NCI TRANSITION CAREER DEVELOPMENT AWARD (K22)

Release Date:  May 4, 1999

PA NUMBER:  PAR-99-094

P.T.

National Cancer Institute

Application Receipt Date:  June 1, 1999, October 1, 1999, February 1, 2000

PURPOSE

The purpose of the NCI Transition Career Development Award (K22) is to provide
"protected time" for newly independent investigators to develop and receive
support for their initial CANCER research programs.  This award is intended to
facilitate the transition of investigators from the mentored to the independent
stage of their careers in CANCER research.  It applies to clinicians who are
pursuing basic science careers; clinicians who are pursuing careers in patient-
oriented research; and to individuals pursuing careers in the prevention, control
and population sciences.  To apply, a candidate must have completed TWO YEARS OR
MORE of postdoctoral, mentored research or have been in an independent position
for LESS THAN ONE YEAR at the time of the application.  The unique feature of
this award is that individuals may apply without a sponsoring institution while
they are still in a "mentored" position.  Successful postdoctoral applicants will
be given up to 12 months to identify an independent, preferably tenure-track,
position at a sponsoring institution before an award can be activated.  Awardees
must apply for an R01 research grant or equivalent prior to the end of the second
year of the award.

HEALTHY PEOPLE 2000

The Public Health Service (PHS) is committed to achieving the health promotion
and disease prevention objectives of "Healthy People 2000," a PHS-led national
activity for setting priority areas.  This PA, NCI Transition Career Development
Award, is related to the priority area of human resource development.  Potential
applicants may obtain a copy of "Healthy People 2000" (Full Report:  Stock No.
017-001-00474-0 or Summary Report:  Stock No. 017-001-00473-1) through the
Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC
20402-9325 (telephone 202/512-1800) or electronically
(http://www.crisny.org/health/us/health7.html).

ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS

Eligible candidates are doctorally degreed individuals who have been educated as
clinicians (e.g. M.D.s, Oncology Nurses) or as prevention, control and population
scientists (e.g., PhDs, DPHs, M.D.s) and are ready to pursue independent careers
in CANCER research.  The Transition Career Development Award (K22) is NOT for
basic scientists following a traditional basic science research career track
(e.g., Ph.D.s in molecular biology).  Individuals pursuing basic science cancer
research careers should apply for the Howard Temin Award (K01).  Candidates
should refer to the following URL address for information on the Howard Temin
Award: http://www.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PAR-99-063.html.

Candidates must currently be in a "mentored" CANCER research postdoctoral
position and have completed TWO YEARS OR MORE of research in this capacity at the
time of the application, or be in a suitable independent position for LESS THAN
ONE YEAR with continuous previous postdoctoral CANCER research training at the
time of the application.  Candidates in a postdoctoral position are eligible to
apply for an NCI Transition Career Development Award (K22) WITHOUT an
institutional affiliation (See Application Procedures).  A candidate for a K22
may not simultaneously submit or have pending an application for any other PHS
award that duplicates any of the provisions of this award.

Former or current principal investigators on any NIH research grants or non-PHS
peer reviewed grants that are over $70,000 direct costs per year or project
leaders on sub-projects of program project (P01) or center grants (P50) are NOT
eligible to apply.

Minorities and women are encouraged to apply.  Candidates must be U.S. citizens
or noncitizen nationals, or must have been lawfully admitted for permanent
residence and possess an Alien Registration Receipt Card (I-151 or I-551) or some
other verification of legal admission as a permanent resident.  Noncitizen
nationals, although not U.S. citizens, owe permanent allegiance to the U.S.  They
are usually born in lands that are not states, but are under U.S. sovereignty,
jurisdiction, or administration.  Individuals on temporary or student visas are
not eligible.

Only domestic non-Federal organizations, public or private, such as medical, 
dental or nursing schools or other institutions of higher education, may accept 
an award on behalf of an applicant.

