL FROM THE NCI.  NIH Guide, March 20, 1998.

1.  Salary:  The principal investigator will be provided salary support for
leadership, management, coordination and evaluation of the Program, in accordance
with the percent effort commitment to the Program.  Faculty critical to the
design, development, implementation and refinement of the specialized curriculum
essential to the training and didactic needs of the Program will be provided
salary support in accordance with the percent effort commitment to the Program. 
Salary support may not be provided to program faculty for their service on the
Advisory Committee (see SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS).  The principal investigator and
Program faculty may derive additional compensation from other Federal sources or
awards provided the additional compensation does not exceed the salary rate
limitation of $125,900 per year and their total percent effort on all awards does
not exceed 100 percent.

Predoctoral appointees can be provided stipends of up to $20,000 per year plus
fringe benefits commensurate with the institution's full-time salary scale for
persons of equivalent qualifications, experience and rank.

Postdoctoral appointees can be provided stipends of up to $75,000 per year plus
fringe benefits commensurate with the institution's full-time salary scale for
persons of equivalent qualifications, experience and rank.

The institution may supplement the NIH contribution to an appointee's stipend up
to a level that is consistent with the institution's salary scale.  Institutional
supplementation of a stipend must not require extra duties or responsibilities
that would interfere with the purpose of the award.

2.  Other Expenses: Up to $20,000 in direct costs per year per appointee adjusted
to the actual percent effort, can be provided annually to partially support
tuition, other fees, travel, and other research-related expenses for the
individual appointee.  Expenses for equipment and salary support for technical
personnel are not allowed.

3.  Ancillary Personnel Support:  Salary for mentors, secretarial and
administrative assistance, etc. is not allowed.

4.  Facilities and Administrative Costs:  These costs, which were formerly called
indirect costs, will be reimbursed at 8 percent of modified total direct costs.

E.  Special Leave:  Leave to another institution of an appointee, including a
foreign laboratory, may be permitted if directly related to the purpose of the
award.  Only local, institutional approval is required if such leave does not
exceed 3 months.  For longer periods, prior written approval of the NCI is
required.  To obtain prior approval, the trainee must submit a letter to the NCI
describing the plan, countersigned by his or her department head and the
appropriate institutional official.  A copy of a letter or other evidence from
the institution where the leave is to be taken must be submitted to assure that
satisfactory arrangements have been made.  Support from the award will continue
during such leave.  NCI Program staff should be contacted prior to submitting the
request for leave.

Leave without award support may not exceed 12 months.  Such leave requires the
prior written approval of the NCI and will be granted only in unusual situations. 
Support from other sources is permissible during the period of leave.  Parental
leave will be granted consistent with the policies of the NCI and the grantee
institution.

F.  Termination: When a grantee institution plans to terminate an award, the NCI
must be notified in writing at the earliest possible time so that appropriate
instructions can be given for termination.

G.  Change of Institution:  The Cancer Education and Career Development Program
cannot be transferred from one institution to another.

H.  Change of Program Director:  If the program director moves to another
institution or resigns from the position, support of the award may be continued
provided that the current program director or the awardee institution has
submitted a written request for change of program director, countersigned by the
appropriate institutional business official, to the NCI describing the reasons
for the change.  The biosketch of the proposed new program director, including
a complete listing of active research grant support, must also be provided.  The
information provided must establish that the specific aims of the original peer
reviewed research program to be conducted under the direction of the new program
director will remain unchanged, and that the new program director has the
appropriate research and administrative expertise to lead the program.  NCI
Program staff should be contacted prior to submission of the letter.

I.  Changes of Program:  Awards are made to a specific institution for a specific
program under the guidance of a particular program director.  Changes in any of
these parameters requires prior approval by NCI.

A scientific rationale must be provided for any proposed changes in the aims of
the original peer reviewed program.  The new program will be evaluated by NCI
staff to ensure that the program remains within the scope of the original peer
reviewed research program.  If the new program does not satisfy this requirement,
the award could be terminated.

