NASAL AND ORAL TRIGEMINAL CHEMORECEPTION

NIH GUIDE, Volume 23, Number 31, August 19, 1994



PA NUMBER:  PA-94-093



P.T. 34



Keywords:

  0755017 

  Receptors 



National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders



PURPOSE



The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

(NIDCD) invites applications for the support of basic studies on the

nasal and oral trigeminal chemosensory system and its interactions with

the olfactory and gustatory systems.  It is expected that research in

this area will advance the understanding of the contributions of

trigeminal chemoreception to odor and taste perception, particularly in

relation to dietary preferences.  In addition, this research is

expected to elucidate a variety of reflexes elicited by nasal and oral

trigeminal chemoreceptors that serve to protect the individual from

noxious stimuli.  This initiative is intended to foster a better

understanding of the molecular events that underlie the function of the

nasal and oral trigeminal chemosensory system and its interactions with

the olfactory and gustatory systems.



HEALTHY PEOPLE 2000



The Public Health Service (PHS) is committed to achieving the health

promotion and disease prevention objectives of "Healthy People 2000,"

a PHS-led national activity for setting priority areas.  This Program

Announcement, Nasal and Oral Trigeminal Chemoreception, is related to

the priority areas of nutrition, environmental health, occupational

safety and health, and oral health.  Potential applicants may obtain a

copy of "Healthy People 2000" (Full Report:  Stock No. 017-001-11474-0)

or "Healthy People 2000" (Summary Report:  Stock No. 017-001-11473-1)

through the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office,

Washington, DC 20402-9325 (telephone 202-783-3238).



ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS



Applications may be submitted by domestic, for-profit and non-profit

organizations, public and private, such as universities, colleges,

hospitals, laboratories, units of State and local governments, and

eligible agencies of the Federal government.  Foreign institutions are

not eligible for First Independent Research Support and Transition

(FIRST) (R29) awards.  Applications from minority individuals and women

are encouraged.



MECHANISM OF SUPPORT



The support mechanisms for grants in this area will be the

investigator-initiated research project grant (R01), and the FIRST

(R29) award.



RESEARCH OBJECTIVES



Trigeminal nerve fibers in the nasal and oral cavities are sensitive to

chemical stimuli as well as to mechanical, thermal, nociceptive, and

proprioceptive stimuli.  Since chemical stimulation of the nasal and

oral cavities involves the trigeminal nerve in addition to the

olfactory and gustatory nerves, information from the trigeminal nerve

forms an integral part of our perceptions of odor and taste.  Nasal

trigeminal stimuli include volatile organic compounds that may be

present in the workplace and home environment and may give rise to

complaints of indoor pollution and sick building syndrome.  Oral

trigeminal chemosensory stimulation can evoke a number of qualities of

perception such as coolness, heat, astringency, irritation and pain.



Research on trigeminal chemoreceptors has lagged behind the olfactory,

gustatory, and vomeronasal systems.  While trigeminal chemoreceptors

contribute to smell and taste in the detection of chemicals in the

environment and maintenance of nutritional balance, they are also

responsible for the detection of irritants and potentially harmful

compounds and may mediate strong protective reflexes.  Stimulation of

trigeminal nerve fibers may give rise to the release of neuropeptide

mediators such as substance P (SP) and calcitonin-gene-related peptide

(CGRP) at four possible sites:  the stimulation site, peripheral

terminals, collateral terminals, and central terminals.  The release of

these neuropeptides can affect a variety of functions including

respiration, vasodilation, vascular permeability, glandular secretions

and cellular immunity.  Nasal trigeminal collateral terminals have been

demonstrated in the olfactory bulb, and therefore, peripheral

activation may influence central processing of olfactory information.



This initiative seeks to encourage research on trigeminal

chemoreception at all levels extending from peripheral mechanisms to

central processing and including reflexes elicited by the activation of

trigeminal chemoreceptors.  A broad range of research techniques are

appropriate including molecular, cellular, biochemical and

psychophysical approaches.