MECHANISM OF SUPPORT

This PA will use the National Institutes of Health (NIH) K22 award mechanism. 
The total project period for an application submitted in response to this PA may
not exceed 3 years.  Planning, direction, and execution of the program will be
the responsibility of the candidate.  Awards are not renewable.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

A.  Background:

Many individuals in fields critically important to the future of cancer research
need protected time to develop successful independent research programs.  This
is particularly true for medically trained individuals and for individuals
pursuing cancer research careers in the prevention, control and population
sciences.  These individuals often require extended periods of mentored research
training beyond their original doctoral degrees (e.g., M.D., DPH).  In addition,
upon completion of their mentored research training, these individuals are often
at a competitive disadvantage in obtaining independent research support relative
to their traditional basic science Ph.D. counterparts, who generally have many
more years of postdoctoral research training and experience.  Also, the survival
of scientists in these critical research career tracks is threatened by the
economics of medical care, which forces M.D.s away from research into practice;
and by the organizational make-up of the majority of the nation's academic
institutions, which does not provide academic homes and tenure-track positions
for prevention, control and population scientists.

A critical mass of clinician cancer researchers and researchers in cancer
prevention, control and the population sciences capable of interacting with basic
science researchers is needed to ensure effective translation of basic research
discoveries into patient and population research settings if there is to be
optimal progress in reducing cancer incidence, mortality and morbidity.  There
is therefore a need to stabilize the career tracks of the most promising of these
investigators while they are establishing their first independent research
programs.  The NCI Transition Career Development Award (K22) provides a mechanism
for addressing these needs.  Additionally, the K22 supports the 1998
recommendation of the National Research Council(1) for the establishment of
"career-transition" grants to provide senior postdoctoral fellows " the financial
independence to begin new scientific projects of their own design in anticipation
of their obtaining a fully independent position".

B.  Environment:

The sponsoring institution must have well-established research programs in basic,
clinical and or cancer prevention/control/population sciences.  This research
environment should be one in which there are active research collaborations that
exemplify a dynamic two-way exchange of information and ideas between laboratory
and clinical and/or population research settings.  The sponsoring institution
must also demonstrate a commitment to the development of junior faculty as
productive, independent investigators.

C.  Program:

The award provides support for three years to individuals who are currently
postdoctoral trainees in CANCER research or have just started in an independent
position (See ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS).  Recipients of this award must devote
a minimum of 75 percent effort to the proposed basic, clinical or population
science research program.  The remaining 25 percent can be divided among other
clinical and teaching activities only if they are consistent with the program
goals, i.e. the candidate's development into an independent clinical investigator
or investigator in cancer prevention, control and the population sciences.

Under unusual and pressing circumstances, an awardee may submit a written request
to the awarding component, requesting a reduction in professional effort below
75 percent.  Such requests will be considered on a case-by-case basis during the
award period.  In no case, will it be permissible to work at a rate of less than
50 percent effort.  The nature of the circumstances requiring reduced effort
might include medical conditions, disability, or pressing personal or family
situations such as child or elder care.  Permission to reduce the level of effort
will not be approved to accommodate other sources of funding, job opportunities,
clinical practice, or clinical training.  In each situation, the grantee
institution must submit documentation supporting the need for reduced effort
along with assurance of a continuing commitment to the scientific development of
the awardee.  Further, the awardee must submit assurance of his or her intention
to return to full-time professional effort (at least 75 percent) as soon as
possible.  During the period of reduced effort, the salary and other costs
supported by the award will be reduced accordingly.

D.  Allowable Costs:

1. Salary:  The Transition Career Development Award (K22) will provide salary up
to $75,000 plus fringe benefits.  The total salary requested must be based on a
full-time, 12 month staff appointment requiring the candidate to spend a minimum
of 75 percent effort conducting cancer research with the remaining effort being
devoted to activities related to the development of a successful research career. 
The salary must be consistent both with the established salary structure at the
institution and with salaries actually provided by the institution from its own
funds to other staff members of equivalent qualifications, rank, and
responsibilities in the department concerned.  If full-time, 12 month salaries
are not currently paid to comparable staff members, the salary proposed must be
appropriately related to the existing salary structure.

The institution may supplement the NIH salary contribution up to a level that is
consistent with the institution's salary scale; however, supplementation may not
be from Federal funds unless specifically authorized by the Federal program from
which such funds are derived.  Because the salary amount provided by this award
is based on the full-time institutional salary, no other PHS funds may be used
for salary supplementation.  Institutional supplementation of salary must not
require extra duties or responsibilities that would interfere with the purpose
of the K22.  Under expanded authorities, however, institutions may rebudget funds
within the total costs awarded to cover salaries consistent with the
institution's salary scale.

