SECONDARY ANALYSIS OF EXISTING ALCOHOL AND HIV/AIDS DATA SETS

RELEASE DATE:  June 2, 2003

PA NUMBER: PA-03-132

March 2, 2006  (NOT-OD-06-046) – Effective with the June 1, 2006 submission date, 
all R03, R21, R33 and R34 applications must be submitted through Grants.gov using 
the electronic SF424 (R&R) application. Parent R03 (PA-06-180) and R21 (PA-06-181) 
funding opportunity announcements have been issued for the submission date of 
June 1, 2006 and submission dates thereafter. Applications relating to R33 and R34 
activities must be in response to NIH Institute/Center (IC)-specific announcements.

EXPIRATION DATE:  March 30, 2006, unless reissued.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
 (http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/)

CATALOG OF FEDERAL DOMESTIC ASSISTANCE NUMBER:  93.273

THIS PA CONTAINS THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION

o Purpose of the PA
o Research Objectives
o Mechanism(s) of Support 
o Eligible Institutions
o Individuals Eligible to Become Principal Investigators
o Where to Send Inquiries
o Submitting an Application
o Peer Review Process
o Review Criteria
o Award Criteria
o Required Federal Citations

PURPOSE OF THIS PA 

The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) invites 
applications to support the secondary analysis of existing data sets with the 
goal of advancing knowledge about the relationships between alcohol use and 
the risk, progression, and treatment of HIV/AIDS.

Research grants for the Secondary Analysis of Existing Alcohol and HIV/AIDS 
Data Sets are intended to provide support for studies that more fully utilize 
currently available data sets.  Data used in secondary analyses may be 
obtained from current or past investigator-initiated research projects, from 
Federally-initiated research projects and cooperative agreements, from 
administrative and health care records, or from other public or private 
sources.

Research objectives of this program announcement include, but are not limited 
to:  (1) studying the relationship between alcohol use, engagement in high-
risk sexual behaviors, and exposure to HIV infection; (2) studying the 
contribution of alcohol use toward the progression of HIV/AIDS, including its 
contribution toward opportunistic infections that accompany HIV (e.g. TB, 
HCV, etc.); and (3) studying the impact of alcohol use on adherence to 
therapies for HIV/AIDS and consequently on patient outcomes.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

BACKGROUND

The HIV/AIDS epidemic has generated considerable study over the past two 
decades.  Much has been learned, but research continues to press forward 
until an effective cure is found.

In many of the studies conducted to date, alcohol use has been included as 
one of a number of patient behaviors studied.  This work has led to a 
recognition that alcohol use plays an important role in HIV/AIDS disease in 
three ways:  (1) Alcohol use increases the likelihood of risky sex, thereby 
elevating an individual's risk for HIV infection.  (2) Alcohol use may affect 
the progression of HIV infection and may facilitate the appearance of 
opportunistic infections that accompany HIV (e.g. TB, HCV, etc.).  (3) 
Alcohol use impairs adherence with complex treatment regimens, thereby 
worsening patient outcomes as well as increasing the likelihood that 
treatment-resistant strains of the HIV virus will emerge.

Although one or another of these connections between alcohol use and HIVAIDS 
is sometimes the explicit focus of a given study, in most cases, studies have 
not focused on these issues.  In many cases measures of alcohol use have been 
collected, and perhaps used as control variables some analyses, but the full 
potential to conduct an analyses of the effect of alcohol use on risk, 
progression, adherence, or outcomes has not been realized.  NIAAA recognizes 
that existing data sets contain a substantial but under-utilized potential to 
support additional analyses of the relationship between alcohol use and 
HIV/AIDS.  This announcement calls for analyses that would make additional 
use of these important intellectual resources.