Research studies may include, but are not limited to, the topics listed

below:



o  The role of trigeminal chemosensory sensations in the regulation of

eating and its disorders;



o  The contribution of the trigeminal chemosensory system to food

palatability, particularly with respect to food texture and

temperature;



o  The relative contributions of trigeminal, olfactory and gustatory

stimulation to the perception of chemical stimuli;



o  Individual differences in sensitivity to trigeminal chemoreception

throughout the life span;



o  Responses to mixtures of trigeminal chemosensory stimulants

including excitatory and inhibitory interactions among trigeminal

modalities such as temperature and touch;



o  Cellular mechanisms underlying the diverse qualities of trigeminal

chemosensory sensations;



o  Receptor and perireceptor mechanisms following trigeminal activation

leading to sensitization and desensitization of trigeminal nerve

endings;



o  Long- and short-term effects of trigeminal stimulants on the

olfactory, gustatory, and vomeronasal epithelia;



o  Demonstration of trigeminal reflexes including effects on the

perireceptor milieu (e.g., mucous secretion, salivary flow,

vasoconstriction, and vasodilation), respiratory and oropharyngeal

functions, and the immune system;



o  Localization of receptors for SP, CGRP, neuropeptide Y, neurokinins,

and others in the lingual and nasal epithelia; and



o  Entry of viruses into the central nervous system via trigeminal

nerve fibers and the possible sequestration of viruses in the

trigeminal (gasserian) ganglion.



STUDY POPULATIONS



INCLUSION OF WOMEN AND MINORITIES RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN SUBJECTS



It is the policy of the NIH that women and members of minority groups

and their subpopulations must be included in all NIH supported

biomedical and behavioral research projects involving human subjects,

unless a clear and compelling rationale and justification is provided

that inclusion is inappropriate with respect to the health of the

subjects or the purpose of the research.  This new policy results from

the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993 (Section 492B of Public Law 103-43)

and supersedes and strengthens the previous policies (Concerning the

Inclusion of Women in Study Populations, and Concerning the Inclusion

of Minorities in Study Populations), which have been in effect since

1990.  The new policy contains some provisions that are substantially

different from the 1990 policies.



All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should

read the "NIH Guidelines For Inclusion of Women and Minorities as

Subjects in Clinical Research," which have been published in the

Federal Register of March 28, 1994 (FR 59 14508-14513) and reprinted in

the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts, Volume 23, Number 11, March 18,

1994.



Investigators also may obtain copies of the policy from the program

staff listed under INQUIRIES.  Program staff may also provide

additional relevant information concerning the policy.



APPLICATION PROCEDURES



Applications are to be submitted on the grant application form PHS 398

(rev. 9/91) and will be accepted at the standard application deadlines

as indicated in the application kit.  The receipt dates for

applications for AIDS-related research are found in the PHS 398

instructions.



Application kits are available at most institutional offices of

sponsored research and may be obtained from the Office of Grants

Information, Division of Research Grants, National Institutes of

Health, Westwood Building, Room 449, Bethesda, MD 20892, telephone

301-435-0714.  The title and number of the program announcement must be

typed in Section 2a on the face page of the application.



Applications for the FIRST Award (R29) must include at least three

sealed letters of reference attached to the face page of the original

application.  FIRST Award (R29) applications submitted without the

required number of reference letters will be considered incomplete and

will be returned without review.



The completed original application and five legible copies must be sent

or delivered to:



Division of Research Grants

National Institutes of Health

Westwood Building, Room 240

Bethesda, MD  20892**



REVIEW CONSIDERATIONS



Applications will be assigned on the basis of established PHS referral

guidelines.  Applications will be reviewed for scientific and technical

merit by study sections of the Division of Research Grants, NIH in

accordance with the standard NIH peer review procedures.  Following

scientific-technical review, the applications will receive a

second-level review by the appropriate national advisory council.



AWARD CRITERIA



Applications will compete for available funds with all other approved

applications assigned to that ICD.  The following will be considered in

making funding decisions:



o  Quality of the proposed project as determined by peer review

o  Availability of funds

o  Program balance among research areas of the announcement



INQUIRIES



Written and telephone inquiries concerning this PA are encouraged.  The

opportunity to clarify any issues or questions from potential

applicants is welcome.



Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to:



Rochelle Small, Ph.D.

Division of Communication Sciences and Disorders

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

Executive Plaza South, Room 400-C

6120 Executive Boulevard

Rockville, MD  20892

Telephone:  (301) 402-3464

FAX:  (301) 402-6251



Direct inquiries regarding fiscal matters to:



Sharon Hunt

Grants Management Office

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

Executive Plaza South, Room 400-B

6120 Executive Boulevard

Rockville, MD  20892

Telephone:  (301) 402-0909



AUTHORITY AND REGULATIONS



This program is described in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance

No. 93.173.  Awards are made under authorization of the Public Health

Service Act, Title IV, Part A (Public Law 78-410, as amended by Public

Law 99-158, 42 USC 241 and 285) and administered under PHS grants

policies and Federal Regulations 42 CFR 52 and 45 CFR Part 74.  This

program is not subject to the intergovernmental review requirements of

Executive Order 12372 or Health Systems Agency review.



.


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