The Director of the NIH may discontinue an award upon determination that the
purpose or terms of the award are not being fulfilled.  In the event an award is
terminated, the Director of the NIH shall notify the grantee institution and
program director in writing of this determination, the reasons therefore, the
effective date, and the right to appeal the decision.

J.  Progress Reports:  An Annual Progress Report for the grant is required.  This
report should summarize how well the program is achieving its objectives; and
should include a summary of the accomplishments and a description of the research
and progress of each candidate.

A final progress report, invention statement, and Financial Status Report are
required upon termination of an award.

K.  Evaluation:  In carrying out its stewardship of human resource related
programs, the NCI may request information essential to an assessment of the
effectiveness of this program.  Accordingly, recipients are hereby notified, that
they may be contacted after the completion of this award for periodic updates on
various aspects of their employment history, publications, support from research
grants or contracts, honors and awards, professional activities, and other
information helpful in evaluating the impact of the program.

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS

1. A specialized curriculum, not otherwise available at the institution, must be
developed;

2.  The principal investigator must assemble and chair a permanent
multidisciplinary Advisory Committee (AC) representing all of the disciplines,
departments, schools, institutions etc. involved in this education and training
program.  The AC would be responsible for the recruitment and selection of
candidates for the Program; the establishment and review of effectiveness of
specialized curriculum; the approval of the education and training plans (e.g.,
curriculum, research experiences, mentors) for each candidate; interim monitoring
and evaluation of each candidate's progress with recommendations for changes in
the plan, if necessary, or termination of a candidate who is not making adequate
progress; and monitoring and evaluation of the overall effectiveness of the
Program.  The AC would provide a summary report with each annual progress report
that describes the committee's actions, and discusses progress of the program
including evaluation of areas of strengths and weaknesses;

3.  A large majority of mentors must be involved in cancer research or research
methodologies clearly important to the cancer focus and objectives of the
proposed education and career development Program;

4.  The application must include a statement of applicability clearly noting why
the R25 grant mechanism, in contrast to more traditional training mechanisms such
as the NRSA Institutional Training Grant (T32) grant mechanism, is essential for
accomplishing the proposed educational and research career development needs of
the program.  Applicants should refer to the following URL address for
information on T32 grants:
http://www.nih.gov/grants/guide/1997/97.05.16/notice-nih-national-6.html ;

5.  A plan should be included for recruiting individuals from minority groups,
undeserved and under represented populations;

6.  As part of the research and career development experience, each postdoctoral
candidate who is near the end of his/her tenure must prepare a mock application
to the NIH, following the instructions provided in the PHS Form 398.  The faculty
must provide a mock peer review;

7.  A plan must be provided for process and outcome evaluation of the Program.

INCLUSION OF WOMEN AND MINORITIES IN RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN SUBJECTS

It is the policy of the NIH that women and members of minority groups and their
subpopulations must be included in all NIH supported biomedical and behavioral
research projects involving human subjects, unless a clear and compelling
rationale and justification is provided that inclusion is inappropriate with
respect to the health of the subjects or the purpose of the research.  This
policy results from the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993 (Section 492B of Public
Law 103-43).

All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should read the
"NIH Guidelines for Inclusion of Women and Minorities as Subjects in Clinical
Research" which have been published in the Federal register of March 28, 1994 (FR
59 14508-14513), and reprinted in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts, Vol.
23, No. 11, March 18, 1994. It is also available electronically at URL address:
http://www.nih.gov/grants/guide/1994/94.03.18/notice-nih-guideline008.html

Investigators may obtain copies from these sources or from the program staff
listed under INQUIRIES. Program staff may also provide additional relevant
information concerning the policy.

INCLUSION OF CHILDREN AS PARTICIPANTS IN RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN SUBJECTS

It is the policy of NIH that children (i.e., individuals under the age of 21)
must be included in all human subjects research, conducted or supported by NIH,
unless there are clear and compelling scientific and ethical reasons not to
include them. This policy applies to all initial (Type 1) applications submitted
for receipt dates after October 1, 1998.