2.  Research Development Support: Up to $50,000 per year will be provided for the
following types of expenses: (a) research expenses, such as supplies, equipment,
and technical personnel; (b) statistical services including personnel and
computer time; (c) tuition, fees, and books related to career development; and
(d) travel to research meetings or for training.  The level of research
development support may be negotiated downward with the acquisition of any
independent grant support from any source.

3.  Ancillary Personnel Support: Salary for mentors, secretarial and
administrative assistance, etc. is NOT allowed.

4. Facilities and Administrative Costs:  These costs, which were formerly called
indirect costs, will be reimbursed at 8 percent of modified total direct costs.

E. Evaluation:

In carrying out its stewardship of human resource related programs, the NIH may
begin requesting information essential to an assessment of the effectiveness of
this program.  Accordingly, recipients are hereby notified that they may be
contacted after the completion of this award for periodic updates on various
aspects of their employment history, publications, support from research grants
or contracts, honors and awards, professional activities, and other information
helpful in evaluating the impact of the program.

F. Other Income:

Fees resulting from clinical practice, professional consultation, or other
comparable activities required by the research and research-related activities
of this award may not be retained by the career award recipient.  Such fees must
be assigned to the grantee institution for disposition by any of the following
methods:

o The funds may be expended by the grantee institution in accordance with the NIH
policy on supplementation of career award salaries and to provide fringe benefits
in proportion to such supplementation. Such salary supplementation and fringe
benefit payments must be within the established policies of the grantee
institution;

o The funds may be used for health-related research purposes;

o  The funds may be paid to miscellaneous receipts of the U.S. Treasury. Checks
should be made payable to the Department of Health and Human Services, NIH and
forwarded to the Director, Division of Financial Management, NIH, Bethesda,
Maryland 20892.  Checks must identify the relevant award account and reason for
the payment;

o  Awardees may retain royalties and fees for activities such as scholarly
writing, service on advisory groups, or honoraria from other institutions for
lectures or seminars, provided these activities remain incidental and provided
that the retention of such pay is consistent with the policies and practices of
the grantee institution.

Usually, funds budgeted in an NIH supported research or research training grant
for the salaries or fringe benefits of individuals, but freed as a result of a
career award, may not be rebudgeted.  The awarding component will give
consideration to approval for the use of released funds only under unusual
circumstances.  Any proposed retention of funds released as a result of a career
award must receive prior written approval of the NIH awarding component.

G. Special Leave:

Leave to another institution, including a foreign laboratory may be permitted if
the proposed experience is directly related to the purpose of the award.  Only
local, institutional approval is required if such leave does not exceed 3 months. 
For longer periods, prior written approval of the NIH funding component is
required.  To obtain prior approval, the award recipient must submit a letter to
the NIH funding component describing the plan, countersigned by his or her
department head and the appropriate institutional official.  A copy of a letter
or other evidence from the institution where the leave is to be taken must be
submitted to assure that satisfactory arrangements have been made.  Support from
the career award will continue during such leave.

Leave without award support may not exceed 12 months.  Such leave requires the
prior written approval of the NIH funding component and will be granted only in
unusual situations.  Support from other sources is permissible during the period
of leave.  Such leave does not reduce the total number of months of program
support for which an individual is eligible.

H. Termination of Award:

When a grantee institution plans to terminate an award, the NIH funding component
must be notified in writing at the earliest possible time so that appropriate
instructions can be given for termination. The Director of the NIH may
discontinue an award upon determination that the purpose or terms of the award
are not being fulfilled.  In the event an award is terminated, the Director of
the NIH shall notify the grantee institution and career award recipient in
writing of this determination, the reasons therefore, the effective date, and the
right to appeal the decision.

I.  Change of Institution:

Individuals planning a change of institution AFTER AN AWARD HAS BEEN INITIATED
(see Award Criteria and Procedures below) must submit to the NCI in advance of
the change a written request for transfer, countersigned by the appropriate
institutional business official, describing the reasons for the change.  The
awardee must establish in this request that the specific aims of the research
program to be conducted at the new institution are within the scope of the
original peer reviewed research program. Staff within the NCI will review this
request and may require a review by an initial review group and/or the
appropriate National Advisory Council or Board. Upon approval of this request the
new institution must follow all of the procedures outlined in the section on
AWARD CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES for submission and NCI approval of a "Statement of
Environment and Institutional Commitment." Upon approval of the "Statement" a new
career award application must be submitted by the new institution far enough in
advance of the requested effective date to permit review.  The period of support
requested in the new application must be no more than the time remaining within
the existing award period.