Several sources are likely to contain data that could be used to support 
additional analyses:  (1) Relevant data are often generated by clinical 
trials of treatment therapeutics.  (2) Data are also generated by prevention 
trials.  (Note that in both of the above cases, large multi-site trials, 
often with funding from a number of sponsors, provide rich resources for 
continued analysis.)  (3) Administrative records held by HMOs or other 
medical care providers typically have data on patient diagnoses, services 
used, and the costs of those services.  (4) Longitudinal studies provide 
another excellent source of data, especially those following cohorts to 
determine serocoversion, progression of the disease, or long-term effects of 
prevention interventions.  (5) Cases may also exist where meta-analyses are 
possible, bringing together several independently collected data sets to bear 
on a common research question.

AREAS OF RESEARCH INTEREST

Selecting from any of the above or similar data sources, applicants may 
choose to propose secondary analyses of the relationship between alcohol use 
and a number of aspects of HIV/AIDS.  Potential subjects could include, but 
are not limited to:

o   The effects of alcohol use on adherence to HIV/AIDS treatment and thereby 
patient outcomes.

o   The effects of alcohol use on engagement in high-risk sexual behavior and 
therefore risk of HIV infection.

o   The relationship between drinking and seroconversion in longitudinal 
samples.

o   Differentials in the utilization of HIV/AIDS health care between heavier 
and lighter drinkers.

o   Differentials in access to health care or to adequate treatment resources 
for HIV/AIDS between heavier and lighter drinkers.

o   The relationship between alcohol use and costs of health care.

o   The effects of alcohol use on testing for HIV, willingness to be tested, 
and knowledge of HIV status.

o   Effective models for linking the delivery of HIV/AIDS treatment (or 
prevention) services and alcohol treatment (or prevention) services.  

o   The effects of alcohol use on the course and progression of HIV/AIDS.

o   The effects of alcohol use on the emergence of opportunistic infections 
that accompany HIV (e.g. TB, HCV, etc.).

o   Patterns of comorbidity between HIV infection, alcohol dependence, and 
other health conditions.

o   Long term outcomes of alcohol use and HIV-risk behavior prevention trials.

MECHANISM OF SUPPORT 

This PA will use the NIH Exploratory/Developmental Grant (R21) award 
mechanism (http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-03-107.html).  As 
an applicant, you will be solely responsible for planning, directing, and 
executing the proposed project.  An applicant may request a project period of 
up to 2 years and a budget for direct costs of up to $275,000 for the entire 
period. 

This PA uses just-in-time concepts.  It also uses the modular budgeting 
format. (see http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/modular/modular.htm).   
Specifically, if you are submitting an application with direct costs in each 
year of $250,000 or less, use the modular format.  This program does not 
require cost sharing as defined in the current NIH Grants Policy Statement at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/nihgps_2001/part_i_1.htm.

ELIGIBLE INSTITUTIONS 

You may submit (an) application(s) if your institution has any of the 
following characteristics:

o For-profit or non-profit organizations 
o Public or private institutions, such as universities, colleges, hospitals, 
and laboratories 
o Units of State and local governments
o Eligible agencies of the Federal government  
o Domestic or foreign
o Faith-based or community-based organizations 

INDIVIDUALS ELIGIBLE TO BECOME PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS

Any individual with the skills, knowledge, and resources necessary to carry 
out the proposed research is invited to work with their institution to 
develop an application for support.  Individuals from underrepresented racial 
and ethnic groups as well as individuals with disabilities are always 
encouraged to apply for NIH programs. 

WHERE TO SEND INQUIRIES

We encourage your inquiries concerning this PA and welcome the opportunity to 
answer questions from potential applicants.  Inquiries may fall into two 
areas:  scientific/research and financial or grants management issues:

o Direct your questions about scientific/research issues to:

Michael Hilton, Ph.D.
Office of Collaborative Research 
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Willco Bldg, Suite 302
6000 Executive Boulevard  MSC 7003
Bethesda, MD  20892-7003
Telephone: (301) 402-9402
FAX: (301) 443-480-2358
Email: mhilton@niaaa.nih.gov

o Direct your questions about financial or grants management matters to:

Judy Fox (formerly Simons)
Grants Management Branch
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Willco Building, Suite 504
6000 Executive Blvd., MSC 7003
Bethesda, MD 20892-7003
Telephone: 301-443-2434
FAX: 301- 443-0788
Email: jsimons@mail.nih.gov

SUBMITTING AN APPLICATION

Applications must be prepared using the PHS 398 research grant application 
instructions and forms (rev. 5/2001).  The PHS 398 is available at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/phs398/phs398.html in an interactive 
format.  For further assistance contact GrantsInfo, Telephone (301) 435-0714, 
Email: GrantsInfo@nih.gov.

APPLICATION RECEIPT DATES: Applications submitted in response to this program 
announcement will be accepted at the standard application deadlines, which 
are available at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/dates.htm.  Application 
deadlines are also indicated in the PHS 398 application kit.

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS FOR MODULAR GRANT APPLICATIONS: Applications requesting 
up to $250,000 per year in direct costs must be submitted in a modular grant 
format.  The modular grant format simplifies the preparation of the budget in 
these applications by limiting the level of budgetary detail.  Applicants 
request direct costs in $25,000 modules.  Section C of the research grant 
application instructions for the PHS 398 (rev. 5/2001) at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/phs398/phs398.html includes step-by-step 
guidance for preparing modular grants.  Additional information on modular 
grants is available at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/modular/modular.htm.

SENDING AN APPLICATION TO THE NIH: Submit a signed, typewritten original of 
the application, including the checklist, and five signed photocopies in one 
package to:

Center for Scientific Review
National Institutes of Health
6701 Rockledge Drive, Room 1040, MSC 7710
Bethesda, MD  20892-7710
Bethesda, MD  20817 (for express/courier service)

APPLICATION PROCESSING: Applications must be mailed on or before the receipt 
dates described at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/submissionschedule.htm. The CSR will not 
accept any application in response to this PA that is essentially the same as 
one currently pending initial review unless the applicant withdraws the 
pending application.  The CSR will not accept any application that is 
essentially the same as one already reviewed.  This does not preclude the 
submission of a substantial revision of an application already reviewed, but 
such application must include an Introduction addressing the previous 
critique.  

Although there is no immediate acknowledgement of the receipt of an 
application, applicants are generally notified of the review and funding 
assignment within 8 weeks.

PEER REVIEW PROCESS

Applications submitted for this PA will be assigned on the basis of 
established PHS referral guidelines.  An appropriate scientific review group 
convened in accordance with the standard NIH peer review procedures 
(http://www.csr.nih.gov/refrev.htm) will evaluate applications for scientific 
and technical merit.  

As part of the initial merit review, all applications will:

o Receive a written critique
o Undergo a selection process in which only those applications deemed to have 
the highest scientific merit, generally the top half of applications under 
review, will be discussed and assigned a priority score
o Receive a second level review by the appropriate national advisory 
council/board.

REVIEW CRITERIA

The goals of NIH-supported research are to advance our understanding of 
biological systems, improve the control of disease, and enhance health.  In 
the written comments, reviewers will be asked to discuss the following 
aspects of the application in order to judge the likelihood that the proposed 
research will have a substantial impact on the pursuit of these goals: 

o Significance 
o Approach 
o Innovation
o Investigator
o Environment

The scientific review group will address and consider each of these criteria 
in assigning the application's overall score, weighting them as appropriate 
for each application.  The application does not need to be strong in all 
categories to be judged likely to have major scientific impact and thus 
deserve a high priority score.  For example, an investigator may propose to 
carry out important work that by its nature is not innovative but is 
essential to move a field forward.

SIGNIFICANCE: Does this study address an important problem? If the aims of 
the application are achieved, how will scientific knowledge be advanced? What 
will be the effect of these studies on the concepts or methods that drive 
this field?

APPROACH: Are the conceptual framework, design, methods, and analyses 
adequately developed, well-integrated, and appropriate to the aims of the 
project? Does the applicant acknowledge potential problem areas and consider 
alternative tactics?