All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should read the
"NIH Policy and Guidelines on the Inclusion of Children as Participants in
Research Involving Human Subjects" that was published in the NIH GUIDE FOR GRANTS
AND CONTRACTS, March 6, 1998 and is available at the following URL address:
http://www.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/not98-024.html

APPLICATION PROCEDURES

Applications are to be submitted on the grant application form PHS 398 (rev.
4/98), and will be accepted at the standard application deadlines indicated in
the application kit.  Application kits are available at most institutional
offices of sponsored research and from the Division of Extramural Outreach and
Information Resources, National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, MSC
7910, Bethesda, MD 20892-7910, telephone 301/435-0714, Email: grantsinfo@nih.gov. 
Application kits are also available on the internet at:
http://www.nih.gov/grants/funding/phs398/forms_toc.html.

The title and number of the program announcement must be typed in Section 2 on
the face page of the application. The yes box must be marked.

The completed original application and three legible copies must be sent to or
delivered to:

CENTER FOR SCIENTIFIC REVIEW
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
6701 ROCKLEDGE DRIVE, ROOM 1040-MSC 7710
BETHESDA, MD  20892-7710
BETHESDA, MD  20817 (for express/courier service)

At the time of submission, two additional copies must also be sent to:

Ms. Toby Friedberg
Division of Extramural Activities
National Cancer Institute
6130 Executive Boulevard, Room 636
Bethesda, MD  20892-7405
Rockville, MD  20852 (express/courier service)

If the application submitted in response to this PA is substantially similar to
a grant application already submitted to the NIH for review but has not yet been
reviewed, the applicant will be asked to withdraw either the pending application
or the new one.  Simultaneous submission of essentially identical applications
will not be allowed, nor will essentially identical applications be reviewed by
different review committees.  An application, therefore, cannot be submitted in
response to this PA which is essentially identical to one that has already been
reviewed.  This does not preclude the submission of substantial revisions of
applications already reviewed, but such applications must include an introduction
addressing the previous critique.

The information summarized below must be provided in this application:

o  Statement of Applicability, indicating why the use of the R25 grant mechanism,
in contrast to other training support mechanisms (viz., NRSA Institutional
Training Grants), is essential to the success of the proposed education and
career development program;

o  Program Direction and Management;

o  Research funded activities, resources, facilities and mentors affiliated with
the program;

o  Education and Career Development Plan for the appointees;

o  Justification for the level of commitment of the Program Director and faculty
to the Program;

o  Justification for the proposed levels of commitment of any appointee or class
of appointees that will not be full-time;

o  Justification for the proposed time commitment of ancillary support staff ;

o  Core Curriculum;

o  Strategies for Recruitment of Candidates for this Program;

o  Plans for program evaluation;

o  Protection of human subjects and vertebrate animals;

o  Plans for training in ethical conduct of research;

o  Budget.

REVIEW CONSIDERATIONS

Upon receipt, applications will be reviewed for completeness by the Center for
Scientific Review (CSR); and by the NCI program staff for responsiveness in two
areas: 1) Eligibility criteria; 2) Special Requirements.  Applications not
responsive to this PA WILL BE RETURNED to the applicant without review.

Applications that are complete and responsive to the PA will be evaluated for
scientific and technical merit by an appropriate peer review group convened by
the Division of Extramural Activities in NCI in accordance with the standard NIH
peer review procedures.  As part of the initial merit review, all applications
will receive a written critique and undergo a process in which only those
applications deemed to have the highest scientific merit, generally the top half
of applications under review, will be discussed, assigned a priority score, and
receive a second level review by the National Cancer Advisory Board.