A final progress report, invention statement, and Financial Status Report are
required upon either termination of an award or relinquishment of an award in a
change of institution situation.

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS

Recipients of an NCI Transition Career Development Award (K22) must submit an R01
research grant application to the National Institutes of Health, or an R01
equivalent research grant application to an equivalent funding organization ( for
example, an American Cancer Society Research Project Grant) for peer review and
funding consideration prior to the end of the second year of support.

INCLUSION OF WOMEN AND MINORITIES IN RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN SUBJECTS

For research projects involving human subjects, it is the policy of the NIH that
women and members of minority groups and their subpopulations must be included
in all NIH supported biomedical and behavioral research projects involving human
subjects unless a clear and compelling rationale and justification is provided
that inclusion is inappropriate with respect to the health of the subjects or the
purpose of the research.  This policy results from the NIH Revitalization Act of
1993 (Section 492B of Public Law 103-43).  All investigators proposing research
involving human subjects should read the "NIH Guidelines For Inclusion of Women
and Minorities as Subjects in Clinical Research," which has been published in the
Federal Register of March 28,1994 (FR 59 14508-14513), and in the NIH Guide For
Grants And Contracts, Volume 23, Number 11, March 18, 1994. It is also available
electronically at :
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/not94-100.html

Investigators may obtain copy of this policy from the program staff or contact
person listed under INQUIRIES.  Program staff may also provide additional
relevant information concerning the policy.

INCLUSION OF CHILDREN AS PARTICIPANTS IN RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN SUBJECTS

It is the policy of NIH that children (i.e., individuals under the age of 21)
must be included in all human subjects research, conducted or supported by NIH,
unless there are clear and compelling scientific and ethical reasons not to
include them. This policy applies to all initial (Type 1) applications submitted
for receipt dates after October 1, 1998.  All investigators proposing research
involving human subjects should read the "NIH Policy and Guidelines on the
Inclusion of Children as Participants in Research Involving Human Subjects" that
was published in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts, March 6, 1998 and is
available at the following URL address:
http://www.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/not98-024.html

APPLICATION PROCEDURES

Applications are to be submitted on the grant application form PHS 398 (rev.
4/98) and should use the instructions in Section IV of the application kit.  The
application will be accepted at the standard application deadlines for other K-
awards as indicated in the application kit.  Applications for which the candidate
already has a position must be completed as directed.  Postdoctoral candidates
with no sponsoring institution may leave out all information that is the grantee
institution's responsibility to provide; this information must be provided at a
later time if the candidate is selected for funding (See section on AWARD
CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES).  Application kits are available at most institutional
offices of sponsored research and from the Division of Extramural Outreach and
Information Resources, National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, MSC
7910, Bethesda, MD 20892-7910, telephone 301/435-0714, Email: grantsinfo@nih.gov.
Application kits are also available at: 
http://www.nih.gov/grants/funding/phs398/forms_toc.html

The title and number of the program announcement must be typed in Section 2 of
the face page of the application. The yes box must be marked.

The completed original application and three legible copies must be sent or
delivered to:

CENTER FOR SCIENTIFIC REVIEW
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
6701 ROCKLEDGE DRIVE, ROOM 1040 - MSC 7710
BETHESDA, MD  20892-7710
BETHESDA, MD  20817 (for express/courier service)

At the time of submission, two additional copies of the application must be sent
to:

Ms. Toby Friedberg
Division of Extramural Activities
National Cancer Institute
6130 Executive Boulevard, Room 636, MSC 7399
Bethesda, MD 20892-7390
Rockville, MD 20850 (for express/courier service)

The application must address the following issues:

Candidate

o  (Only for applicants already in an independent position) Describe the current
position in terms of its ability to enable the candidate to pursue an INDEPENDENT
career in CANCER research;

o  Identify whether you are a clinician pursuing a basic science career, a
clinician pursuing a clinical research/translational research career or an
individual pursuing a career in prevention, control and population research;

o  Describe all activities during the "mentored" period of CANCER research
training. Include all research experiences and mentors, any pertinent didactic
experiences and any other experiences designed to acquire critical skills,
techniques and scientific perspectives for pursuing an independent career in the
chosen area of CANCER RESEARCH (e.g., basic research, clinical or patient-
oriented research, and prevention, control and population research);

o  Describe scientific productivity during the mentored period of career
development;

o  Establish the potential to manage an independent research program;

o  Establish the ability to become an independent investigator during the three
year term of the award;

o  Describe the ability to interact and collaborate with other scientists;

o  Establish the ability to make a commitment of at least 75 percent effort to
the career objectives of this award;

o  Three letters of recommendation from established scientists familiar with the
candidate's potential and capability to become a successful independent
investigator.

Research Plan

o  Describe an original research plan and in basic, clinical or prevention/
control/behavioral/population cancer research.  The research plan must be
described as outlined in form PHS 398 including sections on the Specific Aims,
Background and Significance, Progress Report/Preliminary Studies, Research Design
and Methods;

o  Describe how the proposed research extends the mentored research training that
has been completed into new concepts and ideas;

o  Describe the equipment, specialized facilities and personnel resources that
will be needed to conduct the proposed research;

o  Describe the plans for inclusion of women, minorities and children in any
clinical or population research activities;

o  Describe the plans for protection of humans, animals or the environment to the
extent they may be adversely affected by activities proposed in the application.

Budget

o Within the limitation of $50,000 in direct costs, provide a detailed
description, with justification, for all equipment, supplies and personnel that
will help achieve the career development and research objectives of this award.

Non-Competing renewals

o  In addition to the information requested in the Application for Continuation
Grant form PHS 2590 (Rev. 4/98), documentation must be provided with the Progress
Report for the second year of the award showing that the awardee has submitted
an R01-type research grant application for funding.  This documentation should
minimally be a copy of the face page of the application with all required
institutional signatures.

REVIEW CONSIDERATIONS

Applications will be reviewed for completeness by the Center for Scientific
Review and for responsiveness to this program announcement by NCI staff. 
Incomplete or non-responsive applications will be returned to the applicant
without further consideration.  Applications that are not eligible (See
ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS), as judged by NCI staff will be returned without
further consideration.  Applications that are complete and responsive to the
program announcement will be evaluated for scientific and technical merit by a
peer review group convened by the Division of Extramural Activities of the
National Cancer Institute.  As part of the initial merit review, all applications
will receive a written critique and undergo a process in which only those
applications deemed to have the highest scientific merit, generally the top half
of applications under review, will be discussed, assigned a priority score, and
receive a second level review by the National Cancer Advisory Board to ensure
that the proposed program meets the broad programmatic needs of the National
Cancer Institute and the National Cancer Program.

The following review criteria will be applied:

Candidate

o  (Only for candidates already in a position) Suitability of the position for
the candidate to pursue an independent research career;

o  Quality of the mentored period of CANCER research training in terms of
research experience(s),didactic experiences and other experiences (e.g., special
skills, perspectives, techniques) that will enhance the candidate's ability to
pursue an independent CANCER research career in the chosen area of research
(e.g., basic research; clinical or patient oriented research; or prevention,
control and population research);

o  Scientific productivity during the "mentored" period of career development;

o  Potential ability to successfully manage an independent research project;

o  Ability to interact and collaborate with other scientists;

o  The potential to become a successful independent investigator during the 3-
year term of this award;

o  Support of letters of reference on behalf of the candidate.

Research Plan

o  The originality, innovativeness and scientific merit of the proposed Research
Plan relative to the experience level of the applicant;

o  Extent to which the research plan goes beyond the mentored environment and
will test new concepts and ideas;

o  The medical and/or health significance of the Research Plan to Cancer;

o  The adequacy of plans to include women, children and minorities in any
clinical or population research activities;

o  The adequacy of the proposed protection of humans, animals or the environment
to the extent they may be adversely affected by activities proposed in the
application.

Budget

o  Adequacy of the proposed budget items for the achievement of the career
development and research objectives of the award.

Non-Competing Renewals

o  Adequacy of the progress towards achieving the research and career development
objectives of the program;

o  Adequacy of the efforts to obtain R01-type research grant support for the
research program.