INNOVATION: Does the project employ novel concepts, approaches or methods? 
Are the aims original and innovative? Does the project challenge existing 
paradigms or develop new methodologies or technologies?

INVESTIGATOR: Is the investigator appropriately trained and well suited to 
carry out this work? Is the work proposed appropriate to the experience level 
of the principal investigator and other researchers (if any)?

ENVIRONMENT: Does the scientific environment in which the work will be done 
contribute to the probability of success? Do the proposed experiments take 
advantage of unique features of the scientific environment or employ useful 
collaborative arrangements? Is there evidence of institutional support?  

ADDITIONAL REVIEW CRITERIA: In addition to the above criteria, the following 
items will be considered in the determination of scientific merit and the 
priority score:

PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS FROM RESEARCH RISK: The involvement of human 
subjects and protections from research risk relating to their participation 
in the proposed research will be assessed. (See criteria included in the 
section on Federal Citations, below).
 
INCLUSION OF WOMEN, MINORITIES AND CHILDREN IN RESEARCH: The adequacy of 
plans to include subjects from both genders, all racial and ethnic groups 
(and subgroups), and children as appropriate for the scientific goals of the 
research will be assessed.  Plans for the recruitment and retention of 
subjects will also be evaluated. (See Inclusion Criteria in the sections on 
Federal Citations, below).

CARE AND USE OF VERTEBRATE ANIMALS IN RESEARCH: If vertebrate animals are to 
be used in the project, the five items described under Section f of the PHS 
398 research grant application instructions (rev. 5/2001) will be assessed.  

ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS 

BUDGET:  The reasonableness of the proposed budget and the requested period 
of support in relation to the proposed research.

AWARD CRITERIA

Applications submitted in response to a PA will compete for available funds 
with all other recommended applications.  The following will be considered in 
making funding decisions:  

o Scientific merit of the proposed project as determined by peer review
o Availability of funds 
o Relevance to program priorities

REQUIRED FEDERAL CITATIONS 

INCLUSION OF WOMEN AND MINORITIES IN CLINICAL RESEARCH: It is the policy of 
the NIH that women and members of minority groups and their sub-populations 
must be included in all NIH-supported clinical research projects unless a 
clear and compelling justification is provided indicating that inclusion is 
inappropriate with respect to the health of the subjects or the purpose of the 
research. This policy results from the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993 (Section 
492B of Public Law 103-43).

All investigators proposing clinical research should read the "NIH Guidelines 
for Inclusion of Women and Minorities as Subjects in Clinical Research - 
Amended, October, 2001," published in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts 
on October 9, 2001 (http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-
02-001.html); a complete copy of the updated Guidelines are available at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/women_min/guidelines_amended_10_
2001.htm.  The amended policy incorporates: the use of an NIH definition 
of clinical research; updated racial and ethnic categories in compliance 
with the new OMB standards; clarification of language governing NIH-defined 
Phase III clinical trials consistent with the new PHS Form 398; and updated 
roles and responsibilities of NIH staff and the extramural community.  
The policy continues to require for all NIH-defined Phase III clinical trials 
that: a) all applications or proposals and/or protocols must provide a 
description of plans to conduct analyses, as appropriate, to address 
differences by sex/gender and/or racial/ethnic groups, including subgroups 
if applicable; and b) investigators must report annual accrual and progress 
in conducting analyses, as appropriate, by sex/gender and/or racial/ethnic 
group differences.

INCLUSION OF CHILDREN AS PARTICIPANTS IN RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN SUBJECTS: 
The NIH maintains a policy that children (i.e., individuals under the age of 
21) must be included in all human subjects research, conducted or supported 
by the NIH, unless there are scientific and ethical reasons not to include 
them. This policy applies to all initial (Type 1) applications submitted for 
receipt dates after October 1, 1998.

All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should read the 
"NIH Policy and Guidelines" on the inclusion of children as participants in 
research involving human subjects that is available at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/children/children.htm. 