Review Criteria

The review criteria that will be applied to the application are briefly described
below:

o  Adequacy of the justification for the use of this specialized R25 mechanism
as opposed to traditional institutional training grant mechanisms;

o  Distinction of the program from other training/ career development programs
in the participating departments/institutions;

o  Appropriateness and adequacy of the proposed core curriculum for the
educational and research career development objectives of the proposed R25
program;

o  Adequacy of Program Leadership and Management;

o  Appropriateness and adequacy of the funded research activities, resources,
facilities and mentors affiliated with the program;

o  Adequacy of the percent commitment of the Program Director and faculty;

o  Adequacy of the justification for the percent commitment of appointees who are
not full-time;

o  Adequacy of the Program Evaluation plans;

o  Adequacy and appropriateness of recruitment strategies;

o  (For competing renewal applications) Quality/success in achieving the
education and training objectives of this Program as they relate to all of the
above.

AWARD CRITERIA

Applications will compete for available funds with all other scored applications
submitted in response to this PA.  The following will be considered in making
decisions: quality of the proposed project as determined by peer review,
availability of funds and program priority.  The NCI will notify the applicant
of the National Cancer Advisory Board's (NCAB) action.

SUPPLEMENTAL GUIDELINES

The procedures for submission of a new or a competing renewal application are not
applicable to applications for a non-competing renewal of an award.  Applicants
should refer for directions on preparing a non-competing renewal application for
this award to the SUPPLEMENTAL GUIDELINES in the NCI-specific guidelines for this
program found at the following URL: http://camp.nci.nih.gov/public/ctb/main/

INQUIRIES

Inquiries are encouraged. The opportunity to clarify any issues or questions from
potential applicants is welcome.  Refer to the following URL
(http://camp.nci.nih.gov/public/ctb/main) for a description of additional funding
opportunities for individual and institutional training and career development
programs.

Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to:

Dr. Lisa Begg
Office of Centers, Training and Resources
National Cancer Institute
6130 Executive Boulevard, Room 520, MSC 7383
Bethesda, MD  20892-7383
FAX:  (301) 402-4472
Email:  beggl@mail.nih.gov

For inquiries about fiscal matters, please contact:

Ms. Catherine Blount
Grants Administration Branch
National Cancer Institute
6120 Executive Boulevard, Room 243
Bethesda, MD  20892-4500
FAX:  (301) 496-7800 ext. 262
Email:  cb136g@nih.gov

AUTHORITY AND REGULATIONS

This program is described in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No.
93.398 Cancer Research Manpower.  Awards are made under authorization of the
Sections 301 and 405 of the Public Health Service Act as amended ( 42 USC 241 and
284) and administered under PHS grants policies and Federal Regulations 42 CFR
52 and 45 CFR Part 74 and Part 92.  This program is not subject to the
intergovernmental review requirements of Executive Order 12372 or Health Systems
Agency review.

The PHS strongly encourages all grant and contract recipients to provide a smoke-
free workplace and promote the non-use of all tobacco products.  In addition,
Public Law 103-227, the Pro-Children Act of 1994, prohibits smoking in certain
facilities ( or in some cases, any portion of a facility) in which regular or
routine education, library, day care, health care or early childhood development
services are provided to children.  This is consistent with the PHS mission to
protect and advance the physical and mental health of the American people.

REFERENCES

1. National Institute for Science education. (1998).  Descriptions of programs
and strategies for change: Strengthening graduate education in science and
engineering.  Promising practices and strategies for implementation from the
Graduate Education Forum Madison: University of Wisconsin: Madison.

2. National Research Council, Committee on Dimensions, Causes, and Implications
of Recent Trends in the Careers of Life Scientists.  Trends in the Early Careers
of Life Scientists. Washington, D.C.:  National Academy Press; 1998.

3. The Association of American Universities, Committee on Postdoctoral Education.
Report and Recommendations, March 31, 1998.  Washington, D.C.: The Association
of American Universities; 1998. 8p. Available from: URL: 
http://www.aau.edu/.

4. Brent, R. "Raising the Next generation of Scientific Pioneers," J NIH Res.,
9, 37-39 (1997).

5. The NCI Imaging Sciences Working Group, Meeting of the In Vivo
Molecular/Functional Imaging Subgroup, February 18-19, 1998.  Available from:
URL: http://wwwosp.nci.nih.gov/.


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