AWARD CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES

The NCI will notify candidates who have competed successfully for funding with
a "Letter of Intent to Commit Funds."  Candidates in a postdoctoral position will
then have one-year from the date of the letter to find an institution that offers
a position, preferably tenure-track, suitable for enhancing a research career. 
For candidates who already have a position in a sponsoring institution;
negotiations with the institution will begin without delay.

Negotiations will be initiated by asking the candidate's institution to submit
a "Statement of Environment and Institutional Commitment" to the NCI.  This
statement will be evaluated by NCI staff using the following criteria:

o  Documentation of a strong, well-established research program related to the
candidate's area of interest including a high-quality research environment with
staff capable of productive collaboration with the candidate;

o  Agreement of the institution's statement of commitment of equipment, physical
and personnel resources with the peer-reviewed recommendation of needs;

o  Adequacy of the institutional commitment to the required 75 percent effort
requirement of this award for the development of an independently funded research
program;

o  Adequacy of the arrangements with the candidate to provide a permanent
preferably tenure-track position, adequate facilities for conducting a research
program, and additional resources conducive to the development of a research
project and establishment of a successful research career.

For postdoctoral candidates, if the NCI approves the "Statement of Environment
and Institutional Commitment" offered by the institution, the institution will
be asked to submit a completed PHS Form 398 application.  For candidates who
already have a position in a sponsoring institution, the NCI only needs to
approve the Statement.  After NCI approval and subject to the availability of
funds, the institution will receive an award.  At the time of the award to the
grantee institution in support of the K22, any current award held or other
support provided for the mentored training of the candidate will be terminated.

An award can be terminated prior to the end of the third year by the NCI if the
candidate does not submit an R01 type grant application or equivalent for peer
review before the end of the second year (See SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS)

INQUIRIES

Inquiries concerning this PA are encouraged. The opportunity to clarify any
issues or questions from potential applicants is welcome.

Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to:

Dr. Lester S. Gorelic
Centers, Training and Resources Program
National Cancer Institute
6130 Executive Boulevard, Room 520, MSC 7390
Bethesda, MD  20892-7390
Telephone:  (301) 496-8580
FAX:  (301) 402-4472
Email:  lg2h@nih.gov

Dr. Andrew Vargosko
Centers, Training and Resources Program
National Cancer Institute
6130 Executive Boulevard, Room 520, MSC 7390
Bethesda, MD  20892-7390
Telephone:  (301) 496-8580
FAX:  (301) 402-4472
Email:  av8b@nih.gov

Direct inquiries regarding fiscal matters to:

Ms. Catherine Blount
Grants Administration Branch
National Cancer Institute
Executive Plaza South, Room 243
Bethesda, MD  20892
Telephone:  (301)-496-7800, ext. 262
FAX:  (301)-496-8601
Email:  cb136g@nih.gov

Direct inquiries regarding review matters to:

Ms. Toby Friedberg
Division of Extramural Activities
National Cancer Institute
6130 Executive Boulevard, Room 636, MSC-7399
Bethesda, MD  20892-7399
Rockville, MD  20850 (for express/courier service)
Telephone:  (301) 496-3428
FAX:  (301) 402-0275
Email:  tf12w@nih.gov

AUTHORITY AND REGULATIONS

This program is described in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No.
93.398 Cancer Research Manpower.  Awards are made under authorization of the
Sections 301 and 405 of the Public Health Service Act as amended (42 USC 241 and
284) and administered under PHS grants policies and Federal Regulations 42 CFR
52 and 45 CFR Part 74 and Part 92.  This program is not subject to the
intergovernmental review requirements of Executive Order 12372 or Health Systems
Agency review.

The PHS strongly encourages all grant and contract recipients to provide a smoke-
free workplace and promote the non-use of all tobacco products.  In addition,
Public law 103-227, the Pro-Children Act of 1994, prohibits smoking in certain
facilities (or, in some cases, any portion of a facility) in which regular or
routine education, library, day care, health care or early childhood development
services are provided to children.  This is consistent with the PHS mission to
protect and advance the physical and mental health of the American people.

REFERENCES

1.  National Research Council, Committee on Dimensions, Causes, and Implications
of Recent Trends in the Careers of Life Scientists.  Trends in the Early Careers
of life Scientists.  Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 1998.


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