PUBLIC ACCESS TO RESEARCH DATA THROUGH THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT: The 
Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-110 has been revised to 
provide public access to research data through the Freedom of Information Act 
(FOIA) under some circumstances.  Data that are (1) first produced in a 
project that is supported in whole or in part with Federal funds and (2) 
cited publicly and officially by a Federal agency in support of an action 
that has the force and effect of law (i.e., a regulation) may be accessed 
through FOIA.  It is important for applicants to understand the basic scope 
of this amendment.  NIH has provided guidance at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/a110/a110_guidance_dec1999.htm.

Applicants may wish to place data collected under this PA in a public 
archive, which can provide protections for the data and manage the 
distribution for an indefinite period of time.  If so, the application should 
include a description of the archiving plan in the study design and include 
information about this in the budget justification section of the 
application. In addition, applicants should think about how to structure 
informed consent statements and other human subjects procedures given the 
potential for wider use of data collected under this award.

STANDARDS FOR PRIVACY OF INDIVIDUALLY IDENTIFIABLE HEALTH INFORMATION:  The 
Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) issued final modification to 
the "Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information", 
the "Privacy Rule," on August 14, 2002.  The Privacy Rule is a federal 
regulation under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act 
(HIPAA) of 1996 that governs the protection of individually identifiable 
health information, and is administered and enforced by the DHHS Office for 
Civil Rights (OCR). Those who must comply with the Privacy Rule (classified 
under the Rule as "covered entities") must do so by April 14, 2003  (with the 
exception of small health plans which have an extra year to comply).  

Decisions about applicability and implementation of the Privacy Rule reside 
with the researcher and his/her institution. The OCR website 
(http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/) provides information on the Privacy Rule, including 
a complete Regulation Text and a set of decision tools on "Am I a covered 
entity?"  Information on the impact of the HIPAA Privacy Rule on NIH 
processes involving the review, funding, and progress monitoring of grants, 
cooperative agreements, and research contracts can be found at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-03-025.html.

URLs IN NIH GRANT APPLICATIONS OR APPENDICES: All applications and proposals 
for NIH funding must be self-contained within specified page limitations. 
Unless otherwise specified in an NIH solicitation, Internet addresses (URLs) 
should not be used to provide information necessary to the review because 
reviewers are under no obligation to view the Internet sites.   Furthermore, 
we caution reviewers that their anonymity may be compromised when they 
directly access an Internet site.

HEALTHY PEOPLE 2010: The Public Health Service (PHS) is committed to 
achieving the health promotion and disease prevention objectives of "Healthy 
People 2010," a PHS-led national activity for setting priority areas. This PA 
is related to one or more of the priority areas. Potential applicants may 
obtain a copy of "Healthy People 2010" at 
http://www.health.gov/healthypeople.

AUTHORITY AND REGULATIONS: This program is described in the Catalog of 
Federal Domestic Assistance at http://www.cfda.gov/ and is not subject to the 
intergovernmental review requirements of Executive Order 12372 or Health 
Systems Agency review.  Awards are made under the authorization of Sections 
301 and 405 of the Public Health Service Act as amended (42 USC 241 and 
284)and under Federal Regulations 42 CFR 52 and 45 CFR Parts 74 and 92. All 
awards are subject to the terms and conditions, cost principles, and other 
considerations described in the NIH Grants Policy Statement.  The NIH Grants 
Policy Statement can be found at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/policy.htm.

The PHS strongly encourages all grant recipients to provide a smoke-free 
workplace and discourage the use of all tobacco products.  In addition, 
Public Law 103-227, the Pro-Children Act of 1994, prohibits smoking in 
certain facilities (or in some cases, any portion of a facility) in which 
regular or routine education, library, day care, health care, or early 
childhood development services are provided to children.  This is consistent 
with the PHS mission to protect and advance the physical and mental health of 
the American people.


Weekly TOC for this Announcement
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices


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